Etymology: Faceless Monk, From the Japanese word “nopperi” meaning “featureless”
Japanese Kanji & Kana: 野箆坊, のっぺらぼう
Other Spellings: Nopperabo, Noppera-Bo
Also Called: Faceless Ghost, No-Face, Mujina, Nupperiho, and Zunberabo
In Japanese folklore and mythology, the Noppera-bō is a faceless ghost or yokai of which there are several different tales and stories surrounding them.
The Noppera-bō is a ghost or yurei in Japanese who at first glance appears to be human. They will sometimes appear to be someone the person knows. It’s not until a person gets closer or during interactions with them, that the Noppera-bō reveals, having no face and is just blank, featureless smooth skin where a face should be.
This is usually the goal and tactic of a Noppera-bō, scare the ever-living daylights out of a person for a good jump scare and send them running in fear. For added effect, some Noppera-Bō work in teams of at least two where the first scares their victim, and that person runs off to tell someone else what happened, only for that person to reveal a featureless face too. Otherwise, this spirit is rather harmless and really more prone to mischief.
A couple sources have said that the noppera-bō isn’t a ghost at all, but a Yokai; a broad category of supernatural entities and spirits in Japanese folklore. Narrowing it down from there, noppera-bō belongs to a category known as obake or “changed creature” referring to those yokai that are shapeshifters. Since other shape-shifting yokai could be mistaken for a noppera-bō, it’s sometimes not always clear which entity is being seen.
There are several stories of noppera-bō, a story of a young woman rescued from bandits by a samurai who finds that her face disappears, stories of nobles going to a tryst only to find that the courtesan in question they’re to meet turns out to be a noppera-bō.
There are two main stories involving noppera-bō.
The Noppera-bō & The Koi Pond
This story involves a lazy fisherman who decided to go fishing at the imperial koi ponds near Heian-Kyo Palace. The man’s wife warned him not to go as the pond is sacred and near a graveyard. Despite this, the fisherman ignores his wife and heads off anyways.
While on his way to the pond, the man is warned by another fisherman not to go to there. Again, the man ignores his fellow. Then, at the koi pond, a beautiful young woman pleads with the man not to fish. Once again, the man ignores them.
This time, the young woman wipes her face off, frightening the fisherman. Fleeing home in terror, he sees who at first looks like his wife. As the wife is scolding the man, she too wipes her face off.
When Is A Ghost Not A Ghost?
When it’s a mujina.
The word mujina is an old Japanese term for a badger or raccoon dog also known as a tanuki. As shapeshifters, the mujina were known to transform into noppera-bō in order to scare humans. Sometimes kitsune and tanuki are known to impersonate noppera-bō as well.
The Mujina of the Akasaka Road
This is the second of two well-known stories concerning the noppera-bō. This story is found in Lafcadio Hearn’s book “Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things.”
A man was once traveling along the Akasaka road towards Edo when he came upon a young woman in a remote area near Kunizaka hill crying. The man attempted to comfort and console the young woman when she turned to face him, revealing a blank, featureless face. Frightened, the man took off down the road until he came to a soba vendor. Thinking he was safe; the man began to relate what had happened to him. The vendor then stroked his face as it changed to the featureless of a noppera-bō.
A similar retelling of this story is seen in the Studio Ghibli movie Pom Poko.
Modern Ghost Stories
Most stories of noppera-bō lean more historical and there aren’t very many reported sightings in the 20th or 21st centuries.
There is a story from 1959 in Honolulu there is a report of a sighting of mujina at the Waialae Drive-In Theatre in Kahala where a witness says they saw a woman combing her hair in the restroom. When the woman turned, she revealed a featureless face. The witness was also reported as having been admitted to the hospital for a nervous breakdown.
The Hawaiian historian, folklorist, and author Glen Grant tried to dismiss the story in 1981 during a radio interview only to have the witness call herself, giving more details about the story such as the mujina having red hair. The drive-in in question has long since been torn down. Noppera-bō or mujina sightings do continue in Hawaii where a number of Japanese have immigrated to.
Stories abound in the folklore and myths of numerous cultures around the world of Little People. Places such as Ireland, Hawaii, Greece, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Flores Island all have their own stories and legends.
This article post will focus on the Little People of Native American beliefs and folklore.
Some stories describe the Little People as “hairy-faced dwarfs.” In other places, petroglyphs depict them with horns on their head. They often travel in groups of five to seven, sometimes on land or by canoe on waterways.
Legends told by the Cherokee say the Little People love music, especially drumming, singing, and dancing. Sometimes a person will hear their drums in the mountains. It is, however, unsafe and unwise to follow that sound. The Little People are known too to put a spell or enchantment on a person, causing them confusion and getting lost. Even after a person makes it back to their settlement, they will remain in a daze forever. Any item or trinket such as a knife found in the forest, a person must ask the Little People if they can have it. If permission isn’t asked, the least of a person’s worries is to have rocks thrown at them on the way home.
Legends of Little People say that they live in the woods near sandy hills and rocks alongside large bodies of water like the Great Lakes. If the Little People were known to live in caves, those places would be avoided so as not to disturb those living there.
Several Native American legends speak of the Little People as pranksters. Some will sing and then hide when someone comes looking. Any type of distraction or mischief. The Little People are known to love children and take them away from abusive parents or if the child is out left alone. If an adult was encountered, the Little People would plead for their existence not to be spoken of and reward or aid their family in times of need.
All of this varies from tribe to tribe as to who and what the Little People are like if they were friendly or considered evil and best avoided. Some tribes would leave a gift for the Little People to try and stay on their good side.
Reality Behind The Myths?
When you get out to the parts of the United States for Montana and Wyoming, there are legends about the remains of the Little People having been found. Descriptions often state that these remains are “perfectly formed” and dwarf-sized, etc.
Archeologist Lawrence L. Loendorf comments that such remains and burials are sent to a local university for study. Loendorf further comments that two mummies found were of anencephalic infants in the first half of the twentieth century and that the deformities would cause people to believe those were adults and contribute to a belief of a group of small or tiny people from prehistoric times.
Lewis & Clark – These early explorers recorded in their journals that the Native Americans living near Spirit Mound, South Dakota believed that Little People lived within and refused to go near it for fear of them, citing they were dangerous.
Coshocton County, Ohio – In the 1830s a graveyard was unearthed and believed to hold the skeletons of a pygmy race. The graves were noted to be approximately three long were “bone burials” where several bent or disarticulated bones were packed together.
Pryor Mountains, Montana & Wyoming – The Pryor Mountains are known for their “fairy rings” much like in Irish and Celtic folklore and for stories where strange things happen.
Pedro Mountain Mummy
This is an interesting one. Like many Native American tribes, the oral traditions of those like the Arapaho, Cheyenne, Crow, Shoshone, and Sioux all tell of the “little people” who stand anywhere from just 20 inches up to three feet tall. Some of the tribes will call these little people “tiny people eaters.” Other tribes have referred to the little people as spirits or healers. Plus, long before the arrival of Europeans, there are many stories of encounters with the Little People that are like those of Celtic fairy lore.
Proof of these beings appears to come with the discovery of a 14” fully formed mummy found in 1932. It was found by two men prospecting for gold in the San Pedro Mountains. While blasting a section of the mountain, it opened up a small cavern about 15 feet long and 4 feet high and it had previously been sealed off. Inside, the men discovered the small fully formed mummy in a sitting position with brown wrinkled skin. The forehead was low and flat with a flat nose and heavy lidded-eyes, a wide mouth, and thin lips. Overall, the mummy looked like an old man and was remarkably well preserved.
When they found it, the men took the mummy to Casper, Wyoming where scientists from all over the nation came to look at it. Tests and x-rays showed the mummy to be real, that it had been killed violently by a blow to the head, explaining a damaged spine and broken collarbone. An odd thing noted about the mummy is that the teeth were overly pointed and had a complete set of canines. Scientists judged the mummy to have been 65 at the time of death.
Accounts vary on who did the testing and examinations. The American Museum of Natural History was certified as genuine by the Anthropology Department of Harvard University. The University of Wyoming however gave another report, stating the remains were that of an anencephalic infant after Dr. George Gill, a professor of anthropology, was given a set of X-Rays in 1979 to examine.
The mummy was on display in sideshows for years before getting bought by a Casper businessman, Ivan T. Goodman. Later, in 1950 after Goodman died, the mummy was passed on to Leonard Walder, a businessman from New York. In 1980, the mummy disappeared after Walder passed away and its location is currently unknown.
Other Mummys & Skeletal Remains
There have been other skeletons of “Little People” found in other places in the United States. Places such as Coshocton, Ohio have a burial ground where numerous remains of a small, pygmy race standing around three feet tall have been found.
Another graveyard was found in 1876 in Coffee County, Tennessee. The remains of thousands of small, dwarf-like people were found and said to be buried there.
There are still people who insist that the remains of other “Little People” have been found in caves in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. Some of these may have been infants with anencephaly. Others persist that any testing on these mummified remains has been kept secret and that these mummies disappear after they’re turned over to authorities. One conspiracy theory claims the Smithsonian Institute will hide or destroy these remains.
Occam’s Razor says that any remains were likely returned to the tribes for reburial, especially with infant remains.
By Any Other Name…
Given the numerous different cultures and tribes of the various Native Americans, there are bound to be just as many different names. For comparative folklore, going into Celtic or Irish fairy lore, there are numerous different types of Fae that would be collectively referred to as the Little People so as not to invite their attention or offend them.
So whether we’re seeing different names for them in different languages or different types of Little People can be hard to say as it varies by region.
Some tribes like the Ojibwe have stories of the Memegwaans, or Memegwaanswag who are shy of adult humans but love children.
Another tribe, the Crow see the Little People as spirits of their ancestors and will leave an offering for them when entering an area.
- Alux – Maya
- Canotila – Lakota
- Chaneque – Aztec
- Geow-lud-mo-sis-eg – Maliseet
- Ircinraq – Yup’ik
- Ishigaq – Inuit
- Jogahoh – Iroquois
- Makiawisug – Mohegan
- Mannegishi – Cree
- Memegwesi/Memegawensi/Memengweshii/Pa’iins – Anishinaabe
- Nimerigar – Shoshone
- Nirumbee or Awwakkulé – Crow
- Nunnupi – Comanche
- Popo-li or Kowi Anukasha
- Pukwudgie – Wampanoag
- Yehasuri – Catawba
- Yunwi Tsunsdi – Cherokee
- Canotila – Lakota
- Popo-li or Kowi Anukasha – Choctaw
Also Known As: Rey Pascual, El Rey San Pascual, King of the Graveyard, King of the Underworld, and San Pascualito Muerte
San Pascualito is a folk saint found in Guatemala and the Mexican state of Chiapas. Given the skeletal nature of his appearance, he is a figure that bears a strong resemblance to San La Muerte and Santa Muerte.
Warning – San Pascualito’s imagery causes him not to be acknowledged by the Catholic Church. Having a skeleton iconography puts San Pascualito in the same vein as Santa Muerte and San La Muerte and associations with death and crime. Due to not being as well known either outside of where he is venerated, there is still an air of unease among Catholic and other Christian sects.
Color: Black, Red, White
Month: May (17th Feast Day)
Patron of: Curing Diseases, Cures, Death, Healings, Love, Graveyards, Vengeance
Sphere of Influence: Death, Healing
Symbols: Skeleton, Cape, Crown, Wheeled Cart
San Pascualito is shown as a skeleton wearing a cape and crown.
Tradition holds that San Pascualito’s veneration very likely originates with a Pre-Columbian Death God. As a folk saint, he is strongly associated with Saint Paschal Baylon, a Spanish friar. Though traditions surrounding San Pascualito strongly lean towards a Pre-Columbian death god.
As the historian Francisco Antonio de Fuentes y Guzmán relates, in 1650, an indigenous Guatemalan man in San Antonio Aguacaliente (now modern-day Ciudad Vieja) was dying of an epidemic fever known as cucumatz in the Kaqchikel language. As the man received his last rites, he had a vision of a tall skeleton dressed in glowing robes appear before him. This figure introduced themselves as “Saint Paschal Baylon.” At this time, Baylon would not be canonized by the Catholic church until 1690, though he had been beatified earlier in 1618.
The figure promised the dying man to intercede and end the cucumatz if he were to be adopted by the community as their patron saint and honor his image. For proof of his identity, the figure predicted that the man receiving the vision would die in nine days, at which time the epidemic would end.
When the appointed time came and the man died, the story of the vision began to spread, and people began putting up images of San Pascualito despite prohibition from the Spanish Inquisition.
San Pascualito’s major center of worship and veneration is in Guatemala and the Mexican state of Chiapas. There is a major shrine dedicated to him in Olintepeque, Guatemala. In the Church of San Pascualito in Tuxtla Gutierrez in Chiapas, there is a version of San Pascualito as a seated skeleton in a cart. Devotees of San Pascualito will leave thank you notes, offerings of capes, or burn candles.
The color of the candle determines the intent of the request. Red is for love, Pink for health, Yellow for protection, Green for business, Blue for work, Light Blue for money, Purple for help overcoming vices or temptation, White for the protection of children, and Black for revenge.
King Of The Graveyard
One of San Pascualito’s epitaphs or names, King of the Graveyard does link him to being a potential death cult. Unlike other such cults, San Pascualito is more concerned with curing diseases, ya’ know, staving off death. Not yet.
As a Folk Saint, San Pascualito’s Feast Day is held on May 17th, the same feast day as Saint Paschal Baylon.
Ah Puch – The Mayan god or lord of death.
Grim Reaper – The imagery of the Grim Reaper and San Pascualito are remarkably similar.
Mictlantecutli – There are very noted, strong similarities between the imagery of the Aztec god of death and San La Muerte.
San La Muerte – A similar figure to San Pascualito found in South America, mainly Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay.
Santa Muerte – A similar female counterpart found in Mexico and southern parts of the United States.
Also Known As: Saint Death, Señor De La Buena Muerte (Lord of the Good Death), Señor De La Muerte (Lord of Death), and in Paraguya, San Esqueleto (Saint Skeleton)
San La Muerte is a folk saint who is worshipped in many places in South America, namely Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay and notably of those who speak the Guaraní language.
Note: The most important thing to note with San La Muerte is not to confuse them with Santa Muerte. Yes, the two are incredibly similar in appearances as local Folk Saints and many of Santa Muerte’s attributes are held to be the same as San La Muerte.
Warning – As a result of San La Muerte’s associations with the criminal element such as the drug cartels, the worship, and veneration of San La Muerte is very controversial, especially by the Catholic Church and several Protestant dominations that don’t acknowledge or see him as cannon. There is a strong reaction of condemnation by the Catholic and other Christian sects to see his veneration as blasphemous and even satanic.
Color: Black, Red, White
Month: August (13th & 15th)
Patron of: Death, the Dead, Inmates, Prisoners
Sphere of Influence: Restore Love, Good Fortune, Gambling, Protection against Witchcraft, Protection against Imprisonment, Luck, Good Health, Vengeance
Symbols: Globe, Scale of Justice, Hourglass, Oil Lamp,Scythe
San La Muerte is essentially a male skeleton dressed in a hooded robe, carrying a scythe, much like the Grim Reaper and Santa Muerte.
Santito – Or Small Saint, these are small skeleton sculptures that depict San La Muerte. These can be carved from wood, bone, and metal. They are somewhere between 3 to 15 centimeters in height. A classic image is a human skeleton standing holding scythe. Devotees will also seek to get their statues consecrated by a Catholic priest seven times. If the statue is made from the bones of a Catholic saint, then such consecration needs only be five times. Devotees are known to perform subterfuge such as hiding their statue beneath the picture of another saint to get them consecrated.
Followers and worshipers of San La Muerte can be found in many places in South America, primarily Paraguay, northeastern Argentina (the provinces of Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa, and Missiones), Southern Brazil (states off Paraná, Rio Grande, and Santa Catarina) are the main places for San La Muerte’s Cults. Since the 1960’s and some internal migrations, the worshiping of San La Muerte has spread into the Greater Buenos Aires and the national prison system.
Like Santa Muerte, most of San La Muerte’s followers are Catholics and former Catholics who venerate this folk saint and deity. This means a person doesn’t have to exclusively be one religion or another to seek her favor and protection.
Put bluntly, everyone, rich and poor alike are equal in death, and in this regard, Santa Muerte plays no favorites. Everyone eventually dies, it’s just part of life.
Many seeking San La Muerte’s favor and miracles due to the strong Catholic influence, will offer up prayers and light votive candles, often of different colors depending on their need. Offerings given to San La Muerte are frequently for specific requests and tailored such as the devotee’s own blood, alcohol, candle and other items.
Such devotion to San La Muerte is a mixture of submission to an entity that expects punishment for any obligations not upheld by the devotee. Such obligations or threats involve going hungry or banishment to an uninhabited place. When the Saint grants his favors, it won’t be in full as there is the need for a threat or punishment again.
Side Note: This is also part of why the Catholic church sees blasphemy with San La Muerte, catholic style prayers, votive candles, and rosaries are used in prayers and rites with this folk saint.
Catholic Folk Saint?
It is thought and believed that the veneration for San La Muerte began among the Guarani tribe shortly after the expulsion of Jesuit missionaries in 1767 with the arrival of Catholicism. Over in Argentine was the local folk saint of Gauchito Gil, a known devotee to San La Muerte. Combine this with the Guarani tribes worshipping the bones of their ancestors, and these traditions and those of the Catholics would lead to the veneration and origins of the San La Muerte’s cult.
Archangel – Belief in San La Muerte has also compared him to supernatural beings like angels or archangels that a devotee will pray to.
Saint Of Protection
There are a variety of favors that San La Muerte is believed to grant. Everything from restoring love, to health and prosperity, protection in general of worshipers, protection from witchcraft, the evil eye, and the granting of good luck in gambling.
More controversial among devote Catholics is San La Muerte’s aid in helping those involved in crime and violence, bringing death to enemies, keeping a devotee out of prison, shorter prison terms even, and the recovery of stolen items.
Brujos and other traditional healers such as Curanderos can also invoke protections for their clients. Many practitioners and devotees will have a statue depicting San La Muerte that is kept hidden so he can extend protection to all family members. There are public altars that display a statue of San La Muerte too. Devotees will act as guardians and caretakers for any public altars.
Other protections will be more personal with rituals done in the house at the altar, wearing amulets, tattoos, or a carving depicting San La Muerte inserted under a worshiper’s skin.
Bullets that were fired to kill a Christian man are considered the most powerful material to use for an amulet. Other materials are gold, silver, and human bone.
Saint & Festival Day
Since there is no official Saint Day for San La Muerte from the Catholic church, plus they’re not recognized by the Catholic faith, some devotees will hold a festival for him on either August 13th or August 15th. When the date falls on the 15th, that is the same Saint Day and festival as Santa Muerte. Though some comment that Santa Muerte’s Saint Day can also be observed on November 1st.
Grim Reaper – The imagery of the Grim Reaper and San La Muerte are remarkably similar.
Mictlantecutli – There are very noted, strong similarities between the imagery of the Aztec god of death and San La Muerte.
Santa Muerte – A similar female counterpart found in Mexico and southern parts of the United States.
San Pascualito– A similar male counterpart to Santa Muerte found in Guatemala.
Also called: “Buying Man,” “Credit Men,” “Credit Swordsman,” “Divine Sale,” “Divination Sellers,” “Knife Man,” “Seller,” and “The Person who took the Knife”
This is an interesting piece of Chinese folklore and divination. When the Credit Knife Man appears, it isn’t just to sell knives, it is to sell these knives on credit with a vague or cryptic prophecy about the following year. When the prediction comes true, the Credit Knife Man returns later to collect the money. The Credit Knife Man is said to appear every time there is a disaster, giving out hints of what is to come.
While the current name is fairly new, the tradition itself is very old. Back in ancient China, the Credit Knife Man, Divine Seller or Buying Man as they were known then would show up, walking through villages as they passed out kitchen knives or other household items on credit while giving prophecies for the following year. No charges, just that they would return when the prediction was fulfilled to collect on the wares, often times knives.
Prophet Or Charlatan?
While there are many folktales regarding the Credit Knife Man, there are some who think the whole idea is made up of charlatans and liars going to villages to deceive and scam people out of their money.
Then you have others who believe that these Knife Men are legit as every year before a disaster happens, they show up, and make a prophecy that turns true.
Seeming to add credibility to all of this is that Credit Knife Men are said to have shown up in 2020 around the Central Plains area of China with a prediction for 2021
Professional Knife Man?
Going back about thirty years ago to the 1980’s and 1990’s groups of people could be found going around the streets and alleyways in China’s rural areas. They would be carrying an array of kitchen knives, scissors, iron pots and other household items. These people didn’t just sell the knives outright, they would sell the knife on credit, giving them to people in need in exchange for a seemingly bizarre or cryptic prophesy.
The “Divine Seller” would keep a registry of names for those whom they had made a prediction to when selling a knife or other household item. As people tended to stay or live in the same village, it would be easy for the “Divine Seller” to return later and collect any money owed on a prediction that is fulfilled.
Where the Credit Knife Man is potentially related to cons and scammers, these people show up in rural, remote villages where people are likely to be less educated, living simpler lives. Such predictions will be given relating to personal, ordinary things and events. The scammer may show up in one village claiming the price of wheat will rise while in another they say it will fall and depending on the outcome, the seller returns to the village in question to collect. As these Sellers travel, they’re more likely to be connected to the world, regional events of what’s happening in the area and how it will affect the local economies before any price drops or rises reach a particular village.
Nor is it hard if you’re paying attention to the trends and events around a person to make some fairly accurate guesses and seeming predictions of what’s coming or could come.
It certainly seems like Confirmation Bias and enough people seeing the “predictions” coming true would certainly double down and pay, ignoring any predictions that didn’t come true and getting a free knife out of the deal.
It appears that the Credit Knife Man or Men belong to the Daoist School of thought and may be a disciple of Guiguzi. As a form of divination, the Credit Knife Man makes predictions involving life and death. They notably appear every time there is a disaster to give hints and warnings.
Just who is or was Guiguzi?
The Guiguzi is a collection of ancient texts written and compiled during China’s Waring States era and towards the end of the Han Dynasty. The author credited with writing these tests and treatises of diplomacy is Guigu Xiansheng.
By folk traditions, Guiguzi has become the name of a legendary and mysterious figure, known as the “eternal stranger.” They are well versed in strategies and diplomacy and influenced people like Sun Bin, Pang Juan, Su Qin, Zhang Yi, and Shang Yang with promoting justice and saving the world from the Chinese world view.
“The Knife of the Tao” – Giving such divinations and predictions of connecting them with a commodity such as the knife may have been the way that Fortune Tellers and Diviners kept their trade going. Give the prediction while also selling something tangible and needed.
Plus, a business savvy person paying attention to the market trends and events happening around them can seem to easily make predictions. Especially for earlier eras with the slowness of news to reach rural areas.
Adding more mystique and interest to the stories of the Credit Knife Man is a story set in the remote village near the base of the Daxingan Mountains in the northeast. The story tells how there is a person who appears in the village, selling their knives on credit. When asking the older people of the village, when they were young, this person selling knives was middle-aged. Now that they are old, this person has remained the same age and still giving his prophesies. No one knows this person’s name, their real age, only that his knives are sharp and that he doesn’t need money. Every time they show up, they leave a knife and a prophecy and when that prophesy is fulfilled, the person returns to collect the knife. There was one time the village faced a severe drought and the person who received the knife showed up in time to help solve the dilemma.
Another story of the Credit Knife Man is in July 1878 during the Guangxu era. A person buying the knife on credit received a prediction of the price of wheat would drop from 80 cents to 18 cents. The price of wheat did drop all the way down to 18 cents, but there is no record if the Credit Knife Man returned to collect the money.
Presumably he did or there wouldn’t be the story.
Another element of the seeming supernatural nature of the Credit Knife Man is that they seem to appear anytime there is going to be major changes that affect the region or country.
One of the alternative names of “Divine Sale” refers to the divination aspect of the Credit Knife Men. The predictions that the Knife Men often make are bizarre and seemingly cryptic. Anything from the ordinary to the future of the world. Some examples given are how the price of rice and wheat will rise to one yuan, pork rising to ten yuan a catty and how the fields won’t be planted. More examples include how no one is living in a house, people taking off their clothes, beasts walking in clothing, and even more strange ones such as pigs will have a thousand oxen and the bridal price or costs to marry a daughter-in-law being 180.
It’s enough to make one think they’re getting a fortune told from a Fortune Cookie or looking at the Daily Horoscope at first glance. Much like a party game. But after the fact, you see how it applies to not worrying about the price of rice and other food stocks, the societal changes of young people moving away from their hometown in rural areas as they seek work, the way people treat their pets with dressing them and dying their fur, the price of cattle and the steep price of marriages. All stuff that in a way seems very common sense after the fact and seeing the social and societal changes.
Credit Knife Currency
During the Song Dynasty, these Credit Knife Men were known as “Credit Swordsman” and could be found wandering various towns and remote mountain villages. The knives that they sold were not for sale but being sold on credit as a means or excuse to make predictions and prophesies to each other for free. If such a prophesy comes true later, the Credit Swordsman would return to collect on the prediction.
Looking at the Warring States era of China’s history, it makes sense knives would be used for currency and given out on credit during a time when money was hard to come by. So, a good, sharp knife would have a high value and be useful to trade or sell on credit for later. It would also be an act of integrity and honor to pay or repay when the Credit Knife Man managed to return and collect or have a free knife in the event of a failed prediction.
Actual Knife Coins and currency were used during the Zhou dynasty between 600 and 200 B.C.E. These were large, bronze-cast knife-shaped coins or currency used throughout various governments and kingdoms that are now modern China. One story holds that a prince running low on money allowed his soldiers to use their knives in place of currency, for barter and trade with villagers. Another story has the same prince accepting knives as payments for small fines in place of the current, legal ring coins. It is also possible that the knife money is something that came from the Indian Ocean by way of trade routes with barter and trade.
Similar are the Qi Knives found in the Shandong region in the State of Qi that were use in that area. Archaeology places them having been in use during the Waring States era. These knives were also known as Three Character Knives, Four Character Knives and so on based on the number inscribed on them. Depending on the number of the Qi Knife would be how much of a copper and tin alloy they were made of. With higher number Qi Knives having a higher percentage of copper.
In 1932, a veritable treasure hoard of Needle Tip Knives were found at Chengde in the Hebei province. These are similar to the Pointed Tip Knife currency that have been discovered and unearthed in the thousands all with various inscriptions of numbers, cyclical characters and others that haven’t been decoded or translated on them.
There has also been spade money and Ming Knives which are smaller than the Pointed Tip Knifes found. A Mint for Ming Knives was found at Xiadu, southwest of Beijing. This place had once been the capital city Yi during the Yan dynasty around 360 B.C.E. Coinage for the Ming Knives have been found as far away as Korea and Japan.
If you ever have a chance to visit the Qi Heritage Museum in Linzi, Shandong, many examples of these Qi Knives on display.
During World War II and Japan’s occupation of China, the legends of the Credit Knife or Sword Man rose up with them saying they would return to collect the money when the Japanese were driven out. This angered the Japanese soldiers who went and killed the Credit Knife Man. Before he died, the man said his descendants would come to collect. When the Japanese left China, the Credit Knife Man’s prediction does appear to have become true.
October 2020 – A Credit Knife Man in the Central Plains. After selling his knife on credit, they left the prediction “No money will be collected this year.) Referring to 2020 and that he would return next year in 2021, saying: “Give money if you are alive next year, if you don’t have it, you’ll be gone.” As every knows, 2020 is a year we’d like to have a do over with due to the Covid-19 pandemic that swept the globe along with other natural disasters.
July 7th, 2021 – After a flood happened, there is a father living near the edge of the Dabie Mountains of northern Hubei who reports on WeChat having met a person who’s not seen a kitchen knife or scissors for decades. A prediction was made that the Credit Knife Man would come to collect when it snows. “No snow, no money!” And of course, the mountain regions got snow in August, a full month ahead of schedule.
It’s noted that for two consecutive years in a row that Credit Knife Men and their predictions have made appearances in Henan and Hubei.
With a faster speed of technology and communication, such predictions that Credit Knife Men would make seem harder to do if all one was doing is paying attention to the market trends and world events happening around them. For the superstitious or spiritually minded, it does seem that the heavens are angry. Those more science-minded see the effects of climate change and global warming with some of these natural disasters.
There is also a prediction set for August 2022 where the red boat will sink.
Also known as: Dodore (northern Malaita), Kakangora, Kalibohibohi (Guadalcanal), Mumu (southern Malaita), Nopitu (Bank Islands of northern Vanuatu), and Tutulangi
Perhaps if I had done this post sooner, I could have found more posts directly about the Kakamora instead of so many about the movie Moana.
Legends of creatures known as Kakamora come from Polynesian mythology, especially in the Solomon Islands of the Melanesian people. The main legends of the kakamora are from the island of Makira. They are sometimes called tricksters and are known for stealing fire from humans. The other more malicious trick that kakamora are reputed to do is to beat one of their own so they would cry, sounding like a baby. This of course would cause a human to come close, thinking they’re going to help, only to be captured, killed, and eaten by the kakamora.
Let’s dispel the notion of the Kakamora from the movie Moana as sadistically cute coconut-clad armored pirates that attack Moana and Maui on their quest. The movie does get it correct in terms of size for them being small.
In Polynesian mythology, the Kakamora are small, hairy spirits with sharp claws known to be secretive and dangerous. In the Solomon Islands, these beings are held to be harmless until they aren’t. In the forests where they live, the kakamora live on nuts, fruit, and opossums. Making them dangerous is that from time to time, the Kakamora are reported to feed on anyone found wandering alone, be it a child or a hapless traveler. They also live in holes, caves, and banyan trees. The language that kakamora have is not shared with the Melanesian people.
Warding Off Kakamora
Apparently, waving anything white will frighten off the kakamora. It’s not clear why this color but go figure.
Aside from people saying that Kakamore loves to be in the moonlight, there is a traditional dance held in the Soloman Islands. This play or dance imitates the legendary dance that the kakamora did to the sounding of a conch shell. When people traveling by canoe suddenly arrive, the smaller kakamora take off for the trees in a panic, running.
Possible Reality Behind The Myth
Much like the celebrities of Cryptozoology with Big Foot, Lochness Monster, and the Yeti, people claim and believe that there may still be Kakamora living deep within the forests and mountains of the Solomon Islands.
One author, Reverend Charles Fox in his book The Threshold of the Pacific, written in 1924, wrote of the kakamora, how they build no houses, don’t use tools, or make fires. Fox’s book describes how he was traveling with a group of Arosi people when they came across the remains of half-eaten fish and small, wet footprints on dry stone in the river. Even in 1930, District Officer Dick Horton claims to have seen very short people near the village of Veramakuru on Guadalcanal.
More excitement for an extinct race of hominids arose in 2003 with the discovery of 18,000-year-old bones on Flores Island in Indonesia. The short, one-meter stature of this archaeological find has led scholars to refer to this race as hobbits.
Most claims and sightings of kakamora ended in the early 20th century when local people began to obtain firearms. There had been reports of sightings near villages and thefts in gardens. However, just like the Cryptozoology superstars like Big Foot and Nessie, some people are hopeful that they’ll capture a kakamora and prove to the world their existence while other people have relegated such stories to the realm of superstitions, folklore, and fairy tales.
Movie Time – Moana!
So of course, the movie came out in 2016, featuring the famous Maui of Polynesian mythology. Since I was curious, of course, I wanted to know how much of the mythology and stories that the movie gets right.
It is, of course, a new story, and the Maui seen in the movie pulls and combines many of the aspects of him found primarily in Hawaiian and Maori legends. Much of this is confirmed during the song: “You’re Welcome” and a quick montage of all of Maui’s deeds that he’s done that have earned him a new tattoo to commemorate the event.
The character of Te Fiti in her darker aspect as Te Ka was originally referred to as Te Po, based on the Maori goddess Hine-Nui-Te-Po, the goddess of night, death, and the underworld. Others have noted a strong similarity between Te Ka and the Hawaiian volcano goddess Pele.
As to the Kakamora, not really. They get depicted as coconut armor-wearing pirates that roam the sea and show up rather randomly at one point and end up as comic relief.
Interestingly, while the movie was being developed and written, it incorporates the history of Polynesian people as voyagers who just abruptly ceased and then a thousand years later, start sailing again. Why? No one knows. However, the story of Moana certainly provides an interesting what-if story to it.
It’s interesting to note the importance of coconuts in Polynesian culture. Just from the movie Moana we see the people of the village sing about the importance of coconuts and Maui talking about how he created the coconuts so people would love him.
So, it’s weird seeing vicious coconut armor-wearing pirates, especially to menace Moana and Maui for the heart of Te Fiti. It also doesn’t help to come across “coconut” as a racial slur against Pacific Islanders.
The whole Waterworld & Mad Max vibe of random sea fairing pirates that show up and then are gone doesn’t seem to help the movie plot other than being filler and adding comedy. Sticking more to the folkloric beliefs and legends would have been far better in presenting the Kakamora.
If nothing else, the movie has catapulted the stories of Kakamora more towards the foreground of mythology, stories, folklore, and fairytales that everyone has some familiarity with.
Etymology: From Icelandic leppur (“rags”) and lúði (“oaf”)
In Icelandic folklore, Leppalúði is currently the third husband of the fearsome ogress or trolless, Grýla. Both Leppalúði and Grýla are known for being cannibals, eating children. Leppalúði is often mentioned in conjunction with his wife, Grýla as a means by parents to frighten their children into good behavior.
This is reportedly the home of the fierce some Grýla, Leppalúði, and the Yule Lads. It is a labyrinth field of lava in North Iceland.
Grýla – A cannibal ogress or troll, Grýla is the fierce, infamous wife of Leppalúði
Some stories hold that Leppalúði and Grýla have had many children together, one count says that there are as many as twenty children.
Jólasveinarnir – The Yule Lads, in the 17th century, when Grýla became associated with Christmas, she was assigned to be the mother of the Yule Lads. There are 13 Yule Lads who started off causing all sorts of mischief and trouble. Over time and influenced by the American Santa Claus tradition, the Yule Lads became associated with gift-giving and will leave either a gift of sweets or a rotten potato in a shoe left on the window sill depending on a child’s behavior.
Jólakötturinn – The Yule Cat, is more Grýla’s monstrous giant pet black cat. The Yule Cat will prey upon children and adults alike who have not received the gift of a new article of clothing. The Yule Cat will swell to a monstrous size before tearing apart its victim. So make sure your Nana or favorite Aunt has sent you a new article of clothing for Christmas. Even if it’s a pink bunny outfit, it will keep the Yule Cat from eating you!
Twins – The last children Grýla had with Leppalúði, when she was 50 years old, were twins. The twins died very young and still young enough to need a crib.
Most of Leppalúði’s fierce reputation comes from his association and marriage to Grýla and the Jólasveinarnir who go out hunting misbehaving children to eat. If it wasn’t for them, Leppalúði is likely to have died of starvation long ago due to his laziness and that he frequently stays home.
Also Known As: John, Jon Blund, Klaas Vaak, Ole Lukøje
Sweet dreams are made of these…
The Sandman is a figure mainly from Western and Northern European folklore who is responsible for sprinkling the sands of sleep so that people can dream. At its heart, it’s a very simple piece of folklore that doesn’t seem to have much more than that. Rather, I should say that the Sandman is a deceptively major figure of folklore who appears to be a minor power. How much relevance he will have depends on the nature of the stories he is found in and those can vary widely.
Description: It seems as if a lot of popular media and books will have a description of the sandman as a human-looking male wearing a Victorian-style sleeping gown and nightcap with tassel. He might have a bag of sand or just magically produce it from pockets or thin air.
Then you have other sources of media and books that really play with his description and the Sandman will look like however they want him to look. Since the Sandman’s realm is the Land of Nod or Realm of Dreams, he could probably look however he wanted and suited the needs of the story being told.
The Land of Nod
Not the biblical Land of Nod where Cain was exiled to, but as in the Land of Sleep and Dreams.
First, we can thank Dean Jonathon Swift for this delightful play and pun on words with his 1738 book “A Complete Collection of Genteel and Ingenious Conversation.”
At any rate, the realm of Dreams, Dream Realm, or Land of Nod is sometimes shown as being the Sandman’s domain where he reigns all-powerful and supreme, so long as people remain asleep or he doesn’t leave it.
Since it’s dreams, the place can look like anything and anywhere, and the Sandman can look however he wants and suit the needs of who’s writing the stories.
Here’s Sand In Your Eyes!
The easiest explanation for a Sandman is the morning crust or rheum that people wake up with around their eyes. It’s common, it happens to everyone, and way back when it was easy to believe and explain to young children where this discharge came from by saying that the Sandman brought it as the dust he sprinkles in people’s eyes so they can dream.
Quite frankly, calling it Sleep or Sand is a lot more poetical than calling it rheum, dried discharge, or mucus.
Getting A Good Night’s Rest
In many places, the Sandman is known by different names and has slightly different appearances.
Canada – Nilus the Sandman was a television series that aired in the 1990’s.
Denmark – The famous author, Hans Christian Andersen’s 1841 story called Ole Lukøje about the Sandman who sprinkles sand in children’s eyes to sleep. The name Ole Lukøje means “Close Eye” in Danish. Ole Lukøje carries two umbrellas, one of which has pictures underneath, that when he opens it over good children, they have good dreams. The other umbrella is blank, this one Ole Lukøje’s hold over naughty children so they will have a heavy, dreamless sleep. Instead of using sand, Ole Lukøje squirts milk into children’s eyes… a little strange. At the end of the story, it is revealed that Ole Lukøje has a brother, who only visits once, bringing Death. The brother’s name is also Ole Lukøie.
Dutch – In the Netherlands and places like South Africa, the Sandman is known as Klaas Vaak.
Germany – Unser Sandmännchen (Our Little Sandman) is very similar to Anderson’s Ole Lukøje and is part of a television series that has been broadcast since 1959. The show has also been adapted into comic book form.
Scandinavia – The Sandman is the traditional folk character who sprinkles sand or dust into people’s eyes, so they sleep and dream. He’s a feature of many children’s stories.
Sweden – In English translations, the Sandman is known as John or Jon Blund.
The Stuff Of Nightmares
Every now and then, someone likes to write a story featuring the Sandman in a more sinister light. Okay… that makes sense when the story of the Sandman likely comes from exasperated parents trying to get their children to go to sleep, that some variations could hold similarities to stories of the Bogeyman.
Bonhome Sept-Heur – Meaning the Seven O’Clock Guy, this is a French-Canadian figure who will throw sand in children’s eyes who refuse to go to sleep so he can blind them before carrying them away in his bag.
Der Sandmann – Written by E.T.A. Hoffman in 1816 is just one such book wherein the Sandman throws sand in the eyes of children who refuse to go to sleep, causing their eyes to fall out. These would then be collected up and fed to the Sandman’s children on the Moon. Lovely…
In case you’re curious, in 1993, Paul Berry would adapt this story into a stop-motion short that won Craft Prize for “Best Animation” and got an Oscar nomination for “Best Animated Short Film.”
Mos Ene – Meaning Ene the Elder is a Romanian folklore figure very similar to the character described in Der Sandmann.
What Dreams May Come…
DC Comics – there have been a few characters who have carried the name of Sandman, at least one appears to be the actual folkloric figure where the other used hypnotic sand to control people. The latter appears in an episode from the 1960’s Batman series.
Marvel Comics – The Sandman appears as a villain to the hero Spider-man. It must be stressed and noted that this version of Sandman has nothing to do with dreams, just sand, turning into, manipulating, and controlling it.
Marvel has another villain from its Journey Into Mystery comics in 1961. This Sandman was an alien who crash-landed on earth.
The Sandman – This is a 75-part comic book series written by Neil Gaiman that many people are probably familiar with. The title character rules over a dream world and appears to various characters in the series in different guises and names.
There are several other comics that feature a Sandman character.
Miles To Go Before I Sleep…
There are several different songs and poems that all reference Sandman to one degree or another. The most famous of these is the 1954 song “Mister Sandman” by The Chordettes. Other songs and poems will have the Sandman as a focus or just briefly mentioned as allusions to sleep and dreams. Of course, there is Metallica’s “Enter Sandman” that isn’t very pleasant as it sings of dreams turning into nightmares.
There are also a few movies that the Sandman has appeared, Disney’s The Santa Clause series where he is a member of the Legendary Council, and Dreamwork’s Rise of the Guardians where the Sandman is one such member and Guardian of Dreams.
Der Sandmann Kommt
Many of our stories for the Sandman begin to appear in the 18th century. Though the stories are likely older as a means of trying to explain the sleep or rheum, crust on one’s eyelids in the morning. Stories of the Sandman could have circulated as cautionary tales to try and get children to behave, especially if Hoffman’s Der Sandmann is used as a source.
In Germany, the idioms for “der Sandmann kommt,” meaning “the Sandman comes” have been found in German to French dictionaries dated to 1771. It’s used to describe a person who’s about to fall asleep. A later 1798 German grammar book posits the idiom as a phrase used by adults in a humorous manner towards children who are tired. That’s just German culture and the understanding is that such an idiom is likely to have been around a while in usage before making its way into dictionaries and grammar books.
Maybe? That seems to stretch it a bit. Though it brings us back to Hans Christian Anderson’s Ole Lukøje and his brother of the same name. Where one brings sleep and the other brings death.
In Greek mythology, Nyx, the goddess of Night, and Erebus, the god of Darkness have two children by the name of Hypnos, the god of Sleep, and Thanatos, the god of Death. These two brothers live near each other in the Underworld. Which suddenly makes Anderson’s tale have a lot more sense.
Taking Hypnos’ Roman name or equivalent deity, Somnus, three of his children are Morpheus, the God of Dreams, Phobetor or Frightener who takes various animal forms, and Phantasos who is Fantasy or Imagination. It needs to be noted that these three of Morpheus, Phobetor, and Phantasos make their first appearances in Ovid’s Metamorphosis and are likely literary concepts used to try and break down, better explain dreams.
It makes it easy to see the Sandman in European folklore as an amalgam of all these deities or he’s just Hypnos/Somnus in the modern day.
Other Names: Jólasveinar, Yule Lads, Yuletide-Lads, Yulemen
These mischievous pranksters are the present bringers in Iceland, not Santa Claus. Not one Santa Claus, it’s thirteen! How exciting is that!
Though, the Yule Lads didn’t always start off so friendly. These lads used to work for their mother, Grýla to help her hunt down naughty children as well as wreak all sorts of havoc and mischief during the long, dark winter days. The oldest versions and stories of the Yule Lads come from East Iceland.
This is reportedly the home of the fierce some Grýla and the Yule Lads. It is a labyrinth field of lava in North Iceland.
Reykjavik – This is another place that the Yule Lads can be spotted around in December. This place serves more a tourist destination where there’s a game to find all the Yule Lads and visit the local Troll Garden to sit in Grýla’s cauldron.
The descriptions of the Yule Lads have varied over time. In their pre-Christmas descriptions, they are troll-like beings who have no torsos.
Later, when they became more associated with Christmas, the Yule Lads would dress much like the American and European Santa in all red garments. Another push was made to have the Yule Lads dress in a more traditional medieval Icelandic garments in an effort to push away from the often overly commercialized versions of Santa and Christmas that are seen.
Grýla – The infamous Icelandic Christmas Ogress or Trolless is the mother of the Yule Lads, it would explain so much of their behavior. Grýla is known for eating misbehaving children and goes out in search of them at Christmas time.
Leppalúði – He is Grýla’s current husband and the father of the Yule Lads. Leppalúði is known for being very lazy. He lives in their cave found in the Dimmuborgir lava fields. Aside from the Yule Lads, Grýla and Leppalúði also have twenty other children.
Leppalúði had an affair with a girl by the name of Lúpa while Grýla was very ill and bedridden for an entire year. The girl, Lúpa was to play nurse to Grýla while she was sick. It’s no small wonder then, that when Grýla finds out that Leppalúði and Lúpa had an affair, resulting in a son by the name of Skröggur, that the trolless would become enraged and drive the girl and her son off from the cave.
The last children Grýla had with Leppalúði, when she was 50 years old, were twins. The twins died very young, still needing a crib.
Dark Winter Spirits
This ties into why Grýla is said to have so many children. As it concerns the Yule Lads, in the beginning their number varied wildly. The Yule Lads and their mother, Grýla in their pre-Christmas traditions, represented the dark, dangerous and capricious spirits of Winter. This time of the year, the weather is colder, the nights longer and it’s just more treacherous to go out into the wilderness if one is not prepared or wary.
Jól – The midwinter holiday that predates the modern Christmas, marks a time of people gathering together to feast and celebrate family both living and deceased. This older holiday is generally darker as elves, trolls and other mystical creatures that inhabit the Icelandic countryside are also out and would sometimes come to visit homes and farms, often as masked figures.
The Yule Lads at this time were portrayed as being trolls with no torso who would come down to the various villages and towns to cause havoc and chaos with their pranks or to outright carry off naughty children to their mother to feast on. The Yule Lads were just some of the many dangerous, unpredictable spirits and supernatural entities that wandered the countryside during winter.
Christianity – This religion was introduced to Iceland around 1000 C.E. after the King of Norway made a decree that everyone should convert to Christianity and sent out missionaries to the island nation. As with many ancient customs and traditions, the people weren’t that ready and willing to give up all their beliefs. As the Icelandic traditions and those of the introduced Christianity began to merge, one of the many points of note was a change to the calendar that shifted from the old Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar.
Sometime during the 1500’s and up to the 1700’s, the Julian Calendar was beginning to fall out of step and the celebration of the Winter Solstice was occurring on December 13th. As more European countries made the shift to the Gregorian Calendar, it placed the Winter Solstice back to the 21st. The change of calendars also so some 13 to 14 days getting removed.
For Iceland, many people didn’t like this and still wanted to celebrate December 13th as the Winter Solstice or Jól. To have the two traditions Iceland and Christianity merge more easily, the thirteen days of Christmas with the Yule Lads coming to visit began to form, starting from the eve of December 12th and stretching out all the way to the 25th and beyond to January 6th with Epiphany as the Yule Lads come visiting and then depart, back up to the mountains.
In the 16th century, a law was put into place that: “All disorderly and scandalous entertainment at Christmas and other times and Shrovetide revels are strongly forbidden on pain of serious punishment.” Parents still used the stories of Grýla and the Yule Lads coming to carry away naughty children during Wintertime and at Christmas. Things got so bad that in 1746, parents were forbidden and banned from using these stories to scare their children. It’s shortly after this, that the imagery of the Yule Lads would begin to further change.
Huldufólk – According to folklorist, Skarphéðinsson, the Yule Lads are the Huldufólk or the hidden people who live in Iceland right along humans, just another dimension that can’t be seen.
If you go for the Christian connection to religion and folktales, the Huldufólk were the dirty, strange and unusual children of Eve that she hid from God. When they were discovered, these children were sent to another world or dimension. Other ideas are that the Huldufólk are actually Fallen Angels.
Once the Yule Lads began to be associated with the celebration of Christmas, their image softened so that instead of being more malicious troll spirits that cause havoc and chaos, they became more benevolent. They’re still pranksters and the imagery saw them become more humanized to be half-troll figures.
The Thirteen Days Of Christmas – Yes, instead of one day of presents, children in Iceland get eight thirteen crazy nights!
The Yule Lads arrive during the thirteen days of Christmas, coming one at a time. Once December 25th comes, the Yule Lads depart back to their mountain home in the order that they arrived until the last day of January 6th, Epiphany.
Borrowing from Dutch tradition, children place a shoe out on their window sills during the thirteen nights of Christmas leading up to Christmas Day. In the hopes of receiving a gift or treat, children leave out small snacks for the Yule Lads such as laufabrauð (“leaf bread”), this is a thin, crisp flatbread. If a child has been good, they will receive a present or treat in their shoe. If a child has been particularly naughty, they will receive a rotten potato in their shoe.
If you ask me, that’s much better than getting carted away to their mother, Grýla to be eaten.
The Thirteen Yule Lads
The number of Yule Lads has varied over the years with as many as 82 and in more recent times with the 20th century, that number settled on there being thirteen. As the stories go, the Yule Lads live up in the mountains and come down in December during the Thirteen Days of Christmas. As there are thirteen of these lads, the various names they possess also speak of their particular quirk, feature or talent they have.
Jólasveinarnir – The Yule Lads Poem was written by the poet, Jóhannes úr Kötlum in 1932, this poem is still a popular piece recited each year in many homes and schools during December. This poem is where the Thirteen Yule Lads were made cannon for Iceland’s Christmas Tradition. The English translation of the poem is done by Hallberg Hallmundsson.
The sections below in italics are Kötlum’s poem in English.
Stekkjastaur – Sheep-Cote Clod (Or Stiff Legs)
Arrives: 12 December
Leaves: 25 December
The first of them was Sheep-Cote Clod.
He came stiff as wood,
to prey upon the farmer’s sheep
as far as he could.
He wished to suck the ewes,
but it was no accident
he couldn’t; he had stiff knees
– not too convenient.
Giljagaur – Gully Gawk
Arrives: 13 December
Leaves: 26 December
The second was Gully Gawk,
gray his head and mien.
He snuck into the cow barn
from his craggy ravine.
Hiding in the stalls,
he would steal the milk, while
the milkmaid gave the cowherd
a meaningful smile.
Stúfur – Stubby
Arrives: 14 December
Leaves: 27 December
Stubby was the third called,
a stunted little man,
who watched for every chance
to whisk off a pan.
And scurrying away with it,
he scraped off the bits
that stuck to the bottom
and brims – his favorites.
Þvörusleikir – Spoon-Licker
Arrives: 15 December
Leaves: 28 December
The fourth was Spoon Licker;
like spindle he was thin.
He felt himself in clover
when the cook wasn’t in.
Then stepping up, he grappled
the stirring spoon with glee,
holding it with both hands
for it was slippery.
Pottaskefill – Pot-Scraper
Arrives: 16 December
Leaves: 29 December
Pot Scraper, the fifth one,
was a funny sort of chap.
When kids were given scrapings,
he’d come to the door and tap.
And they would rush to see
if there really was a guest.
Then he hurried to the pot
and had a scraping fest.
Askasleikir – Bowl-Licker
Arrives: 17 December
Leaves: 30 December
Bowl Licker, the sixth one,
was shockingly ill bred.
From underneath the bedsteads
he stuck his ugly head.
And when the bowls were left
to be licked by dog or cat,
he snatched them for himself
– he was sure good at that!
As a side note, askur is a type of dish that Icelanders would eat from and keep under the bed as a means of storing it.
Hurðaskellir – Door-Slammer
Arrives: 18 December
Leaves: 31 December
The seventh was Door Slammer,
a sorry, vulgar chap:
When people in the twilight
would take a little nap,
he was happy as a lark
with the havoc he could wreak,
slamming doors and hearing
the hinges on them squeak.
Skyrgámur – Skyr-Gobbler
Arrives: 19 December
Leaves: 1 January
Skyr Gobbler, the eighth,
was an awful stupid bloke.
He lambasted the skyr tub
till the lid on it broke.
Then he stood there gobbling
– his greed was well known –
until, about to burst,
he would bleat, howl and groan.
Skyr is a type of yogurt found in Iceland.
Bjúgnakrækir – Sausage Swiper
Arrives: 20 December
Leaves: 2 January
The ninth was Sausage Swiper,
a shifty pilferer.
He climbed up to the rafters
and raided food from there.
Sitting on a crossbeam
in soot and in smoke,
he fed himself on sausage
fit for gentlefolk.
Gluggagægir – Window-Peeper
Arrives: 21 December
Leaves: 3 January
The tenth was Window Peeper,
a weird little twit,
who stepped up to the window
and stole a peek through it.
And whatever was inside
to which his eye was drawn,
he most likely attempted
to take later on.
Gáttaþefur – Doorway Sniffer
Arrives: 22 December
Leaves: 4 January
Eleventh was Door Sniffer,
a doltish lad and gross.
He never got a cold, yet had
a huge, sensitive nose.
He caught the scent of lace bread
while leagues away still
and ran toward it weightless
as wind over dale and hill.
Ketkrókur – Meat-Hook
Arrives: 23 December
Leaves: 5 January
Meat Hook, the twelfth one,
his talent would display
as soon as he arrived
on Saint Thorlak’s Day.
He snagged himself a morsel
of meat of any sort,
although his hook at times was
a tiny bit short.
I’m a told a favorite meat is lamb. The 23rd is also St. Thorlak’s Day, the patron saint of Iceland.
Kertasníkir – Candle Beggar (Or Candle Stealer)
Arrives: 24 December
Leaves: 6 January
The thirteenth was Candle Beggar
– ‘twas cold, I believe,
if he was not the last
of the lot on Christmas Eve.
He trailed after the little ones
who, like happy sprites,
ran about the farm with
their fine tallow lights.
Candles at this time, were once made of tallow and thus edible. It is little wonder that Candle Beggar is often the most favorite of the Yule Lads and seen as being the most generous as he comes on the last day just before Christmas. Some children will leave a candle out for Kertasnikir next to their shoe.
Lost Yule Lads & Lasses
More recent times sees the Yule Lads numbering as thirteen in all. This wasn’t always so and there were a few others, that were once part of their number.
Flórsleikir – His name translates as “dung channel licker.” Luckily this has something to do with the channel in the cowshed.
Flotsokka – One of two sisters who would place a piece of fat on a half-knitted sock or stuff a piece of fat up her nose. Eww!?!
Flotnös – The second of two sisters who would place a piece of fat on a half-knitted sock or stuff a piece of fat up her nose. Eww!?!
Lampshadow – He would go and put out all of the lights.
Litlipungur – His name translates to mean “small balls”. What he did, I’m not sure I want to know.
Lungnaslettir – Or Lung Flapper, he gets his name from his penchant for walking around with a set of still wet sheep lungs and hitting anyone who gets in his way.
Smoke Gulper – He would sit on the roof and swallow the smoke coming from the chimney.
Bunch of weirdos.