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Mictecacihuatl

Pronunciation: Mikt-eyk-as-see-wahl or Misk-tesk-ei-siev-alth

Alternate Spelling: Mictlantecihuatl

Also Known As: Lady of the Dead, Queen of Mictlan

Etymology: Lady of the Dead (Nahuatl)

Mictecacihuatl is the Aztec goddess of the dead and Mictlantecuhtli‘s wife. Together the two rule over the nine layers of the Aztec Underworld and it’s nine rivers. Compared to her husband, Mictecacihuatl doesn’t have much for stories and myths surrounding her. But that could be if we’re just seeing male and female half of the same divine concept with similar, overlapping functions and roles.

Attributes

Animal: Bat, Dog, Owl, Spider

Direction: North

Element: Earth

Month: Tititl (Aztec), November

Patron of: Death, the Dead

Plant: Cempasúchil (Marigold)

Planet: Pluto

Sphere of Influence: Death, Resurrection

Symbols: Bones, Skeletons

Aztec Depictions

Mictecacihuatl is described as wearing a skirt made of snakes, sagging breasts, skull face and clawed feet for digging her way through the earth. She is also shown as being flayed, having no flesh on her body and her mouth open to swallow the stars during the day so that they become invisible. Mictecacihuatl can also be shown as a beautiful woman wearing traditional Aztec clothing and the skull face being more ritualistically painted on.

What’s In A Name

As previously mentioned, Mictecacihuatl’s name translates to “Lady of the Dead” in the Nahuatl language.

Family

Parents – Unknown, it is believed that when Mictlantecuhtli was born, that her parents sacrificed the infant.

SpouseMictlantecuhtli, the Lord of Mictlan.

Aztec Cosmology

Suns – This is a big one in Aztec Cosmology, the Aztecs believed in a cycle of suns or periods of creation. The fourth sun ended with a great deluge or flood that drowned everyone and that the current age is the fifth sun.

There were a number of different paradises or afterlives in Aztec belief. The manner of a person’s death would determine which of these paradises they got to enter. Any person who failed to get into these paradises would find themselves destined for Mictlan.

Fairly common in many world beliefs, the Aztecs divided the cosmos into three parts. The Heavens or Ilhuicac at the top with the Earth or Tlalticpac, being the land of the living found in the middle. Mictlan, the Underworld would be found below.

Depending on the manner of one’s death, would depend on which after life a person to. Mictlan was pretty much seen as the place for all souls who couldn’t get into one of the paradises.

Cosmic Origins

In the Aztec Creation story, there were Ometecuhtli and his wife Omecihuatl who bore four children Xipe Totec, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, and Huitzilopochtli.

And…. Nothing really happens for about 600 years, so the four children decide that they will set about creating the universe. That of course includes creating the Sun, the first man and woman, maize, and calendar. Mictlantecuhtli and Mictecacihuatl, the Lord and Lady of Death would be created last.

Deific Origins

Mictecacihuatl’s origins are a bit gruesome. When Mictecacihuat was a baby, she was sacrificed and it is there in the Underworld of Mictlan, that she quickly grew to adulthood and married Mictlantecuhtli and from there, would rule over the Underworld with him.

Keeper Of Bones – Resurrection

One of Mictecacihuatl’s functions within Aztec religion is that she kept watch over the bones of the dead. For the Aztecs, skeletons and bones were symbols of abundance, fertility, and health. You couldn’t have one without the other.

Both Mictecacihuatl and Mictlantecuhtli collect bones so that the other Aztec gods might bring them back to life. The mixing up of all of these various bones is also what allows for the creation of new races.

Lord Of The Underworld – Mictlan

With the Christian mindset, the Underworld, any Underworld does not sound like a happy fun place to be or go.

Not quite in Aztec beliefs, most everyone who died, went to Mictlan. When a person died, they would be buried with grave goods that they would carry with them on their travels to Mictlan. These goods would be offered up to Mictlantecutli and Mictecacihuatl.

As the newly dead started their journey to Mictlan, they would be accompanied by a small dog who guided them. Mictlan was known to be located somewhere far to the North. Much like in other world myths and beliefs, the Realm of the Dead is pretty much just neutral, not necessarily evil. Mictlan is divided into nine different levels or layers that the dead must travel through and a series of tests they must do on a four-year journey down to Mictlan. We are talking having to run from various monsters, icy blasts known as the “winds of obsidian,” traverse a mountain range where the mountains crash into each other, and to cross the nine rivers of blood guarded by jaguars. Once the soul arrived, they would dissolve, vanishing forever.

Home Sweet Home – While Mictlan is divided into nine different levels, Mictlantecutli and Mictecacihuatl live in the last few levels. One legend holds that there is a place of white flowers that was forever dark and served as home to the gods of death.

The actual house or dwelling place that Mictlantecutli and Mictecacihuatl live at in the Mictlan is reputed to have no windows.

Vaticanus Codex – In this Colonial codex, Mictlantecutli is identified and labelled by the Spanish as “the Lord of the Underworld, Tzitzimitl” and equated with the Christian Lucifer.

Mictlampa

This is the name the Aztecs used for the northern direction associated with Mictlanteculhtli. The northern direction is where the Aztecs believed the land of the dead to be. This would be a region of the earth that was a dark, barren and cold place that was eternally still and quiet. Which makes sense for the Artic. Sometimes, Mictlanteculhtli could be associated with the south, just as equally likely if one were to make it to Antarctica, that’s pretty cold and lifeless the further inland you get.

Souls Of The Dead

The Aztecs recognized three types of souls and Mictlantecutli governed over all of them.

  1. People who died of normal deaths as in old age and disease
  • People who died heroic deaths such as in battle, sacrifices and childbirth
  • People who died non-heroic deaths, accidents and suicides

While this sounds like every soul ends up in Mictlan, a soul could end up in another place. For example, if someone died violently drowning or lighting, they would end up in Tlalocan (a realm in the Heavens), for the Tlaloc, the water god.

Deific Offerings

Like many cultures, the Aztecs buried their dead with offerings for the afterlife, namely for Mictlantecuhtl and Mictlantecutli. These items would be offerings of food and various ceremonial or precious items.

Cempasúchil – Also called Flor de Muertos and Marigold, specifically Mexican Marigold in English, these flowers are held sacred to Mictlantecuhtl. These orange & yellow blossom’s scent is thought to be able to wake the souls of the dead and bring them back for a Dia De los Muertos in autumn. Many alters, graveyards and decorations would be festooned with these flowers. The Mexican Marigold is a familiar wild flower that grows in many places of central Mexico.

Aztec Calendar

In the Aztec Calendar, Mictecacihuatl was honored and celebrated throughout the ninth month, a 20-day period that roughly corresponds to the Gregorian calendar of late July and early August. When Spanish Conquistadors arrived in 1519, Mictecacihuatl’s corresponding holiday of Hueymiccaylhuitl was moved forward to October 31st to November 2nd to correspond with the Catholic observance of All Saint’s Day.

Hueymiccaylhuitl

An Aztec holiday, the “Great Feast of the Dead” was celebrated for the recently deceased and to help them on their journey to Mictlan. Hueymiccaylhuitl would be celebrated in the Aztec month of Tititl where an impersonator or stand-in for the god Mictlantecuhtli would be sacrificed.

When someone died, the Aztecs would cremate the remains. It was believed that the soul would than undertake a four-year journey to Mictlan through the various levels of the Underworld and needing to pass a series of trials. Those who succeeded would make it to the lowest levels of Mictlan.

Hueymiccaylhuitl was also celebrated as an annual celebration as it was believed the dead could return to the lands of the living and visit. Plus, it was a way for the living to help those on their journey as the living could communicate with the deceased souls.

When the Spanish Conquistadors arrived, bringing Catholicism with them, the traditions of Hueymiccaylhuitl transformed, becoming known as Día de los Muertos, the Day of the Dead. Families still leave offerings of food and goods for the dead to take with them on their journey.

Under more modern and current celebrations and influence from the Catholic church, Día de los Muertos coincides with All Saints’ Day or Feast of All Saints on November 1st. It is a celebration that combines imagery from Aztec beliefs with an air of carnival and festivities with families gathering at cemeteries to share a picnic meal with deceased loved ones and sugar skulls in the image of Mictlantecuhtli.

Month-Long Celebration

Mictecacihuatl had a month-long celebration for her. However, not much is known about it and all Archaeologists and historians know for certain is that there was song and dancing, incense burnt and very likely blood sacrifices.

Dia Los Muertes

Mictecacihuatl not only have presided over the older Aztec celebrations for the dead but continues to watch over the contemporary festivals of Día de los Muertos or the Day of the Dead. Celebrations and observances for this holiday start on the evening of October 31st, coinciding with the holidays of Halloween and Samhain. In Mexican tradition, families will hold graveside vigils with deceased loved ones. Then on November 1st and 2nd, the dead are said to awaken and celebrate with their living family and friends.

Santa Muerte – Mexico

A female deity, early images of her started off as male. Santa Muerte is a folk saint whose worship and popularity has been increasing since the start of the 21st century in Mexico and has been spreading. Devotees of Santa Muerte may or may not be disenfranchised with the Catholic Religion and many turn to her for healing, protection, and a safe passage to the afterlife.

Mictlantecutli

Pronunciation: Mict-lan-te-cuht-li

Alternate Spelling: Mictlantecihuatl

Other names: Chicunauhmictlan (“King of Mictlan”)

Etymology: “Lord of Mictlan”

Mictlantecutli is the Aztec deity who is the Lord of the Dead and ruler of the Aztec Underworld known as Mictlan. Which is exactly what Mictlantecutli’s name translates to, “Lord of Mictlan.”

Just to get it out of the way, Mictlantecuhtli’s wife is Mictecacihuatl, who is also the ruler of the dead.

Attributes

Animal: Bat, Dog, Owl, Spider

Direction: North

Element: Earth

Month: Tititl (Aztec)

Patron of: Death, the Dead

Planet: Pluto

Sphere of Influence: Death

Symbols: Bones, Skeletons, Paper

Time: 11th Hour

Aztec Depictions

Mictlantecutli is often represented as either a skeleton or a human figure wearing a skull. His headdress will often have owl feathers on it. When shown as a skeleton, Michlantechutli’s headdress will have knives in it to represent the wind of knives that the souls of the dead must pass through on their way to Mictlan. Michlantechutli when shown as a skeleton may be shown covered or splattered in blood and wearing a necklace of eyeballs or wearing paper clothing. Paper being a common offering for the dead. As human, Michlantechutli would have human bones serving as ear plugs that he wears.

Additional depictions of Michlantechutli show him wearing sandals to symbolize his high rank as the Lord of Mictlan. Michlantechutli could also be shown with his arm held out in an aggressive pose, showing he was ready to tear apart the dead as they came into his presence and realm. There is also an Aztec Codice that shows Michlantechutli as having his skeletal jaw wide open to take in the stars into him during the day.

What’s In A Name

Mictlantecutli’s name translates to “Lord of Mictlan” in the Nahuatl language.

Family

Parents – Not really, Mictlantecuhtli was created by Xipe Totec, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, and Huitzilopochtli when they were busy creating the universe and world.

Spouse – Mictecacihuatl, the Queen and Ruler of the Dead. Another spelling I have for her is Mictlantecihuatl.

Aztec Cosmology

Suns – This is a big one in Aztec Cosmology, the Aztecs believed in a cycle of suns or periods of creation. The fourth sun ended with a great deluge or flood that drowned everyone and that the current age is the fifth sun.

There were a number of different paradises or afterlives in Aztec belief. The manner of a person’s death would determine which of these paradises they got to enter. Any person who failed to get into these paradises would find themselves destined for Mictlan.

Fairly common in many world beliefs, the Aztecs divided the cosmos into three parts. The Heavens or Ilhuicac at the top with the Earth or Tlalticpac, being the land of the living found in the middle. Mictlan, the Underworld would be found below.

Depending on the manner of one’s death, would depend on which after life a person to. Mictlan was pretty much seen as the place for all souls who couldn’t get into one of the paradises.

Cosmic Origins

In the Aztec Creation story, there were Ometecuhtli and his wife Omecihuatl who bore four children Xipe Totec, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, and Huitzilopochtli.

And…. Nothing really happens for about 600 years, so the four children decide that they will set about creating the universe. That of course includes creating the Sun, the first man and woman, maize, and calendar. Mictlantecuhtli and Mictecacihuatl, the Lord and Lady of Death would be created last.

Lord Of The Underworld – Mictlan

With the Christian mindset, the Underworld, any Underworld does not sound like a happy fun place to be or go.

Not quite in Aztec beliefs, most everyone who died, went to Mictlan. When a person died, they would be buried with grave goods that they would carry with them on their travels to Mictlan. These goods would be offered up to Mictlantecutli and Mictecacihuatl.

As the newly dead started their journey to Mictlan, they would be accompanied by a small dog who guided them. Mictlan was known to be located somewhere far to the North. Much like in other world myths and beliefs, the Realm of the Dead is pretty much just neutral, not necessarily evil. Mictlan is divided into nine different levels or layers that the dead must travel through and a series of tests they must do on a four-year journey down to Mictlan. We are talking having to run from various monsters, icy blasts known as the “winds of obsidian,” traverse a mountain range where the mountains crash into each other, and to cross the nine rivers of blood guarded by jaguars. Once the soul arrived, they would dissolve, vanishing forever.

Home Sweet Home – While Mictlan is divided into nine different levels, Mictlantecutli and Mictecacihuatl live in the last few levels. One legend holds that there is a place of white flowers that was forever dark and served as home to the gods of death.

The actual house or dwelling place that Mictlantecutli and Mictecacihuatl live at in the Mictlan is reputed to have no windows.

Vaticanus Codex – In this Colonial codex, Mictlantecutli is identified and labelled by the Spanish as “the Lord of the Underworld, Tzitzimitl” and equated with the Christian Lucifer.

Mictlampa

This is the name the Aztecs used for the northern direction associated with Mictlanteculhtli. The northern direction is where the Aztecs believed the land of the dead to be. This would be a region of the earth that was a dark, barren and cold place that was eternally still and quiet. Which makes sense for the Artic. Sometimes, Mictlanteculhtli could be associated with the south, just as equally likely if one were to make it to Antarctica, that’s pretty cold and lifeless the further inland you get.

Souls Of The Dead

The Aztecs recognized three types of souls and Mictlantecutli governed over all of them.

  1. People who died of normal deaths as in old age and disease
  • People who died heroic deaths such as in battle, sacrifices and childbirth
  • People who died non-heroic deaths, accidents and suicides

While this sounds like every soul ends up in Mictlan, a soul could end up in another place. For example, if someone died violently drowning or lighting, they would end up in Tlalocan (a realm in the Heavens), for the Tlaloc, the water god.

Aztec Calendar

In the Aztec Calendar, Mictlanteculhtli is associated with the tenth day sign Itzcuintli, a dog. There were twenty such signs in the Aztec calendar. On the day that a particular deity is associated with, that deity was were responsible for providing the souls born on that day.

In addition, Mictlanteculhtli was the source of all souls born on the sixth day of a 13-day week. That is an exceedingly long weekend to work towards.

Mictlanteculhtli presided as the second Week Deity for the tenth week of a twenty-week calendar cycle.

Aztec Gods

Of the Aztec Gods as a whole, Mictlanteculhtli is the fifth out of nine Night Deities.

As a Night God, Mictlanteculhtli would be paired up with the Sun god Tonatiuh to symbolize the duality and dichotomy of light and darkness.

He was also the secondary Week God for the tenth week of the twenty-week cycle of the calendar, joining the sun god Tonatiuh to symbolize the dichotomy of light and darkness.

Dualities – Light & Dark

While we are on this subject, where Mictlantecutli and Mictecacihuatl represented Death; they are the complements and opposites to Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl who represented Life.

Fertility – Life & Death

By modern, Western aesthetics, Mictlanteculhtli is not the only Aztec deity to be shown with skeletal imagery or bones. For the Aztecs, skeletons and bones were symbols of abundance, fertility, and health. You couldn’t have one without the other.

Bats

As they only come out at night and often from caves, bats have been associated with Mictlanteculhtli and the Underworld.

Dogs

Due to the tenth day sign Itzcuintli, a dog, they are also associated with Mictlanteculhtli. It also seems fairly coincidental enough too as even in Europe, dogs as in Black Dogs are often associated with death and being psychopomps to lead the souls of the dead to the afterlife.

Owls

In Aztec beliefs, the owl is associated with death and thus one of Michlantechutli’s animals. Michlantechutli is often shown wearing owl feathers on his headdress.

Spiders

Another animal associated with death and darkness; they too have been associated with Mictlanteculhtli.

Ritual Sacrifices

A good portion of the Aztec belief system involved a lot of ritual blood sacrifices. Mictlantecuhtli was no different. Sacrifices made to Mictlantecuhtli were performed at night with a person being a stand in or avatar, representative for the god of death. They would be sacrificed at the Tlalxicco temple, whose name means “navel of the world.”

The flayed skins of humans would be offered up to Mictlantecuhtli and it is said that ritual cannibalism was done at the temple too.

Fun Fact – When Hernan Cortes landed on the shore of Central America, the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II thought that this was the deity Quetzalcoatl who had arrived. Thinking that this was the end of the world, Moctezuma II increased the number of human sacrifices believing that this would allow him to appease Mictlantecuhtli and avoid the torments of Mictlan.

Aztec Creation Story

In Aztec myths and beliefs, the world has been created and destroyed a few times.

In this case, the gods Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl had just finished with restoring the sky and earth when they decide that they need to create people to populate this new fifth world. Since Michlantechutli has all the bones, Quetzalcoatl travels to him to inquire about getting some bones. Michlantechutli agrees to the condition that Quetzalcoatl travel around the Underworld four times while sounding a conch shell horn. The catch is that Michlantechutli gives Quetzalcoatl a shell that doesn’t have any holes drilled into it.

Quetzalcoatl fixes this problem by summoning some worms who drill holes into the conch shell and then having bees fly into the shell. When Michlantechutli hears Quetzalcoatl blowing the conch horn, he is obligated to fulfill his end of the agreement. However Michlantechutli decides to go back on his word to keep the bones. Quetzalcoatl is forced to flee, taking the bones with him and Michlantechutli sends his minions, the Micteca after the other god. The Micteca dig a deep pit and as Quetzalcoatl is running, a quail jumps out, startling Quetzalcoatl so that he falls into the pit and dies with the bones all shattering. This is why people will be different sizes.

One retelling has the quail tormenting Quetzalcoatl before he seemingly dies and then gnaws on all the bones, making that the reason why humans will be in different sizes.

Quetzalcoatl does eventually revive, being a god and takes the bones to the goddess Cihuacoatl who grinds up the bones and puts them into a special container. The other gods now gather around this container and cut themselves to shed blood into it. From this mixture, the humans of today came forth to populate the earth.

Variation – One version of the myths I came across is that it is both Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl who come to claim bones from Mictlantecuhtli and that these were the bones of previous deities who had lived and died.

Hueymiccaylhuitl

An Aztec holiday, the “Great Feast of the Dead” was celebrated for the recently deceased and to help them on their journey to Mictlan. Hueymiccaylhuitl would be celebrated in the Aztec month of Tititl where an impersonator or stand-in for the god Mictlantecuhtli would be sacrificed.

When someone died, the Aztecs would cremate the remains. It was believed that the soul would than undertake a four-year journey to Mictlan through the various levels of the Underworld and needing to pass a series of trials. Those who succeeded would make it to the lowest levels of Mictlan.

Hueymiccaylhuitl was also celebrated as an annual celebration as it was believed the dead could return to the lands of the living and visit. Plus, it was a way for the living to help those on their journey as the living could communicate with the deceased souls.

When the Spanish Conquistadors arrived, bringing Catholicism with them, the traditions of Hueymiccaylhuitl transformed, becoming known as Día de los Muertos, the Day of the Dead. Families still leave offerings of food and goods for the dead to take with them on their journey.

Under more modern and current celebrations and influence from the Catholic church, Día de los Muertos coincides with All Saints’ Day or Feast of All Saints on November 1st. It is a celebration that combines imagery from Aztec beliefs with an air of carnival and festivities with families gathering at cemeteries to share a picnic meal with deceased loved ones and sugar skulls in the image of Mictlantecuhtli.

Syno-Deities

Santa Muerte – Mexico

A female deity, early images of her started off as male. Santa Muerte is a folk saint whose worship and popularity has been increasing since the start of the 21st century in Mexico and has been spreading. Devotees of Santa Muerte may or may not be disenfranchised with the Catholic Religion and many turn to her for healing, protection and a safe passage to the afterlife.

Ah Puch – Mayan

Also known as Yum Cimil, the Mayan god of Death, seen as similar to Mictlantecuhtli.

Coqui Bezelao – Zapotec

Another god of Death similar to Mictlantecuhtli in Central to South America.

Kedo – Zapotec

Another god of Death that Mictlantecuhtli has been equated with.

Tihuime – Tarascan

Another god of Death similar to Mictlantecuhtli in Central America.

Medeina

Etymology – medis “tree” or medė “forest” Lithuanian

Pronunciation: myeh-dyay-NU

Also Called: Medeinė, Meidein, Meidene, Žvorūna, Žvorūnė, vilkmergė (“She-Wolf”)

Medeina is the Lithuanian goddess of the forest and hunt in the Baltic region. As a goddess of the hunt, Medeina has been compared to the Grecian Artemis or Roman Diana.

Attributes

Animal: Bear, Hare, Wolf

Month: August

Planet: Moon

Sphere of Influence: Forests, Wildlife

Lithuanian Depictions

The first images of Medeina show her as a bear.

Lithuanian scholar, Algirdas Julius Greimas says that Medeina is single, a virgin goddess much like Artemis or Diana. Greimas describes her as a beautiful, young and voluptuous huntress who is accompanied by wolves.

Worship

When seen as a bear, Medeina’s worshipers dressed in bear skins during a Winter Solstice ritual.

The scholar, Vykintas Vaitkevičius is reported to have identified five Hare Churches and ten Wolf-Footprints in Eastern Lithuania that are sacred to Medeina. The churches are sacred stones, hills and forests while the paw prints are stones with hollows that look like a paw print.

After the Baptism of Lithuania, Medeina’s cult and worship went in decline.

Her name day is August 21st in Lithuania.

Goddess Of The Hunt/Forest Protector

Whele Medeina is seen as a goddess of the hunt, her actual role is that of protecting the wild animals in the forest from hunters. One way that she would do this is to send out a rabbit or hare to misdirect hunters and get them to chase it.

As Medeina protected the wildlife from Hunters, she was often seen as having dual benign and malign traits. As if scholars couldn’t decide if she were divine or demonic in nature.

The first animal caught in spring would be sacrificed to Medeina.

Shape-Shifter

Medeina is known to take a couple of different forms. The first is that of a young woman, the second is that of a wolf. In her wolf form, Medeina leads a pack of wolves.

Hypatian Codex

A Russian chronicle that dates to around 1252, according to this text, Medeina is one of the pagan deities that was worshiped by the Lithuanian King Mindaugas. Here, Medeina is an unnamed hare goddess.

This text has caused some scholarly discussions whether the name Medeina is the name of the hare goddess or if there are two different goddesses with the same name.

Military Prowess & Might

Any early role of Medeina was in the military aspects of warriors. Medeina would later be replaced by Zemyna, the goddess of Earth who represents agriculture and peasants.

Juodas Kudlotas

I could not find much on this entity. The Juodas kudlotas which translates from “juodas” for black and “kudlotas” for hair is some sort of cross between a hairy animal and a human being, much like sightings of Big Foot or Sasquatch in the U.S. This is a creature that lives in the forests and finds favor with Medeina.

Syno-Deities

Artemis – The Greek goddess of the Hunt.

Diana – The Roman goddess of the Hunt.

Meža Mate – The Forest Mother, she is another goddess associated with Medeina.

Žvorūnė – Also called Žvorūna from the word “žvėris” meaning “beast,” is a Lithuanian goddess of hunting and animals. She is a goddess made mention of in the Malala Chronicle and Chronicle of Ipatius. She has been equated with Medeina. There’s some speculation that Žvoruna may be an epitaph of Medeina and that there might be an older hunting goddess who has since been forgotten.

Viracocha

Also Called: Wiracocha, Wiro Qocha, Wiraqoca, Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra, Huiracocha, Ticciviracocha, and Con-Tici

Etymology: “Sea Foam”

Epitaphs: Ilya (Light), Ticci (Beginning), Tunuupa, Wiraqoca Pacayacaciq (Instructor)

In Incan and Pre-Incan mythology, Viracocha is the Creator Deity of the cosmos. As a Creator deity, Viracocha is one of the most important gods within the Incan pantheon. Everything stems ultimately from his creation. The universe, Sun, Moon and Stars, right down to civilization itself. Similar to other primordial deities, Viracocha is also associated with the oceans and seas as the source of all life and creation. If it exists, Viracocha created it. Something of a remote god who left the daily grind and workings of the world to other deities, Viracocha was mainly worshiped by the Incan nobility, especially during times of crisis and trouble.

Attributes

Direction: North

Element: Water

Metal: Gold

Month: January

Patron of: Creation

Planet: Sun, Saturn

Sphere of Influence: Creation, Ocean, Storms, Lightning, Rain, Oracles, Language, Ethics, Fertility

Incan Depictions

In Incan art, Viracocha has been shown wearing the Sun as a crown and holding thunder bolts in both hands while tears come from his eyes representing rain. There is a sculpture of Viracocha identified at the ruins of Tiwanaku near Lake Titicaca that shows him weeping.

Under Spanish influence, for example, a Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa describes Viracocha as a man of average height, white with a white robe and carrying a staff and book in each hand. The Spanish described Viracocha as being the most important of the Incan gods who, being invisible was nowhere, yet everywhere.

In the village of Ollantaytambo in southern Peru, there is a rock facing in the Incan ruins depicts a version of Viracocha known as Wiracochan or Tunupa. This rock carving has been described as having mouth, eyes and nose in an angry expression wearing a crown and by some artists saying the image also has a beard and carrying a sack on its shoulders.

Another figure called Tunupa found in Ollantaytambo was described by Fernando and Edgar Elorrieta Salazar.

What’s In A Name?

Viracocha’s name has been given as meaning “Sea Foam” and alludes to how often many of the stories involving him, have him walking away across the sea to disappear.  When we look into the Quechuan language, alternative names for Viracocha are Tiqsi Huiracocha which can have several meanings. The first part of the name, “tiqsi” can have the meanings of foundation or base. The second part of the name, “wira” mean fat and the third part of the name, “qucha” means lake, sea or reservoir. An interpretation for the name Wiraqucha could mean “Fat or Foam of the Sea.”

Continued historical and archaeological linguistics show that Viracocha’s name could be borrowed from the Aymara language for the name Wila Quta meaning: “wila” for blood and “quta” for lake due to the sacrifices of llamas at Lake Titiqaqa by the pre-Incan Andean cultures in the area.

Viracocha also has several epitaphs that he’s known by that mean Great, All Knowing and Powerful to name a few. Another epitaph is “Tunuupa” that in both the Aymara and Quechua languages breaks down into “Tunu” for a mill or central support pillar and “upa” meaning the bearer or the one who carries. This is a reference to time and the keeping track of time in Incan culture. The other interpretation for the name is “the works that make civilization.”

Further, with the epitaph “Tunuupa,” it likely is a name borrowed from the Bolivian god Thunupa, who is also a creator deity and god of the thunder and weather. Another god is Illapa, also a god of the weather and thunder that Viracocha has been connected too.

Incan Culture & Religion

The Incan culture found in western South America was a very culturally rich and complex society when they were encountered by the Spanish Conquistadors and explorers during their Age of Conquest, roughly 1500 to 1550 C.E.

The Inca held a vast empire that reached from the present-day Colombia to Chile. Their emperor ruled from the city of Cuzco. They worshiped a small pantheon of deities that included Viracocha, the Creator, Inti, the Sun and Chuqui Illa, the Thunder. The constellations that the Incans identified were all associated with celestial animals. The Incans also worshiped places and things that were given extraordinary qualities. These places and things were known as huacas and could include a cave, waterfalls, rivers and even rocks with a notable shape. Essentially these are sacred places.

In the city of Cuzco, there was a temple dedicated to Viracocha. There was a gold statue representing Viracocha inside the Temple of the Sun. Nearby was a local huaca in the form of a stone sacred to Viracocha where sacrifices of brown llamas were notably made. During the festival of Camay that occurred in time of year corresponding to the month of January, offerings were also made to Viracocha that would be tossed into a river and carried away to him. Hymns and prayers dedicated to Viracocha also exist that often began with “O’ Creator.”

Like many cosmic deities, Viracocha was probably identified with the Milky Way as it resembles a great river. His throne was said to be in the sky. All the Sun, Moon and Star deities deferred and obeyed Viracocha’s decrees.

Deific Late Comer

Old and ancient as Viracocha and his worship appears to be, Viracocha likely entered the Incan pantheon as a late comer. Mostly likely in 1438 C.E. during the reign of Emperor Viracocha who took on the god’s name for his own.

For a quasi-historical list of Incan rulers, the eighth ruler took his name from the god Viracocha. According to story, Viracocha appeared in a dream to the king’s son and prince, whom, with the god’s help, raised an army to defend the city of Cuzco when it was attacked by the Chanca. This prince would become the ninth Incan ruler, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui. He is thought to have lived about 1438 to 1470 C.E. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui is the ruler is renowned for the Temple of Viracocha and the Temple of the Sun along with the expansion of the Incan empire.

Record Keepers

The Incas didn’t keep any written records. Like many other ancient cultures, there were those responsible for remembering the oral histories and to pass it on. Aiding them in this endeavor, the Incans used sets of knotted strings known as quipus number notations. By this means, the Incan creation myths and other stories would be kept and passed on.

In a comparison to the Roman empire, the Incan were also very tolerant of other religions, so those people whom they either conquered or absorbed into their empire would find their beliefs and deities easily accepted and adapted into Incan religion. One such deity is Pacha Kamaq, a chthonic creator deity revered by the Ichma in southern Peru whose myth was adopted to the Incan creation myths. At the same time, the Incan religion would be thrust on those they conquered and absorbed.

On one hand, yes, we can appreciate the Spanish Conquistadors and the chroniclers they brought with them for getting these myths and history written down. They did suffer from the fallacy of being biased with believing they were hearing dangerous heresies and would treat all the creation myths and other stories accordingly. Which is why many of the myths can and do end up with a Christian influence and the idea of a “white god” is introduced.

Parentage and Family

Parents

Unknown, Incan culture and myths make mention of Viracocha as a survivor of an older generation of gods that no one knows much about.

Consort

Mama Qucha – She is mentioned as Viracocha’s wife in some myth retellings.

Children

Daughters – Mama Killa, Pachamama

Sons – Inti, Imahmana, Tocapo

Sun & Storm God

Viracocha was worshipped by the Incans as both a Sun and Storm god, which makes sense in his role as a Creation deity. The sun is the source of light by which things can grow and without rain, nothing has what it takes to even grow in the first place.

Cosmic Myths In The Rain

Many of the stories that we have of Incan mythology were recorded by Juan de Betanzos. Naturally, being Spanish, these stories would gain a Christian influence to them.

Rise Of A Deity – In this story, Viracocha first rose up from the waters of Lake Titicaca or the Cave of Paqariq Tampu. This was during a time of darkness that would bring forth light. It is at this time that Viracocha makes the sun, the moon and stars. He then goes to make humans by breathing life into stones. The first of these creations were mindless giants that displeased Viracocha so he destroyed them in a flood. After the destruction of the giants, Viracocha breathed life into smaller stones to get humans that dispersed over the earth.

Taking A Leave Of Absence – Eventually, Viracocha would take his leave of people by heading out over the Pacific Ocean where he walked on the water. He wouldn’t stay away forever as Viracocha is said to have returned as a beggar, teaching humans the basics for civilization and performing a number of miracles. People weren’t inclined to listen to Viracocha’s teaching and eventually fell into infighting and wars. Despite this, Viracocha would still appear to his people in times of trouble.

Incan Flood – As the All-Creator, Viracocha had already created the Earth, Sky and the first people. Giants. There wasn’t any Sun yet at this point. These first people defied Viracocha, angering him such that he decided to kill them all in a flood. This flood lasted for 60 days and nights. This great flood came and drowned everyone, all save two who had hidden themselves in a box. The flood water carried the box holding the two down to the shores of Tihuanaco.

Seeing that there were survivors, Viracocha decided to forgive the two, Manco Cápac, the son of Inti (or Viracocha) and Mama Uqllu who would establish the Incan civilization. Viracocha created more people this time, much smaller to be human beings from clay. These people, Viracocha taught language, songs and civilization too before sending them out into the world through underground passages. It is now, that Viracocha would create the Sun, Moon and stars to illuminate the night sky.

Another legend says that Viracocha fathered the first eight humans from which civilization would arise. Some of these stories will mention Mama Qucha as Viracocha’s wife.

The Cañari People – Hot on the heels of the flood myth is a variation told by the Cañari people how two brothers managed to escape Viracocha’s flood by climbing up a mountain. After the water receded, the two made a hut. Some time later, the brothers would come home to find that food and drink had been left there for them. This would happen a few more times to peak the curiosity of the brothers who would hide.

Two women would arrive, bringing food. When the brothers came out, the women ran away. The two then prayed to Viracocha, asking that the women return. Viracocha heard and granted their prayer so the women returned. It is from these people, that the Cañari people would come to be.

The Creation of People – Dove tailing on the previous story, Viracocha has created a number of people, humans to send out and populate the Earth. These people, known as Vari Viracocharuna, were left inside the earth, Viracocha created another set of people known as viracohas and it is there people that the god spoke to learn the different aspects and characteristics of the previous group of people he created. The viracochas then headed off to the various caves, streams and rivers, telling the other people that it was time to come forth and populate the land.

Teaching Humankind – This story takes place after the stories of Creation and the Great Flood. Viracocha sends his two sons, Imahmana and Tocapo to visit the tribes to the Northeast or Andesuyo and Northwest or Condesuvo. Viracocha headed straight north towards the city of Cuzco. The intent was to see who would listen to Viracocha’s commands. As the two brothers traveled, they named all the various trees, flowers and plants, teaching the tribes which were edible, which had medicinal properties and which ones were poisonous. Eventually, the three would arrive at the city of Cusco, found in modern-day Peru and the Pacific coast. Here, they would head out, walking over the water to disappear into the horizon.

The Canas People – A side story to the previous one, after Viracocha sent his sons off to go teach the people their stories and teach civilization. As Viracocha traveled north, he would wake people who hadn’t been woken up yet, he passed through the area where the Canas people were. When they emerged from the Earth, they refused to recognize Viracocha. This angered the god as the Canas attacked him and Viracocha caused a nearby mountain to erupt, spewing down fire on the people. Realizing their error, the Canas threw themselves at Viracocha’s feet, begging for his forgiveness which he gave.

Founding The City Of Cuzco – Viracocha continues on to the mountain Urcos where he gave the people there a special statue and founded the city of Cuzco. He would then call forth the Orejones or “big-ears” as they placed large golden discs in their earlobes. These Orejones would become the nobility and ruling class of Cuzco.

His tasks done, Viracocha would head off into the ocean, walking out over it with the other Viracocha joining him. One final bit of advice would be given, to beware of those false men who would claim that they were Viracocha returned.

Right Of Conquest – In this story, Viracocha appeared before Manco Capac, the first Incan ruler, the god gave him a headdress and battle-axe, informing the Manco that the Inca would conquer everyone around them.

Christian Connection

Yes, it’s easy to see how incoming Spaniards would equate Viracocha with Christ and likely influenced many of the myths with a Christian flair.

White God – This is a reference to Viracocha that clearly shows how the incoming Spanish Conquistadors and scholars coming in, learning about local myths instantly equated Viracocha with the Christian god. At first, in the 16th century, early Spanish chroniclers and historians make no mention of Viracocha. In 1553, Pedro Cieza de Leon is the first chronicler to describe Viracocha as a “white god” who has a beard.

It must be noted that in the native legends of the Incas, that there is no mention of Viracocha’s whiteness or beard, causing most modern scholars to agree that it is likely a Spanish addition to the myths. Other deities in Central and South America have also been affected by the Western or European influence of their deities such as Quetzalcoatl from Aztec beliefs and Bochica from Muisca beliefs all becoming described as having beards.

Though that isn’t true of all the Central and South American cultures. Some like the Peruvian Moche culture have pottery that depicted bearded men. The Aché people in Paraguay are also known to have beards. Though the debates and controversy are on with scholars arguing when the arrival of European colonialism began to influence the various native cultures.

Ultimately, equating deities such as Viracocha with a “White God” were readily used by the Spanish Catholics to convert the locals to Christianity. Much of which involved replaced the word God with Viracocha.

Syno-Deities

Pacha Kamaq – The “Earth Maker”, a chthonic creator god worshiped by the Ichma people whose myth would later be adopted by the Inca.

Saturn – It is through Viracocha’s epitaph of Tunuupa that he has been equated with the Roman god Saturn who is a generational god of creation in Roman mythology and beliefs.

Thunupa – The creator god and god of thunder and weather of the Aymara-speaking people in Bolivia.

Ob-Ugrian Pantheon

The Ob-Ugrian Pantheon and mythology is part of the overall Siberian Mythology, Religions and beliefs. The Ugaric people themselves are the ancestors of the Khanty and Mansi people living in modern Hungary today. Many of whom are connected by linguistics rather than ethnicity.

Heini-Iki

Also known as Kul-iki, he is the god of the Underworld. Heini-iki is also the god of spirits and illnesses. He is the opposite of Numi-Torum, his brother the god of the heavens. Heini-iki is known to take the forms of a cat or dog and sometimes that of a fog that will hide a person from their guardian spirit.

The Khanties from the Surgut region describe Heini-iki as being black in color. In addition, animal sacrifices made to him were to be black in color. These sacrifices were believed to help prevent illnesses and diseases over taking people. To avoid attracting his attention, Heini-iki’s name was not spoken, especially among those sick or dying.

Jelping-Ja-Oyka

He is simply the antagonist to the hero Mir-Susne-Hum. Jelping-Ja-Oyka’s name means Spirit of Bear or Bear Spirit.

Kaltes-Ekwa

A Moon & Fertility goddess, Kaltes-Ekwa had been the ruler of the heavens until defeated by her husband Num-Torum and forced to come to earth to bear her son, Mir-Susne-Hum who would go on to become a great hero.

Mir-Susne-Hum

Also known as Mir-Setivi-Ho, Kan-iki or Otr-iki, they are a culture hero of the Samoyedic and Ugrian people. Mir-Susne-Hum is the seventh son of Num-Torum, the Supreme god of the Ugrian people. Having been born on earth, Mir-Susne-Hum is often the mediator between humans and his father, Num-Torum. In many of his adventures, Jelping-Ja-Oyka is an antagonist towards Mir-Susne-Hum. During one of his many stories, Mir-Susne-Hum received an iron horse with eight wings.

Num-Torum

Also known as Numi-Torem or Numi-Turum, he is the Supreme God of the Heavens of Father God of the Ugrian people. Num-Torum is the father of the Ugrian hero Mir-Susne-Hum and six other sons and one daughter. These sons also include Postajankt-iki. As to the rest of his family, Num-Torum’s siblings are: Hotel-Ekva, the Sun, Etposzojka, the Moon, Naj-Ekva, Fire, Kuly-Otir, the Underworld and of course, Kaltes-Ekwa, his wife and goddess of the Moon.

In Khanty beliefs, Num-Torum lives in the highest level of heaven, meaning it is difficult for people to contact him. As a result, his children such as Mir-Susne-Hum act as messengers to relay communication. Num-Torum is believed to live in a house of gold and silver with his seven sons.

Postajankt-Iki

Also known as Sorni-iki (The Golden Old Man,”) and Õi-shlapt-lah-hliotõ-iki. The later name is used by people if they want to keep Postajankt-iki from being frightened during offerings. Poor Postajankt-iki is that jumpy. He is easily startled whenever someone calls out his name. As a result it is not considered wise to call on this deity without reason as he gets angry if he thinks someone has called on him lightly or to make fun of him, just to see him jump.

The youngest son of Num-Torum, Postajankt-iki’s name means “The Fast Old Man.” He is known to ride a white horse.

Ani (Etruscan)

Also known as: Ala, Ala, Ale, Ale or Ana (Feminine)

In the lesser well-known Etruscan mythology, Ani is the god of the sky who lives in the heavens. A few scant sources link Ani as a god of the crossroads. Like his later, Roman counterpart, Janus, Ani is shown having two faces.

Attributes

Day of the Week: The first day of every month

Element: Air

Month: January

Patron of: Transitions, Travelers

Planet: Sun, Moon

Sphere of Influence: Crossroads, Past, Future

Symbols: Keys, Staff, Two-Faces, Doors, Archways, Gateways, Portals

Time: Morning

Etruscan Depictions

While there isn’t a whole lot known about the ancient Etruscans, the few imagery and statues of Ani that have been identified show him having two faces much like Janus.

Ani’s name is mentioned on the periphery of the Piacenza Liver. In Martianus Capella’s Tempum I, dedicated to Janus, the name Ani appears inscribed here.

Female Counterpart

There is a very similar, female deity to Ani, distinguished by the change of vowels to Ana.

Egyptian Connection?

Ani is listed as an Egyptian god of the Underworld, Tuat. There are tentative connections to Ani being the Lord of Festivals and the New Moon within the Egyptian beliefs. Lastly, Ani is mentioned in a hymn dedicated to Amen-Ra.

Aditi – Hindu Goddess

The Vedic goddess of Infinity, Aditi is depicted as having two faces. She is seen as the feminine form of Brahma. Like Janus, Aditi is invoked at the beginning of ceremonies and she concludes them as well.

Anu – Sumerian God

Among the ancient Akkadians, Anu is the god of the sky that Ani has been compared to.

Belinus – Chaldean God

Also called Baal-Ianus, a William Betham has made arguments that Janus’ cult would originate from the Middle East with the Chaldean culture.

Brahma – Hindu God

The imagery of double or four-faced deities in Hinduism is common. Brahma is the god who created the universe.

Culśanś – Etruscan God

In the little-known Etruscan mythology, Culśanś has been identified as being the counterpart to the Roman Janus. This connection seems more likely given Culśanś’ role as a god and protector of doorways and his depiction of having two faces.

Heimdallr – Nordic God

As guardian of the Bifrost bridge, the functions that Heimdallr has withstanding in a place between time and space have noted to be similar to Janus.

Isimud – Sumerian God

Also known as Usimu in Babylonian. A deity featuring two faces appears several times in Babylonian art. Isimud is the messenger of Enki.

Greek Connection – Which brings us to another point. However much the ancient Greeks and Romans tried to claim that Janus had no Middle Eastern connection, and that Janus is solely a Roman deity, there are some much later writers who would equate Hermes with Janus, especially during the Hellenistic era of Greek culture.

Janus – Roman God

The Roman god of Beginnings, Gates, Transitions, Time, Duality, Doorways, Frames, Portals, Passages and Endings. He is seen as a primordial deity to the ancient Romans who was there at the beginning of time and anything getting started to or created. Janus is very much so the Roman equivalent to Ani.

Svetovid – Slavic God

Depicted as having four heads or faces, Svetovid is the Slavic god of war, fertility, and abundance.

Lupercus

Lupercus - Wolf God

Etymology – “He who wards off the wolf”

The Wolf God, Lupercus is the god of agriculture and shepherds. The name Lupercus is said by some to be an epithet of the Roman god Faunus.

As Faunus, he is a god of the wild, untamed nature and fertility and the giver of oracles. The Romans came to identify Faunus with the Greek Pan due to the similarity of some of their characteristics such as horns and hooves. Faunus’ attributes are the wolfskin, wreath and goblet.

If I stick to just this, there really wouldn’t be much of a blog post. Lupercus comes into his own when looking at and focusing on the ancient Roman holiday known as Lupercalia.

Lupercalia – The Wolf Festival

The festival and holiday of Lupercalia was held every year from February 13th to 15th, often said to be the anniversary of the founding of Lupercus’ (properly Faunus’) temple. The Luperci, who were the priests of Lupercus and wore goat skins, would sacrifice two goats and a dog during a ritual at this time. Goats were sacrificed as Lupercus is the god of shepherds and the dog got sacrificed as they’re the protector of flocks and herds. The blood from these animals would then be wiped on two young men’s foreheads. This festival was held too, to avert evil spirits and purify the city, allowing for good health and fertility with the coming year.

The sacrifice of the goats and dog would take place at the Lupercale, a cave that according to tradition is where the twins Remus and Romulus were raised by the she-wolf Luperca. In 2007, National Geographic posted an article about how Archeologists found this cave beneath the ruins of Emperor Augustus’ palace on Palatine Hill, Rome.

Lupercalia replaced an earlier Spring Cleansing ritual of Februa once held on the same date and from where the month of February gets its name. Just as Lupercalia replaced Februa, it too has largely been replaced by the more modern Valentine’s Day where the Catholic church made efforts to tone down some of the more wilder pagan rituals or to get people to accept Christianity more easily with their converting from pagan religions.

Not too surprising given how riotous and risqué that Lupercalia could be with the use of whips in striking women to try and make them more fertile, men running naked chasing women, the blood sacrifice of goats and a dog. Even the familiar heart shape symbol of love has some controversial origins to what it really depicts and is. Unsubstantiated sources comment too how the use of Lupercalia’s lottery of young men drawing the names women from a box is the more modern tradition of giving Valentine Cards.

Lykaia

Also spelled or called Lycaea, this ancient, archaic Greek festival is said to be where the rituals of Lupercalia originated from. For those who want to link werewolves with the holiday of Lupercalia, Lykaia is the one you’re probably thinking of.

The festival of Lykaia had a secret festival held on Mount Lykaion (Wolf Mountain) in Arcadia. The myths that surround this ritual are believed to relate the story of Lycaon’s feast he held for the gods and involved having served up one of his sons Nyctimus as one of the main courses. Another version of this story given by an Eratosthenes, holds that Lycaon had served up his grandson Arcas at this feast. In either eventuality, an enraged Zeus turns Lycaon into a wolf and proceeds to kill by means of lightning; Lycaon’s other sons before restoring the dead child back to life.

Mmm…. Cannibalism. Not.

The festival of Lykaia were held annually at the beginning of May. It was a primitive ritual festival and rite of passage for young males known as epheboi among the Greeks into adulthood. With the ritual held at night, evidence taken by some with the name of Lycaon’s son Nyctimus, a lot of rumors about cannibalism and werewolf transformations circulated widely among the Greeks as to just what was going on up there. Even Plato wrote about one clan who would gather every nine years and sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios where a piece of human flesh would be mixed in among the pieces of animal meat.

The belief held that whoever ate the piece of human flesh would turn into a wolf and they could only return to human form after nine-years if they hadn’t eaten human flesh. The famous Olympic boxing champion, Damarchus is said to have turned into a wolf during the ritual sacrifice held for Zeus Lykaios. Games were also a big part of the Lykaios festival held every year after the secret ritual held at night.

Archaeological Discoveries

Archaeologists have found by looking at the ash heaps near the altars for Lykaia no human remains and suggest that the rituals and festival of Lykaia are far older than what even the ancient Greeks themselves knew. Excavations have generally shown nothing earlier than about 700 B.C.E. though one trench excavated at Mount Lykaion shows possible ritual evidence dating to the beginning of the third millennium B.C.E., a full thousand years before the worship of Zeus throughout Greece.

Lykaios – Wolf-Zeus

This is an epithet of Zeus in connection to the festival of Lykaia and seems to have been a formality in making him a patron of the rituals held. Zeus’ inclusion is possibly instrumental in ending any human sacrifices going on or trying to put to rest the rumors.

Apollo Lykaios

The Greek god Apollo is also known to have a wolf-form as Apollo Lycaeus. He was worshiped in Athens at the Lykeion or Lyceum. This site is most remembered as the place where the philosopher Aristotle taught.

Lykaian Pan

A sanctuary for the Greek god Pan was also found on Mount Lykaion. The traditional story goes that Euandros, the son of Hermes, led a colony of people from Pallantion, Arkadia to Italy where he built the town of Pallantion on Palatine Hill. Euandros introduced the cult of Pan Lýkaios and the Lykaia festival that later becomes the Roman festival of Lupercalia. Given how much the Romans would identify their gods with those of the Greeks and other cultures, that could make sense.

Modern Lykaia

Apparently there are modern Lykaia games that have been held every four years since 1973, at the beginning of August by the Ano Karyes Association in the same places where the games associated with the ancient festival of Lykaia were held. These are sort of a localized Greek Olympics.