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Category Archives: Zodiac

Ophiuchus

ophiuchus-constellation

Etymology – Greek – ophis (serpent), ekhein or okhos (holder), “Serpent-Bearer”

Pronunciation: Oh-fee-YOU-cuss

Also known as: Ὀφιοῦχος (Greek), Anguitenens, Serpentarius, Hebitsukai-Za (Japanese, “Serpent Bearer”, the Serpent-holder, the Serpent Bearer, the Serpent Wrestler, or the Snake Charmer

The constellation of Ophiuchus is represented as a man holding a snake, seen in the constellation of Serpens. The body of Ophiuchus divides the Serpens constellation in half to Serpens Caput and Serpens Cauda.

The ancient Greeks saw the god Apollo in the constellation of Ophiuchus, contending with a large snake that guarded the Delphi Oracle. Many others have seen various legendary healers from Joseph and Aaron from the Bible, Imhotep and Asclepius in this constellation.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers could make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

The constellation known as Ophiuchus is one of 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy in his book, Almagest. Today it remains as one of the 88 current or modern constellations. It is a large constellation, ranking 11th in size and located near the celestial equator. Ophiuchus was previously known as Anguitenens and Serpentarius; which in Latin has the same meaning as the modern name.

Constellations bordering with Ophiuchus are: Aquila, Libra, Scorpius, Serpens and Hercules. If you know where in the night sky that Orion is, Ophiuchus on the opposite. The best time to spot Ophiuchus is during the month of July in the Northern Hemisphere.

Babylonian Astronomy

The ancient Babylonians have a constellation known as the “Sitting Gods” that might have been in the same location of the night sky that Ophiuchus is found.

Enki

The Sumerian god, Enki has also been suggested as who the constellation is based on.

Nirah

In his book, Babylonian Star-lore, Gavin White suggests that Ophiuchus has a connection to the ancient snake god, Nirah, who is sometimes depicted having the upper body of a man and snakes for legs. This idea seems a bit farfetched as there aren’t too many other scholarly works to validate or refute it.

Nu-tsir-da

Ophiuchus, combined with Serpens was known as Nu-tsir-da.

Arabic & Islamic Astronomy

According to 10th century C.E., Azophi’s Uranometry, the constellation of Ophiuchus is known by the name of Al-Hawwa’, the Snake-Charmer.

An Arabic title for Ophiuchus is Suille. Herodotus mentions a tribe of snake-charmers known as Psylli in North Africa. This part offered up some confusion keeping this straight. Again, as there’s some conflicting information and research. I found a “le Psylle” that refers to an insect. This may be to a lot of confusion with languages and translations.

Chinese Astronomy

Hou

To the ancient Chinese astronomers, Alpha Ophiuchi is known as Hou, a senior assistant to the Emperor. The Emperor’s thrown, Dizuo is located directly north in the Hercules constellation where it corresponds with the star Alpha Herculis. What exactly Hou’s role is, is rather unclear. Some have referred to him as an overseer, an usher bringing in guests and possibly an astrologer.

Hu

The stars Iota and Kappa Ophiuchi formed Hu, a measuring cup for liquids, this constellation is found further in the Hercules constellation.

Tianshi

For the ancient Chinese, the southern part of Hercules, most of Serpens and Ophiuchus were viewed as a celestial market place, Tianshi. To the left of Tianshi, there is an eastern wall that starts in the constellation of Hercules and heads south through Serpens Cauda and ending in Ophiuchus at Eta Ophiuchi. To the right of Tianshi, a western wall runs southward from Hercules, through Serpens Caput and ends in Ophiuchus with stars Delta, Epsilon and Zeta Ophiuchi. The stars 20 Ophiuchi and Chesi are seen as market stalls along the right wall. The stars Lambda Ophiuchi and Sigma Serpentis made up Liesi, an arcade where jewelers shops could be found.

Shilou

Comprised of stars Mu, 47, 30 and a much fainter star formed a six-star loop that represents a hall or a tower housing the trading standards office. Finishing out this shape are the stars Omicron and Nu in Serpens Cauda.

Zongzheng, Zongren, and Zong

These three constellations are found to the south of Hou. Zongzheng is noted by the stars Beta and Gamma Ophiuchi and Zongren is noted by the stars 66, 67, 68 and 70 Ophiuchi. These two constellations are seen to represent a governor and his aides who are supervising the younger members of the royal family. Zong is noted by the stars 71 and 72 Ophiuchi and is seen to represent a revered ancestor to the royal family.

Dongxian

The stars Phi, Chi, Psi, and Omega Ophiuchi formed Dongxian found outside the market walls. Dongxian is the western door to the steward’s room, used for investigating on any trade infractions. The eastern door, Xixian is found in Scorpius and Libra.

Tianjiang

Marked by Theta Ophiuchi and three other stars, this constellation is a celestial river, located in the Milky Way and thought to control the waterways.

Tianyue

Lying next to Tianjiang, this constellation is composed of eight faint stars found in Ophiuchus and Sagittarius. It is thought that Tianyue lays directly on the ecliptic and represents a keyhole or lock that the Sun must thread itself through every year. It lays directly across the heavens from Tiangun, a gate found on the ecliptic within the Taurus constellation.

Christian Theology

In later symbolic literature for Christianity, the imagery of Ophiuchus and the serpent is used in the story of the Garden of Eden. In his Paradise Lost, John Milton uses Ophiuchus as a major simile where he compares Satan to a comet that burns through the length of the constellation.

Again, with the strong imagery of the figure holding a serpent, some astrologists have connected the story of Joseph from the Biblical Book of Genesis and his interpreting dreams for the Pharaoh. Another story connecting Ophiuchus to the bible is that of Aaron and his casting down his rod to become a snake.

Egyptian Mythology

Due to the rise of interest in Ophiuchus as a 13th Astrological sign, many have been quick to identify the Greek physician Asclepius in this constellation. In turn, discussion extends to an earlier Egyptian healer, Imhotep that Asclepius is based on.

Greek Astronomy

The 4th century B.C.E. Greek poet, Aratus has the earliest mention of Ophiuchus in his Phaenomena, which in turn is based on earlier works by Eudoxus of Cnidus. While Aratus didn’t know much about astronomy by Greek standards of the day, he was very well known for his poetry and descriptive imagery for the constellations.

Apollo

The ancient Greeks saw the god Apollo in the constellation of Ophiuchus, contending with a large snake that guarded the Delphi Oracle.

Asclepius

The son of the god Apollo, Asclepius is the figure most often seen and identified in the constellation of Ophiuchus. Elevated to the status of a demi or lesser god, Asclepius was greatly renowned for his healing skills to the degree that he could even bring people back from the dead.

This knowledge of healing came about after Glaucus, the son of King Minos of Crete had fallen into a jar of honey and drowned. Asclepius had been called into the scene and while there, saw a snake slithering towards Glaucus’ body. Asclepius killed the snake and then saw another snake come in and place an herb on the body of the first snake, bringing it back to life. After witnessing this, Asclepius proceeded to take the same herb and place it on Glaucus’ body and bring him back to life.

Another story of Asclepius bringing people back to life is the resurrection of Thesues’ son, Hippolytus after the king’s son had been thrown from his chariot.

Asclepius had been raised by Chiron, the immortal centaur and god in his own right. From Chiron, Asclepius learned the art of healing and in one story, Asclepius received the blood of the slain gorgon Medusa from the goddess Athena. The gorgon’s blood reportedly held some mystical qualities. The blood taken from the left side of Medusa’s body was a poison while the blood taken from the right side would be able to resurrect people, bringing them back from the dead.

This caused enough of a complaint from Hades to Zeus that humans would become immortal and that there wouldn’t be any one entering the Underworld. To prevent people from becoming immortal, Zeus agreed to kill Asclepius, doing so with a lightning bolt. Later, Zeus placed Asclepius’ image up into the heavens to become the constellation of Ophiuchus in honor and memory.

Hercules

Ophiuchus is part of the Hercules Family of constellations. The myth I found making this connection, has the famous hero Hercules kill Kaikias, the Blinding One. Kaikias or Caecius is the god of the North East Wind who is shown carrying a large shield that scatters hailstones upon the earth.

Laocoön

Other Greek myths see the figure of Laocoön, a Trojan priest of Poseidon. Laocoön had tried to warn the other Trojans about the Trojan Horse and the fact that the Greeks were hiding within it. He would later be killed by a pair of sea serpents sent by the gods to punish Laocoön.

Phorbas

Another Greek myth links Phorbos with the constellation of Ophiuchus. The son of Triopas and Hiscilla, Phorbas became the hero of the island of Rhodes when he saved the people from a plague of serpents. Sometimes this is interpreted to have been dragons, but snakes is often referred to or meant in the story. An oracle had told the people to call on Phorbas who came and rid the island of snakes.

Renaissance And Early Modern Depictions

Inspired by Aratus’ description of Ophiuchus stepping on the constellation of Scorpio with his feet, others such as Renaissance artist such as Albrecht Dürer and astronomer Johannes Kepler continued this idea.

Roman Astronomy

Aesculapius

For the Romans, the legendary healer, Asclepius is Romanized to the Latin spelling of Aesculapius. The Ophiuchus constellation is known by the Latin name of Serpentarius.

Hercules Family

The constellation of Ophiuchus, along with 18 other constellations of: Cygnus, Hercules, Sagitta, Aquila, Lyra, Vulpecula, Hydra, Sextans, Crater, Corvus, Serpens, Scutum, Centaurus, Lupus, Corona Australis, Ara, Triangulum Australe, and Crux.

These constellations have some connection to the overall legend and myth of the Grecian hero Hercules. They are the largest grouping of constellations found in the Western Hemisphere.

The connection extends from Donald H. Menzel, the director of the Harvard Observatory, who in his A Field Guide to the Stars and Planets, takes groups of constellations based on where in the night sky they are located and grouping them by the very same location.

 Stars Of Ophiuchus

Alpha Ophiuchi – Also known as Rasalhagues or Ras Alhague, meaning “Head of the Snake Charmer” or “Snake Collector” in Arabic, is the brightest star in the Ophiuchus constellation. It marks the head of Ophiuchus.

Beta Ophiuchi – Also known as Celbalrai. Cheleb and Kelb Alrai, it comes from the Arabic word kalb al-rā‘ī, meaning “the shepherd dog.” Ptolemy in his Almagest, placed the right shoulder of the Serpent Holder with this star along with Gamma Ophiuchi.

The Arabs saw a Shepherd in the star Alpha Ophiuchi with his dog, the star Beta Ophiuchi guarding sheep in the area.

Delta Ophiuchi – Also known as Yed Prior, the word “yed” comes from the Arabic language meaning “the hand.” Along with the star Epsilon Ophiuchi, these two stars mark the left hand of the Serpent Bearer, holding the head of the snake.

Epsilon Ophiuchi – Also known as Yed Posterior, this star along with Delta Ophiuchi mark the left hand of the Serpent Bearer.

Eta Ophiuchi – Also known as Sabik is the second brightest star in Ophiuchus.

Gamma Ophiuchi – Ptolemy in his Almagest, placed the right shoulder of the Serpent Holder with this star along with Beta Ophiuchi.

Iota Ophiuchi – Ptolemy in his Almagest, placed the left shoulder of the Serpent Holder with this star along with Kappa Ophiuchi.

Kappa Ophiuchi – Ptolemy in his Almagest, placed the left shoulder of the Serpent Holder with this star along with Iota Ophiuchi.

Barnard’s Star – This is the second or third closest star to our own sun about 6 light-years away. The only other stars that are closer are those found in the Alpha Centauri binary star system and Proxima Centauri. Banard’s Star is located just north of a V-shaped group of stars that form a now obsolete constellation known as Taurus Poniatovii or Poniatowski’s Bull, specifically 66 Ophiuchi.

Taurus Poniatovii – Obsolete Constellation

According to Ptolemy’s The Almagest, the stars 66, 67, 68, 70, and 72 Ophiuchi made a short-lived constellation that formed a bull. The constellation has since then been combined wiwth Ophiuchus to form the right shoulder and tail of the serpent.

Ophiuchus Superbubble

First off, what is a Superbubble? It’s an astronomical event that happens when area of space, often hundreds of light years in distance has been created by several stars going supernovae and stellar winds blowing in interstellar gas. It’s basically what’s left over after the star or stars have finished going nova.

2005 saw a group of astronomers using information from the Green Bank Telescope to discover and identify one such Superbubble or Supershell. This particular superbubble is so large it reaches out beyond the furthest edges of the galaxy.

Kepler’s Supernova

Also, known as Keplar’s Star. On October 9th, 1604, Johannes Kepler observed a supernova near the star Ophiuchi. Johannes would study this nova so extensively that it would eventually be named after him. The book, De stella nova in pede Serpentarii (On the New Star in Ophiuchus’ Foot) contains all of Johannes’ studies and finding on this nova.

Galileo used this nova’s brief appearance when countering Aristotelian dogma and beliefs that the heavens were unchangeable.

Little Ghost Nebula

This is a planetary nebula found in Ophiuchus by William Herschel. It is about 2,000 light years away from the Earth.

Dark Horse Nebula

Also, known as the Great Dark Horse is a nebula found in Ophiuchus. This nebular is so named as its shape looks like the profile of a horse. It lays near the border with the constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpius. The Dark Horse Nebula is one of the largest and with the right conditions, it can be seen without the aid of binoculars.

Pipe Nebula

This nebula is part of the larger Dark Horse Nebula and is considered to form the hind legs or quarters of the Dark Horse. Like the Dark Horse, the Pipe can be seen without any aid from telescopes or binoculars, but its still helpful to use them.

Snake Nebula

Yet another nebula found in Ophiuchus. Like the Pipe Nebula, the Snake Nebula is also part of the much larger Dark Horse Nebula. It is about 650 light years from the Earth. While small, the snake is easily found for its distinctive s-shape near the bowl part of the Pipe Nebula.

Twin Jet Nebula

Also, known as Minkowski’s Butterfly or the Butterfly Nebula, it was first discovered by German-American astronomer Rudolph Minkowski in 1947. The nebula is so named as it appears like either a butterfly or a pair of exhaust pipes on a jet.

Ophiuchids

There are four meteor shows associated with the constellation of Ophiuchus. They are the Ophiuchids, the Northern May Ophiuchids, Southern May Ophiuchids and Theta Ophiuchids.

Ophiuchus In Astrology?

Yes!

The 13th Sign of the Zodiac!

Not so fast there! It may sound great and exciting, but such is not the case.

The idea of a 13th Sign for the Zodiac quickly caught fire in the imaginations of many aspiring astrologers, New Agers and assorted others.

Even from the expert astrologers, it must be remembered that Ophiuchus is a constellation, not a new Zodiac Sign. You don’t have to worry about going to bed, believing you were a Scorpio or Sagittarius and suddenly, everything has changed and you’re now an Ophiuchus. Nothing of the sort.

Yes, Ophiuchus is one of thirteen constellations that crosses the ecliptic as the earth makes it monthly journey around the sun and appears to move from one Zodiac Sign to the next. There is a huge difference though between a constellation and a Sign within the Zodiac. Traditionally the classical Greek Zodiac is set up into twelve Signs that stretch along the earth’s ecliptic path with each sign having roughly a month’s time. Especially in the Western traditions. The set up for the for the Signs also follow the changes of the seasons so that the March equinox will fall on the day when the celestial boundary is between Aries and Pisces.

Constellations on the other hand, vary in size and are based on the positions of the stars. Due to the precession of the equinoxes over the millennia, a Sign and constellation no longer directly line up and correlate to which Zodiac is in the heavens.

A History Lesson

Ptolemy, in his book Tetrabiblos, 170 C.E., mentions only 12 Signs. Yes Ophiuchus and some of the fixed stars got used by some of the ancient astrologers for the more significant celestial events. The 1st C.E. poet Manilius for example, in his Astronomica, describes Ohiuchus in an astrological poem. Later, Manilus goes on to discuss the astrological influence of Ophiuchus, commenting that when this constellation is rising, a person will have an affinity for snakes and be protected from their poison. Of course, a later 4th century astrologer known as Anonymous of 379 will make the association of Ras Alhague, the brightest star in Ophiuchus, as the star of doctors, healers and physicians.

Alright, so I can see where some people will jump up and down getting excited for: “See! It is the 13th Sign!”

In more modern 20th and 21st century, the IAU (International Astronomy Union) in 1930 came up with the idea of 13 astrological Signs due to “the Sun is in the sign of Ophiuchus” between November 29th and December 17th with where the constellation boundaries lay. This continues with Stephen Schmidt in 1970, when he suggested a 14-Sign Zodiac, which includes Cetus as a Sign. Later, in 1995, the 13-Sign Zodiac is put forward by Walter Berg in his “The 13 Signs of the Zodiac” and Mark Yazaki in Japan. There, the concept of Ophiuchus took off in Japanese pop culture appearing in a number of video games, notably Final Fantasy and the anime and manga series known as Fairy Tail.

People’s imaginations got fired up for a 13th Sign when an astronomy professor Parke Kunkle from the Minneapolis Community and Technical College explained to his local paper, the Minneapolis Star-Tribune about the precession of stars over time and that eventually, old markers for time with the changes of the season altered.

The specific quote is this – “Two thousand years ago the Sun was ‘in’ whatever it was in. Now it’s about a whole constellation off from that.” It’s a quote that went viral and got picked up by various media news sites. And for the lay person who first gets into Astrology or doesn’t know anything at all, there’s the assumption that it’s all based on the constellations and not the Signs.

But It Must Be A Sign!

If you’re insisting it must be a new Zodiac Sign, here we go –

The time for Ophiuchus is from November 29th to December 17th. This takes up a good chunk of the time that’s for Sagittarius that typically runs from November 23rd to December 21st. Perhaps you can see why this is problematic.

As a 13th Sign, Ophiuchus doesn’t have an opposite Sign like all the others do. Adding Ophiuchus makes the use of the Zodiacs more Constellation based or sidereal. The use of sidereal astrology is more typical of the Vedic Astrology. Walter Berg states that the Sun is the Planet associated for this Sign. Many also place a strong emphasis on Ophiuchus’ role and affinity with healing through the use of imagery with Asclepius, Imhotep and to a lesser degree others like Joseph of Biblical fame for his interpretation of dreams and the Babylonian god Enki.

Ophiuchans are described as: seekers of wisdom and knowledge, they’re known for having a flamboyant or brightly colored wardrobe, they get along will with authority and supervisors, a seeker of peace and harmony, dream interpretation, premonitions, medical affinity, likely to have a large family though possibly have left their own home at an early age and have an eye for design and construction. The number 12 is considered an Ophiuchan’s lucky number and people may or may not be a bit envious for their progress and advances in life.

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Cybele Part 2

cybele-2Cybele Lore Continued…

Attis & Cybele

This story is one of the major myths involving Cybele and they often include her relationship with Attis, a youthful consort to the goddess. Attis is noted too as being the name of a Phrygian deity. Further, Attis doesn’t become a part of the myth with Cybele until the Roman poet Catullus references him with Cybele as Magna Mater and as the name of the head priest for the Galli. Additionally, pine cones are used as symbols of Attis’ death and rebirth.

Attis – As a Phrygian deity, Attis is the god of vegetation, his death and resurrection is symbolic of the death and rebirth of vegetation and the harvest with each winter and spring. The name Attis in Phyrgia was a common name and one used for priests. In the myths linking Attis with Cybele as her consort; wherever Cybele’s worship spread, Attis’ worship went as well.

Imagery portraying Attis has been found at a number of Greek sites. Whenever Attis is shown with Cybele, he is shown as a younger, lesser deity to her. He is possibly even one of her priestly attendants. During the mid-2nd century B.C.E., various letters from the king of Pergamum to Cybele’s shrine in Pessinos all address the chief priest as “Attis.” So deity or priest tends to be a matter of personal interpretation with the myths of Attis.

The Myth

Attis was Cybele’s young lover who had devoted himself to the goddess. He had a made a promise that he would always be faithful. As fate would have it, Attis in time fell in love with a nymph by the name of Sagaritis (or Sagaris) and they decided to marry. When Cybele learned of this marriage, she burst in on the marriage ceremony, inflicting Attis with madness and sending the other guests into a panic.

In his maddened state, Attis fled for the mountains. There, he stopped under a pine tree and proceeded to mutilate himself to the point of castrating himself and bleeding to death there beneath the pine tree.

When Cybele found her lover, the young Attis dead, she mourned her actions and deeply regretted them. She pleaded with the god Jupiter to restore Attis to life. Jupiter vowed that that pine tree would remain sacred and like the tree, Attis would live again. The blood that Attis shed is said to have become the first violets.

In the versions of the myths where Maeon is Cybele’s father – Maeon kills Attis, the baby whom he sires after committing incest with his daughter. Cybele manages, in this myth to restore Attis back to life.

Pausanias’ Version – Another story of Attis, this time with Agdistis as another name for Cybele follows much of the same story as previously mentioned. Only now, when the baby, Attis is born, he is left exposed and a ram comes, standing guard over the child. As the baby grew, his beauty became ever more apparent as more than human. Agdistis saw Attis and fell in love with him.

When Attis finally came of age, he was sent to Pessinos, a city in Phrygia to wed the King’s daughter. After the marriage ceremony was completed, Agdistis appeared, causing Attis, driving him mad in her jealously to the point of cutting off his own genitals. The madness was such, it effected other nearby, that even the king cut off his own genitals.

Shocked, Agdistis sought amends for what she had done and begged Zeus to restore Attis to life so that he would be reborn.

Ovid’s Version – In this one, Attis had fallen in love with Cybele who wanted to keep the boy at her shrine as a guardian. She commanded Attis to always be a boy. Attis declared in kind that if he lied, let the lover he cheated be his last.

As happens with these kinds of stories, Attis does cheat with the Nymph Sagaritis (or Sagaris). Her tree is cut down by Cybele, killing her the Nymph. Attis in response goes mad and hallucinates that the roof to his bedroom is collapsing on him. Attis runs towards Mount Dindymus where he calls out for Cybele to save him.

Hacking away at his own body with a sharp stone, Attis continues to cry out to Cybele that she take his blood as punishment and cuts off his genitals as that is what has caused him to cheat on Cybele.

Ultimately, this story of Attis’ self-mutilation and castration is the basis for the Galli, Cybele’s priest to castrate themselves as a show of devotion to the goddess.

Cybele & Dionysus

Similar to the story of Attis & Cybele, is the story of Dionysus & Cybele. The earliest reference to this myth in Greek mythos is around the 1st century B.C.E. in Apollodorus’ Bibliotheca.

Like Attis, Cybele also cures Dionysus of his madness. Considering she’s the one who caused Attis’ madness, I would hope she would cure it too.

Both Dionysus’ and Cybele’s cult shared many similarities. As foreign deities worshiped among the Greeks, both gods would arrive in chariots drawn by large exotic cats. Dionysus would come in his chariot pulled by tigers whereas Cybele’s chariot was drawn by lions. Both deities would be accompanied to the fanfare of wild, raucous music and a parade of exotic foreigners and lower class citizens of Greek society.

For the Hellenic Greeks, these two gods held wild temperaments that didn’t sit well with many affluent Greeks and were thus, warily worshiped.

Due to the similarities of both Dionysus’ and Cybele’s cults, in Athens, by the end of the 1st century B.C.E., the two cults were often combined.

Cybele & Sabazios

Sabazios is the Phrygian version to the Greek Dionysus. Under Greek influence, the name Sabazios is often used as an epithet for Dionysus and the two’s myths have become very intertwined.

Further Greek influences have Cybele equated with Rhea. By Phrygian traditions, Cybele is the mother of Sabazios. When Cybele is equated with Rhea, she is the nurse-maid and tutor to a young Dionysus after his mother Hera rejects him.

Orgia – It is thought that the Orgia, the Orgiastic cult of Dionysos-Sabazios may have originated with Cybele. When Sabazios had been wandering in his madness, he made his way to Cybele in Phrygia where she purified him and taught him the initiation rite for the Orgia. Sabazios is to have received his thyrsus and panther-drawn chariot while he went throughout all of Thrace to spread the Orgia. The Orgia certainly seems to have become associated with the celebrations of Cybele as the Great Mother or Mountain Mother in the writings of Strabo or as Euripides makes mention of in his play Bacchae.

As Nurse-Maid – In a story very similar to Dionysus’ being rejected by his mother Hera, it is Cybele, identified as Rhea and Grandmother to Dionysus who takes up the infant to care for him much like she did her own son Zeus. The god Hermes, tells Cybele how Dionysus will become a god later when he’s grown to manhood. Cybele’s priests the Korybantes use their loud drumming and chanting to drown out the cries of the infant in order to prevent Hera’s wrath from finding him to finish what she had started with trying to kill Dionysus when she cast him out. The story of Dionysus’ youth with Cybele continues with him grabbing lions for the Mother Goddess to hitch up to her chariots and later acquiring a lion-drawn chariot of his own.

Atalanta & Hippomenes

These two were turned into lions in myth by either Cybele or Zeus as punishment for having sex with one of their temples. The Greeks believed that lions were not able to mate with other lions. Another version of the story will have Aphrodite turn them into lions when they forgot to give her proper tribute or offerings.

Bee Goddess

Cybele was also especially noted for being a bee goddess.

Mother Of The Mountain – Goddess Of Mountains And Fortresses

As a goddess of mountains, cities and forts, Cybele’s crown was seen to take the form of a city wall, showing her role as a guardian and protector of Anatolian cities.

There is an inscription of “Matar Kubileya” found at a Phrygian rock shrine dating from the 6th century B.C.E. It is often translated to: “Mother of the Mountain.” It is a name that is consistent with Cybele and a number of other tutelary goddess who are all seen as “mother” and connected to a specific Anatolian mountain or other locations. In this sense, Cybele is seen as a goddess born from stone.

Cybele’s connection and association with hawks, lions and the mountainous regions of Anatolia show her role as a mother of the land in its wild, uninhabited state. She holds the power to rule, moderate or soften the unbridled power and ferocity of nature and to reign it in for the use of civilization.

Idaea – Mountain Goddess & Nymph

Cybele is often connected with Mount Ida in Anatolia where there is an ancient site of worship. Idaea is the name of the local mountain goddess or nymph who resided here. Where many goddess get absorbed into each, the name of one deity, Idaea in this case will become an epithet to the more well-known deity.

Goddess Of Nature And Fertility

As an ancient fertility goddess, Cybele’s worship is believed to have covered from Anatolia to Greece during the Archaic period, roughly 800 to 500 B.C.E and then into the Hellenistic era of 300 to 50 B.C.E.

Lions and sometimes leopards were shown to either side of Cybele to depict her strength.

Cybele is typically seen as a guardian and protector over all of a nature and a goddess of unbridled sex.

Along with Artemis, Cybele is seen as the “Great Huntress” and patron goddess and protector of the Amazons.

Magna Mātēr – The Great Mother

The Romans revered and knew Cyble as Magna Mātēr or the Great Mother, Rome’s protector. They also knew her as Magna Mātēr deorum Idaea, the great Idaean mother of the gods. It is a similar title to the Greek title for Cybele of Mētēr Theon Idaia, Mother of the Gods from Mount Ida. In the early 5th century B.C.E., she was known as Kubelē. In Pindar, she was known as “Mistress Cybele the Mother.” Cybele’s worship among the Greeks saw her easily identified and equated with the Minoan-Greek Goddess Rhea and the grain-goddess Demeter.

As Magna Mātēr, Cybele was symbolized by a throne and lions. She held a frame drum. A bowl used for scrying. A burning torch was also used to symbolize her bull-god husband Attis in his resurrection. For some like Lucretius, Magna Mater represented the world order. Her imagery hold overhead represented the Earth, thought to “hang in the air.” As the mother of all, the lions pulling her chariot represent the offspring’s duty of parental obedience. Magna Mater is seen as un-created and separate from and independent of all of her creations.

Under Imperial Rome, Magna Mater represented Imperial order and Rome’s religious authority throughout its empire. Emperor Augustus, like many of Rome’s leading families, claimed Trojan ancestry and a connection to Magna Mater. His spouse, empress Livia was seen as the earthly equivalent and representation of Magna Mater. Statuary of Magna Mater has Livia’s likeness.

While there are not a lot of documents or myths that survive regarding Cybele, it has been suggested that her Phrygian name of Mātēr indicated a role as a mediator between the boundaries of the known and the unknown, the civilized world and the untamed wilds, the living and the dead. The Imperial Magna Mater protected Rome’s cities and its agriculture. Ovid mentions how barren the earth was before Magna Mater’s arrival. The stories and legend of Magna Mater’s arrival to Rome are used to promote and exemplify its principles and Trojan ancestry.

Megalesia – Festival To Magna Mātēr

Also known as the Megalensia or Megalenses Ludi; under the Roman calendar, Cybele’s Spring festival of Megalesia was celebrated from April 4th to April 10th, a period of six days. This festival celebrated Cybele’s arrival in Rome along with the death and resurrection of her consort, Attis. This festival and the whole month of April were celebrated with an air of rejoicing and lavish feasts.

Exactly how the festival was celebrated is uncertain. What is known is that there were many religiously themed plays, games and activities. There are descriptions of mummery, war dancers wielding shields and knives and a lot of drumming and flute playing. As to the games, slaves were not allowed to participate. On the first day of Megalesia, there would be a feast held. These feasts were known for being very lavish and the Roman Senate passed a law limiting the amount that could be spent on these feasts. On April 10th, Cybele’s image would be publicly paraded to the Circus Maximus, chariot races would be held in her honor. A statue dedicated to Magna Mater with her seat on a lion’s back stood at the side of the race track barrier line.

Hilaria – Holy Week

In addition to the Megalesia festival, there is also a week-long festival known as Holy Week that starts from March 15th, also known as the Ides of March. That really gives a new meaning to Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar when he’s told to beware the Ides of March. The entire festival is meant to have an air of celebration for the arrival of Spring and the Vernal Equinox.

The festival itself seems to have been established by Claudius as a means of claiming and honoring Trojan ancestry. As a result, the festival very likely grew and expanded over time as a celebration for the death and resurrection of Attis.

The Reed Entered – Also known as Canna Intrat, from the 15th to the end of the month, there is festival for Cybele and Attis that starts on the 15th or Ides, with Attis’ birth and his being left along the reed bank of the Sangarius river in Phrygia before either shepherds or Cybele find him. People known as Cannophores will carry away the reeds. During this time, there is a nine-day period of abstinence from eating bread, fish, pomegranates, pork, quinces and likely wine. Only milk was allowed to be drunk during this period.

The Tree Enters –  Also known as Arbor Intrat, March 22nd marks the date of Attis’ death under a pine tree. It is observed. People known as Dendrophores or “Tree Bearers,” after sacrificing a ram, will cut down a tree and carry it to Magna Mater’s temple for a mourning period of three days.

Tubilustrium – March 23rd, this is an old, archaic holiday for the Roman god Mars. The tree has now been laid to rest in Magna Mater’s temple. Mars’ priest, the Salii will do a traditional beating of their shields accompanied by trumpets and other loud music from the Corybantes. Overall, this is a day of mourning.

The Day of Blood – Also known as Sanguis, Sanguem or Dies Sanguinis March 24th. The rites can only be described as frenzied as mourners and devotees whip or scourge themselves in order to sprinkle the alters and Attis’ effigy with their blood. Some of the rites involve castration and the tree is buried, symbolizing Attis’ placing within his tomb. This day was also to honor Bellona, a war goddess. Her priests were known as the Bellonarii and practiced mutilation along with using hallucinogenic plants.

The Day of Joy – Also known as Hilaria, on the Roman Calendar this marks the Vernal Equinox. It takes place on March 25th and celebrates Attis’ resurrection. It must be noted that is a day of celebration and not the previous mournful tones and rites. I’m also not the only one to have noted a similarity to the Christian association of Jesus’ resurrection.

Day of Rest – Also known as Requietio, March 26th. What can we say? Partying is hard work.

The Washing – Also known as Lavatio, March 27th. This is when Cybele’s sacred stone, the Pessinos’ black meteor is taken from the Palatine temple to the Porta Capena along a stream called Almo. This stream is a tributary to the Tiber river. Here, the stone would be bathed by a priest. The return trip back to the temple would be conducted by torchlight. It’s noted by Ovid as being an innovation by Augustus.

Initium Caiani – March 28th. This particular part of the festival is found on the Calendar of Philocalus. It is likely an initiation ceremony that was held at the Vatican sanctuary for the mysteries of Magna Mater and Attis.

Pine Cones

Pine cones are symbols of Cybele and the related myth of Attis. They are believed to have been worn by Cybele’s priests and followers as one of her symbols. As a protective symbol, a pine cone would be affixed to the top of a pole and placed out in vineyards to protect the crops. Pine cones would also be placed at the entrances to homes, gates and other entrances.

Tympanon

A type of hand drum or tambourine, the tympanon was used by the Greeks to denote worship in a foreign cult or religion. Of the foreign deities the Greek adopted, only Cybele is ever shown holding the tympanon. On the cuirass of Ceasar Augustus’ Prima Porta statue, Cybele’s tympanon is shown lying at the goddess Tellus’ feet.

The Trojan War

Among the Romans, Cybele was rewritten to be a Trojan goddess and thus making her an ancestral goddess through the Trojan prince Aeneas.

The Trojan War was a major and significant war among the Greeks. Many deities got themselves involved. Cybele was one of many such gods to do so. When Prince Aeneas was attacked by Turnus, leading the Rutulians, Cybele prevented Turnus from setting fire to the Trojan fleet by turning all of the ships into nymphs.

Virgil’s Aeneid – As Berecyntian Cybele, she is the mother of Jupiter and the protector of prince Aeneas. Cybele gave the Trojans her sacred tree to use for building their ships. Cybele then pleaded with Jupiter to make the resulting ships indestructible. Aeneas and his men are able to flee Troy, heading for Italy, where Rome would be founded. Once the they arrived in Italy, the ships all turned into sea nymphs or Oceanids.

Zodiac

Yes, you read that correctly. During the early Roman Imperial era, the poet Manilius introduces Cybele into classic Greco-Roman zodiac. It upsets the balance as there’s already twelve zodiac houses represented by a corresponding constellation. Each of which is ruled by a different deity, the Twelve Olympians in Greek and the Di Consentes in Rome. Manilius places Cybele as a co-ruler with Jupiter over Leo the Lion, which is noted for being in direct opposition to Juno who rules Aquarius.

Some modern scholars have taken note of how, as Leo rises over the horizon, that Taurus the Bull sets. Symbolically, this is seen as the lion dominating or defeating the bull. The idea then gets put forth that the celebrations of Megalensia includes this symbolism with lions attacking bulls. As a Spring festival, the date for the celebration of Megalensia is around April 12th when farmers would dig in their vineyards to break up the soil and sow their crops. This would also be when farmers would castrate their cattle and other livestock.

Mesopotamian Connection?

It has been suggested by some scholars that Cybele’s name can be traced to that of Kubaba, a deified queen who ruled during the Kish Dynasty of Sumer. Kubaba was worshipped at Carchemish and would later be Hellenized to the name of Kybebe. Kubaba was also known to the Hittites and Hurrians in the region. There isn’t enough etymological evidence to support this. However the names Kubaba and Matar do seem to have become closely associated. Such as the genital mutilations that are found both within Cybele’s and Kybebe’s cults. Much like many other localized mountain goddesses in Anatolia, who are called “mother” and among many who would become identified with Cybele.

Christianity And The Book Of Revelation

Of interest, is that the author of the Book of Revelations, identified by modern scholars as John of Patmos is likely to have been referring to Cybele when he mentions “the mother of harlots who rides the Beast.”

Christianity – Kept to a nutshell, the early Christians, once Christianity became the state religion of Rome, began to view and regard Cybele’s cult as evil, even demonic. Under Emperor Valentinian II in the 4th century C.E., he officially banned the worship of Cybele and the goddess followers and devotees fell under a lot of hate and persecution. Under the rule of Justinian, objects of worship for Cybele and her temples were destroyed and eventually by the 6th century C.E., Cybele’s cult seems to have vanished.

It has been noted by others how the Basilica of the Vatican is apparently the same exact spot for where Cybele’s Temple once stood and that Christians celebrate the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ in the same place where Attis was once worshiped. Some will even go so far as to suggest that revering the Virgin Mary is merely another aspect of worshiping Cybele and many other ancient Mother Goddesses.

Montanism Christianity – Also known as New ProphecyNow I do find it fascinating that around 100 C.E. a former Galli priest of Cybele by the name of Montanus formed a Christian sect that worked to oppose Pauline Christianity.

In Pauline Christianity, those who followed the teachings of the Apostle Paul, it held a major influence into the formation of Christianity in terms of scriptural interpretations, cannon and dogma.

Montanus’ sect was considered very heretical to the Catholic Church and would eventually see all of its followers excommunicated.

In brief, Montanus believed himself to be a prophet of god and that women could also be bishops and presbyters. Where much of early Christian theology diminished the power and presence of women within religion, Montanus’ sought to keep it.

It’s also interesting to note a rather prominent example of a Pagan religion that Christianity and former followers of other religions attempting to adopt and add in their beliefs. Like Montanus equating Jesus with Attis and the celebrating of Easter with the resurrection of Jesus during Holy Week, the days between Good Friday and Easter is also the same period that Hilaria, observing and celebrating Attis’ resurrection was held.

Very interesting…

Rhea – Greek Goddess

Just as Cybele is the Great Mother of the Roman Pantheon, Rhea, her Grecian counterpart is the Great Mother of the Greek Pantheon of Gods. Thanks greatly to the influence of the Romans, many people will identify and equate Cybele with Rhea.

The Romans were famous for subsuming many deities in their conquest across Europe, particularly the Mediterranean area, and identifying their gods with those of a conquered culture. The most famous being the Greeks, where many deities were renamed to those of Roman gods. Prominent examples like Zeus and Jupiter, Hera and Juno, Ares and Mars and so on down the line.

With the Hellenization of Latin literature, many Greek writers and even Roman writers rewrote and intertwined the myths of these two deities so that would virtually become one and the same. As the centuries have passed, the tradition of accepting both of these goddesses as one and the same has become generally accepted. Just that there are still some differences that separate the two.

Rhea’s best known story is with the birth of the Olympian gods. Cronus fearing that a son of his would kill him and take over, devoured all of his children as they were born. Rhea managed to rescue her youngest son, Zeus by tricking Cronus into swallowing a rock. She hid Zeus in the Dictean Cave in Crete. Zeus, after growing up, succeeded at overthrowing Cronus and rescuing his siblings.

Like Cybele, Rhea can help in easing the pain of childbirth and soothe the pain and difficulties that come with menstruation.

Cybele Part 1

Scorpius

Scorpio
Etymology – The Scorpion

Scorpius or better known as Scorpio is one of twelve familiar constellations of the Classical Greek Zodiac. Its name is Latin for scorpion. Next to Virgo, it is one of the largest and brightest constellations in the night sky. The claws of the scorpion were “broken” off to form the constellation of Libra during Roman times.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Scorpius is Latin for scorpion and is one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations and is located in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the 33rd in size for constellations in the night sky. Other constellations close to Scorpius are Sagittarius, Ophiuchus, Libra, Lupus, Norma, Ara and Corona Australis.

Chinese Mythology

In China, the constellation of Scorpius is part of the heavens where the Azure Dragon rests.

The star Antares was called Huo Shing, meaning “the Fire Star” and was worshipped in order to guard against fires.

Egyptian Mythology

Among the ancient Egyptians, the constellation and zodiac of Scorpio was equivalent to the Serpent, as they were worshipped and associated with many of their deities such as Ra, Wadjet, Renenutet, and Meretseger to name a few. Each quarter of the city of Cairo, there was a serpent guardian.

The star Antares was seen to represent the scorpion goddess Serket, a symbol of Isis in the pyramidal ceremonies.

Greek Mythology

Orion the Hunter

The constellation of Scorpio is best known as representing the scorpion in the story of Orion the Hunter.

In this story, Orion, a giant huntsman went to the island of Crete to spend time hunting with the goddess Artemis and Leto. While there, Orion boasted to Artemis and Leto how he would kill every animal on earth. In some versions of this story, Artemis, being a goddess of the Hunt offers protection to the animals of the earth and Leto sends a giant scorpion to kill Orion. In other versions of this story, Gaia, on hearing Orion’s boast, sends the giant scorpion after him in order to punish him for his hubris.

Orion and the scorpion fought it out and the scorpion eventually stings Orion, killing him. At the request of Artemis and Leto, Zeus, the father of the gods placed Orion along with the Scorpion up into the heavens as constellations and memorials. Every winter Orion can be seen up in the heavens still hunting and fleeing in summer when the scorpion ascends in the heavens.

Yet another variation to this story has Orion being the better hunter than Artemis but telling her that she’s the better hunter so that Artemis would take a liking to Orion. Her twin brother, Apollo grew angry with Artemis’ affections towards Orion and he’s the one who sent the scorpion to kill Orion.

Phaeton

While most Greek stories mention Orion, a lesser known story involving a scorpion is that of Phaeton, the mortal son of Helios, the sun god who drove the sun across the sky with this chariot.

Now Helios had sworn by the river Styx to give his son anything he asked for. In this instance, Phaeton asked to drive his father’s Sun Chariot for a day. Helios tried to discourage his son from this activity, but being oath bound, he found himself allowing Phaeton to drive the chariot.

Once behind the reins of the chariot, Phaeton panicked as he found that the white horses who pulled Helios’ chariot were too much for him and he lost control. The horses ran rampant, running to high above the Earth that it grew cold. As the horses drove the chariot close to the celestial scorpion, it raised its stinger, ready to strike. The horses panicked and now moved closer to the Earth; too close as now the fiery wheels of the Sun Chariot burned all the vegetation, causing much of Africa to become desert and darkening the skin of the Ethiopians. So the story goes.

Finally, Zeus stepped in and hurled one of his thunderbolts at the runaway chariot and Phaeton. As a result, Phaeton fell into the Eirdanos River and Helios took back the reigns of his Sun Chariot.

Javanese Astronomy

Among the Javanese people of Indonesia, this constellation is known as Banyakangrem, meaning: “the brooded swan” or as Kalapa Doyong, which means “leaning coconut tree.”

Mayan Astronomy

The Mayans of Central America referred to Scorpius as “the Sign of the Death-god.”

Mesopotamian Astronomy

The ancient Babylonians called this constellation: MUL.GIR.TAB, meaning “the Scorpion” and can also be read literally as “the creature with a burning sting.” The Claws of the Scorpion were seen as a separate constellation forming a set of Scales.

The star Antares was known by a variety of names in Mesopotamia such as: Urbat, Bilu-sha-ziri, meaning “the Lord of the Seed”, Kak-shisa, meaning “the Creator of Prosperity”), Dar Lugal, which means “The King”, Masu Sar, meaning “the Hero and the King”, and finally Kakkab Bir, which means “the Vermilion Star.” Antares is listed in the star scroll MUL.APIN as GABA GIR.TAB which means “the Brest of the Scorpion: Lishi, Nabu.”

Micronesian Mythology

A story found among the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, tells the story of Dümur, the eldest son of Ligedaner who is the mother of all the stars. Ligedaner is identified as being the star Capella in the Auriga constellation, Dümur is identified as the star Antares and the youngest son is identified as Pleiades.

Ligedaner’s sons came down from the vault of Heaven to visit with her where she lived on the atoll Alinablab. While there, a contest was proposed that who ever was the first to reach a certain island somewhere out in the East would be named the King of Stars.

The contest was agreed to and the sons prepared themselves to take off to claim the title of King. Ligedaner asked Dümur to take her with him in his canoe. Dümur refused as he saw that his mother wanted to take as many things with her as she could and thereby slow down the canoe with its weight.

Ligedaner asked each of her sons in turn to take her with them in their canoes and each in turned refused. Until she got to her youngest son, Pleiades who finally accepted her request to go with him. Ligedaner had seven objects she was taking with her and as she got into the canoe, she instructed Pleiades where to load and place each object.

When they were finally loaded up, Pleiades took his place to start rowing. He was surprised to find that instead of being weighed and slowed down by all the objects, that his canoe shot out into the water with great ease nor did he have to use his oars. The seven objects it turned out, had been previously unknown sail rigging and with his canoe driven by the wind, it took no time at all to catch up with his brothers.

As Pleiades’ canoe caught up with Dümur’s canoe, Dümur demanded, on his rights as the first-born son that his youngest brother hand over his canoe to him. Dismayed, Pleiades complied with the demands. Ligedaner proceeded to play a rather mean trick on Dümur by turning the canoe around and then when she jumped with Pleiades into the sea, she took with her the yardarm. Together, Ligedaner and Pleiades swam on towards the island to the East.

Dümur found that in order to sail Pleiades’ canoe, he had to fasten the sail to his shoulders, causing him to become bent over. By the time Dümur reached the island, he found that his youngest brother Pleiades and Ligedaner had beaten him there already and that Pleiades now claimed the title of King of the Stars. Angry, Dümur desired to never see his brother Pleiades again. This separation fo Dümur and Pleiades can be seen in the night sky of the Southern Hemisphere as when Pleiades rises in the East, Dümur (as the star Antares) sets in the West. The bent back of Dümur is also seen represented by the curved line formed by the stars outlining the bent body of Scorpius.

Polynesian Mythology

In Hawaii and New Zealand, the constellation is recognized as being the demigod Maui’s Fishhook.

Roman Astronomy and Mythology

The Romans broke off the claws of Scorpius to form the constellation of Libra, perhaps harkening back to how the ancient Mesopotamians cataloged their constellations.

Among the Romans, Scorpius was also known as “The Lurking One.”

Antares – The Heart of the Scorpion

Also known as Alpha Scorpii, it is the 16th brightest star in the night sky and a red supergiant. Antares is the brightest star found in the Scorpius constellation. Antares is part of a binary star system with a faint companion. Along with the stars Aldebaran, Regulus and Fomalhaut, Antares is part of a group of stars known as the “Royal stars of Persia.” Antares is also referred to as the “heart of the scorpion.”

Antares name comes from the Greek name: Άντάρης meaning “Anti-Ares” or “Anti-Mars” as both this star and the planet Mars have a similar reddish color. Some scholars think this comparison of Antares with Mars may have originated with Mesopotamian astronomers. Other scholars suggest that this star may have been named after Antar or Antarah ibn Shaddad, an Arab warrior-hero found in the Mu’allaqat, a series of Arabic Odes or Poems.

Antares has a number of different names from many cultures that it has been known by such as Urbat, Bilu-sha-ziri , Kak-shisa , Dar Lugal, Masu Sar, and Kakkab Bir in ancient Mesopotamia. Satevis in Persia, Jyeshthā in India as one of the Hindu lunar mansions, the Wotjobaluk Koori of Australia knew it as Djuit, son of Marpean-kurrk (Arcturus); the stars to either side represented his wives. In the same vein, the Kulin Kooris saw Antares as Balayang, the brother of Bunjil (the star Altair.)

The Maori of New Zealand called Antares Rehua and viewed it as the chief of all the stars. Rehua is the father of Puanga/Puaka (the star Rigel) and plays an important part in calculations of the Maori calendars. In the Arabic Qalb al-Άqrab, is was called Calbalakrab, a name directly translated from the Greek Kardia Skorpiū. The people of ancient Asia referred to antares as the “Grave Digger of Caravans.”

Other Stars Of Scorpius

Beta Scorpii – Also known as Acrab or Graffias is a multiple star system found in Scorpius. When viewed through a telescope, it appears as a binary star. The traditional name of Acrab has a couple of alternate spellings of Akrab and Elacrab which come from the Arabic language of al-’Aqrab which means “the scorpion.” The name Graffias is a name also shared by another star, Xi Scorpii which means “the claws.”

Lambda Scorpii – Also known as Shaula, it is the second brightest star in Scorpius and the 25th brightest star in the night sky. The traditional name of Shaula comes from the Arabic language of al-šawla´ which means “the raised tail.”

The Butterfly Cluster

Or Messier 6 was discovered by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Batista Hodierna in 1654 and given the name of the Butterfly Cluster due the shape the stars appeared to form. Charles Messier added to his catalog of stars in 1764.

The Ptolemy Cluster

Also called Messier 7, it is another star cluster found within Scorpius. It has been called the Ptolemy Cluster as it was the famous Greek astronomer Ptolemy who first recorded it in 130 C.E. who thought it to be a nebula.

The Cat’s Paw Nebula

The Cat’s Paw Nebula or NGC 6334 was discovered by English astronomer John Herschel in 1837. It is a vast region of star formations that lies some 5,500 light-years from Earth. It is a nursery of sorts for the numerous new stars being formed within it and believed to contain some tens of thousands of stars.

Scorpiids

There are a couple of meteor showers associated with this constellation. They are the Alpha Scorpiids and the Omega Scorpiids.

Zodiac

The constellation of Scorpio is the eighth sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from October 23 to November 22. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during July around 9 p.m. The planet Mars along with the dwarf planet Pluto are said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Water and is one of four Fixed signs.

Scorpios are seen as being very studious and serious and often like to learn everything they can about others. This can be a bad thing if there’s anything private or personal a person wants to be kept secret. A secret is what Scorpio’s love given their immense curiosities and love for learning. They’re good inquisitives and know how to trust their intuitions when figuring things out. Scorpio’s also love to be in charge of their own manifest destinies, doing what it takes to get them where they want to be in life. Downside is when they step on others to get their way with being a manipulative or are overbearing in the methods while pursuing their agendas. When motivated and after a goal, Scorpios can be very resourceful, bouncing back easily from set backs and being very stubborn in their drive to not give up. They can also be very vindictive whey they feel they’ve been wronged.

Libra

Libra

Etymology – The Scales

One of twelve signs of the Classical Greek Zodiac, Libra also has the distinction of being the only zodiacal sign that doesn’t represent a living creature. Libra is often shown as a set of balancing scales or a set of scales held by a woman.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Libra is Latin for the scales and is one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations and is located in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the 29th in size for constellations in the night sky. Other constellations close to Libra are Serpens Caput, Virgo, Hydra, Centaurus, Lupus, Scorpius and Ophiuchus.

Chinese Astronomy

In ancient China, the constellation was known as Show Sing, meaning “the Star of Longevity.” Later, it has become known as Tien Ching, “the Celestial Balance.”

The stars Alpha, Iota, Gamma and Beta Librae formed a constellation called Di, representing a palace for the Emperor to stay during the night with his wife and concubines. Di is also the name of the third Chinese lunar mansion and usually means “root” owing to its appearance in the morning skies of early October. Di was sometimes seen as representing the paw or chest of the Blue Dragon.

The stars Theta and 48 Librae form part of a line extending from Scorpius that from another constellation called Xixian, representing a wall used for holding and penalizing dishonest traders. In the southern part of Libra was to be a calvary camp spread out over the elliptic.

Egyptian Mythology

Among the Egyptians, they saw in the constellation of Libra a set of scales as well, representative of the Scales of Justice upon which a human heart would be weighed before gaining entrance into the Afterlife.

Greek Mythology

The Greeks didn’t recognize a separate constellation of Libra. For them, the constellation we know now days was part of the constellation of Scorpius and made up its two claws that they called Chelae.

Indian Astronomy

In India, the constellation of Libra is known as Tula, which means “a balance.” It is often shown as being a man kneeling on one knee and holding a set of scales.

Mesopotamian Mythology

In the ancient Sumer-Babylonian astronomy, the constellation Libra was known as MUL Zibanitu, meaning “the scales” or “the claws of the scorpion.” The scales were sacred to the sun god Shamash, was also the patron god of truth and justice. The association of Libra with the law, fairness and civility has continued throughout the ages. In modern Arabic languages, the word zubānā which means “scorpion’s claws,” seems to be a word continuing its ancient use from Akkadian languages. Though some scholars says this has only been the result of possible errors and mistranslations.

The transition of the Scales becoming Scorpion claws due to changes in cultures over the years and how the stars were perceived and due to similarity of the Akkadian and Arabic words “zibanitu” and “zubānā” that mean scales and claws. Anciently, scales of the Mesopotamian region did look similar to an upside down scorpion. With the Romans, the constellation reverted back to being a set of Scales.

Roman Mythology

The Romans are sometimes given credit with having invented the constellation of Libra and to have given it importance. To them, Libra was the “Scales of Justice” held by Julius Caesar. Later on, the scales are associated with the constellation of Virgo as either Astraea or Dike, a goddess of Justice.

Demeter and Persephone

Following the story of Persephone’s abduction into the underworld by Hades in Greek myth; the constellation of Libra is sometimes seen as representing Pluto’s Golden Chariot that is pulled by four black horses.

On one of his rare trips up to the surface, Hades spotted Persephone, the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and desiring her to be his wife, Hades took her down to the underworld to become Queen.

Before this, it had always been eternal spring, never winter. So when Hades abducts Persephone, Demeter is overcome with grief, rage and anger, so much so that she destroys the crops of the Greeks and bringing about winter. Demeter swore that she would not allow the Earth to be fertile again until her daughter is returned.

With the people starving and beseeching the gods for help, Zeus intervenes, informing his brother Hades that Persephone must be returned. Such would be possible, provided that Persephone hadn’t eaten any of the Underworld food or drink.

However, by one means or another, Persephone did eat three seeds of a pomegranate and as a result; this tied her to the underworld. Eventually a compromise was reached, where Persephone agreed to marry Hades and she would spend part of the year with him, the time known as winter and the other times of the year, she would be with her mother Demeter, allowing for spring and the other seasons.

Stars of Libra

The brightest stars found in Libra from a quadrangle that makes it easy to spot in the night sky unaided by telescopes.

Alpha Librae – Also known as Zubenelgenubi which means “the southern claw.” It is a binary star with the brighter of the two being a blue-white star and the other a white star. This star is also the second brightest star found in Libra.

Beta Librae – Also known as Zubeneschamali which means “the northern claw.” It is a green-tinged star. Another name for this star is Lanx Australis, “the southern scale.” This star is the brightest star found in Libra.

Gamma Librae – Also known as Zubenelakrab which means “the scorpion’s claw” It is an orange giant.

Zubeneschamali, along with Zubenelgenubi and Zubenelakrab are easy reminders of when the Libra constellation was part of Scorpio before getting cut off and becoming associated with Virgo.

Gliese 581 – This star has a planetary system of at least six planets of which Gliese 581 d and Gliese 581 g are thought to be the most likely to hold life. At current, 581 g’s status and existence still isn’t agreed upon or confirmed by the scientific community as a whole. Gliese 581 c, discovered in 2007, is the first exo-planet found in an area known as the goldilocks zone of a star for habitability and earth-like conditions for life. Gliese 581 e is the smallest exo-planet found to date.

Autumn Equinox

During the time of the Romans, they had chosen Libra and placed importance on it as at one point some 4,000 years ago, when the Sun pass through Libra, it marked the Autumn Equinox close to and around September 21st. This time is also known as the “First Point of Libra”, marking a time of the year when both day and night are perfectly balanced in terms of being equal length; before the nights started getting longer due to the earth’s axel tilt and seasonal changes for winter.

Zodiac

The constellation of Libra is the seventh sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from September 23 to October 22. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during June around 9 p.m. The planet Venus is said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Air, a Cardinal sign and is one of four Cardinal signs.

One of the defining traits about Libras is that they love balance; they love to do things in pairs, that is with other people. They love to work with others, have a strong sense of fair play and equality, they make excellent team players. Libras love to have everything out in the open, nothing hidden as they like too to be objective in all their decisions and interactions with everyone.

Because they like to try and get along with everyone, a Libra can be seen as indecisive. This same indecisiveness can also come about when faced with two opposing choices as they can see both sides and they can also have a hard time as to which to go with.

Virgo

Virgo

Etymology – Virgin or Young Maiden

The constellation of Virgo is one of twelve that form the classical Greek Zodiac. Virgo is often depicted as a Winged Maiden holding a stalk or sheaf of wheat or some other grain in her hand. After Hydra, the constellation of Virgo is the second largest constellation and the largest constellation of the Zodiac.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Virgo is Latin for virgin and is one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations and is located in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the second largest constellation in the night sky and the largest constellation of the Greek Zodiac. Other constellations close to Virgo are Boötes, Coma Berenices, Leo, Crater, Corvus, Hydra, Libra, and Serpens Caput.

Other Astronomy

The constellation of Virgo has been recognized and known by many different names by different cultures and civilizations. The Egyptians saw Isis, the Goddess of Fertility, in India, they saw Kanya, the mother of Krishna, the Hindu saw Kauni, the Maiden, the Persians knew her as Khosha, the Ear of Wheat and the Hebrews knew of her as Bethulah, “Abundance in Harvest.”

Chinese Astronomy

In Chinese astronomy, the northern part of Virgo is part Taiwei, a palace of the Emperor where a Private Council with administrators and legalities were conducted. This court was also known as the Supreme Palace Enclosure and included parts of the constellations Coma Berenices and Leo. The stars Beta, Eta, Gamma, Delta and Epsilon Virginis, Alpha Comae Berenices and Delta Leonis all formed the walls of this enclosure in the heavens. The stars within these “walls” represented all the different government officials, courtiers and dignitaries.

The stars Spica and Zeta Virginis formed Jiao, the horn of the Blue Dragon cang long. The horn Jiao is also the first of 28 Chinese lunar mansions. Jiao was also seen as the gateway for the Sun, Moon and planets as they passed along the ecliptic. Another pair of stars south of Spica known as 53 and 69 Virginis formed another gateway known as Tianmen.

Two more stars, found at right angles to Spica and Zeta Virginis formed a straight road called Pingdao that the Sun, Moon and planets traveled on. The star Theta Virginis was known as Jinxian and represented the people who have outstanding achievements and were awaiting their honors and awards. To the north of Zeta Virginis, possibly Tau and either 78 or Sigma Virginis formed Tiantain, the heavenly fields that would be ploughed every spring before planting time.

The stars Lambda, Kappa, Iota and Phi Virginis form the neck of the Blue Dragon or Kang. This is the second of the lunar mansions and represented the administrative part of the government that oversees the affairs of individual households. Close to Kang is a lake with sail boats in it called Kangchi. As to which stars represent Kangchi is uncertain as they have changed over time.

Christianity

During Medieval Europe, Virgo easily became identified with the Virgin Mary, the mother of Christ.

According to Manly P. Hall’s “Secret Teachings of All Ages,” the Catholic Feast of the Assumption is connected to the constellation Virgo and the story of the Greek goddess Astraea to Virgin Mary as being the one who rose up into the Heavens. By this same source, the Roman calendar of Columella marks the disappearance of Virgo in the night sky around mid August. And Astraea’s Assumption that was observed by the ancient Greeks and Romans seems to have been adopted by the Catholics.

Egyptian Astronomy and Mythology

The zodiac ceiling painting in the Dendera Temple Complex has been identified as Isis by Eratosthenes and Avienus. In the painting, Isis is shown holding a sheaf of wheat ears in her hand that she later drops to form and become the Milky Way.

Greek and Roman Mythology

There seem to be multiple, conflicting myths from Greek and Roman mythology that have become associated with the constellation of Virgo. Virgo was also called Parthenos among the Greeks.

Hestia/Vesta

Vesta is the Goddess of Light and Roman counterpart to the Greek Hestia, whose function and job was to watch over the hearth fire of a home. The Vestal Virgins were shown the utmost respect and if their chastity was ever violated, they were punished by being buried alive.

Goddess of Justice

In Greek Mythology, there is another goddess, Astraea, the Goddess of Justice who represented the natural order including those of childbirth, change, abundance and death. Astraea’s story overlaps a little bit with that of Pandora. For when Prometheus was punished with having given the gift of fire to humans and chained to a rock, Zeus (or Jupiter) then went on to curse mankind with the first woman, Pandora who was given a box. When Pandora finally opened the box, unleashing all manners of plagues and calamities up humans, the gods began to leave the earth.

Astraea is also said to be the daughter of Zeus and Themis and that it is from Themis that Astraea took on the duties and responsibility of meting out justice and ordered the seasons. When the Golden Age ended, Astraea was one of the last immortals to leave the earth and causing an era of anarchy and crime. It is this goddess who is said to represent the classical Greek Zodiac of Virgo. Astraea is sometimes depicted as holding the scales of justice, which is represented in the zodiac as Libra. The legend continues too that one day Astaea will return to the earth and bring back the Golden Age.

To make this a little more confusing, Astraea is also closely linked to another Greek Goddess of Justice, Dike. So much so, that Dike often has the epitaph of Dike Astraea. Both goddesses are daughters of Zeus and Themis, though with slightly different aspects of Justice that they are responsible for and preside over. In some tellings of the story of Dike, when she’s identified as Astaea, she will be said to be the daughter of Astraeus, the father of the stars and Eos, the goddess of the dawn.

When the above myth involves Dike in its retelling, she lived during the Golden Age of man, a period of prosperity and peace with ever lasting spring and humans having never experienced old age. At this time, Dike was mortal while fulfilling her role as a keeper of justice and law. Once Zeus had defeated and over threw his father, it marked the beginning of the Silver Age and the turnings of the season were introduced and men began to cease honoring the gods as they had before. Dike tried to warn the people of what would happen, but she eventually gave up and found herself forced to turn her back on humans and left for the heavens. It is at this time that men began to war among themselves and the Bronze and Iron Ages came.

Demeter and Persephone

Another Greek myth related to the constellation of Virgo is the story of Persephone, the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and how she was abducted into the underworld by Hades. Before Persephone’s abduction, it had always been eternal spring, never winter. So when Hades abducted Persephone, Demeter beside herself with grief, rage and anger, destroyed the crops of the Greeks and bringing about winter. Demeter swore that she would not allow the Earth to be fertile again until her daughter was returned.

With the people starving and beseeching the gods for help, Zeus intervened, informing his brother Hades that Persephone must be returned. Such would be possible, provided that Persephone hadn’t eaten any of the Underworld food or drink.

However, by one means or another, Persephone did eat three seeds of a pomegranate and as a result; this tied her to the underworld. Eventually a compromise was reached, where Persephone agreed to marry Hades and she would spend part of the year with him, the time known as winter and the other times of the year, she would be with her mother Demeter, allowing for spring and the other seasons.

Incidentally Demeter has sometimes been identified as the virgin goddess Iustitia or the previously mentioned Astraea. It’s also an interesting note, from the perspective of the Northern Hemisphere, that when the constellation Virgo is visible in the night sky, it is spring and when it no longer is visible, it does mark autumn and winter.

Under Roman influence, Demeter is identified with their goddess of the harvest Ceres. Her festival was held in the second week of April around the time that the constellation of Virgo reappears in the night skies and marking the beginning of Spring.

Erigone

The daughter of Icarius, Erigone is also another character in Greek myth who is identified with Virgo. In this story, Icarius, who was a devote of and favored by Dionysus, was killed by his shepherds when heavily intoxicated. In grief, Erigone hung herself and Dionysus hung both Icarius and Erigone up in the heavens as the constellations Boötes and Virgo.

Tyche

Finally, wrapping up all of the Greek and Roman connections, the historians Eratosthenes and Hyginus said that the constellation of Virgo represented the goddess Tyche, the goddess of fortune and her horn of plenty.

Mesopotamian Mythology

In the Babylonian Astronomical tablet known as the Mul.Apin, the constellation of Virgo was known as “The Furrow” and represented the goddess Shala’s ear of grain. To this day, the star known as Spica seems to be a reminder of this older constellation as the star’s name in Latin means “ear of grain.”

This constellation was also called AB.SIN and absinnu, connecting it to fertility. According to the author Gavin White in his Babylonian Star-Lore book, the constellation of Virgo actually corresponds to two Babylonian constellations: “the Furrow,” the eastern half of Virgo and “the Fround of Erua,” in the western half of Virgo. The Frond of Erua is supposed to represent a goddess holding a palm frond, an image still associated with other depictions of Virgo.

The constellation of Virgo has been identified with the Sumerian and Chalean goddess of Ishtar or Inanna, the Queen of Heaven. Ishtar descended into the underworld in order to bring her husband Tammuz back to life and earth. For without him, the earth went dark and nothing could grow. At the intervention of the other gods, Ishtar and Tammuz were rescued and the earth restored to fertility.

Stars of Virgo

Alpha Virginis – Also known as Spica, it is the brightest star within Virgo. It is considered the 16th brightest star in the night sky and is a blue giant located some 260 light-years away from Earth. In latin, Spica means “ear of grain” or “ear of wheat.” 17th century western astronomers referred to Spica as Arista. The Chinese refer to Spica as Jiao Xiu. Hindu astronomers know Spica as Nakshatra Chitra. Spica also appears as one of the stars on the Brazilian flag.

It’s also with Spica, that early astronomers like Hipparchus discovered the precession of the equinoxes by measuring the movement of the stars in the heavens during the year. And Nicolaus Copernicus’ observations of Spica allowed for the change in astronomy to move to a heliocentric cosmology instead of one that placed the Earth in the center of the universe.

Beta Virginis – Also known as Zavijava and Alaraph, is the fifth brightest star within Virgo. The Autumn Equinox is now marked by this star. The name Zavijava comes from the Arabic language of zawiyat al-cawwa’ which means “the corner of the barking dog.”

Gamma Virginis – Also known as Porrima or Arich, is the second brightest star in the constellation. Porrima is the name of two Roman goddesses of prophecy, the Carmenae. This star is also sometimes known as Postvarta or Laouiyet al Aoua. The later name in Latin of Angulus Latratoris means “the angle of the barker”. This star, along with Beta, Eta, Delta and Epsilon Virginis formed a smaller asterism known as the Barker.

Epsilon Virginis – Also known as Vindemiatrix or the Grape Gatherer, is the third brightest star in the constellation.

Virgo Galaxy Cluster

Not surprising, with Virgo being the second largest constellation after Hydra in the night sky, that it would also be a section of the night sky where thousands of galaxies are found within. The most famous of these galaxies is one known as the Sombrero galaxy due to how its shaped.

Virginids

There are a number of minor and major meteor shows associated with the constellation of Virgo. The major and more significant ones are: Alpha Virginids (from March 10 and May 6), Gamma Virginids (from April 5 to April 21), Eta Virginids (from February 24 and March 27), and Theta Virginids (from March 10 and April 21). The rest are minor, daytime meteor showers that can be hard to see or spot.

Autumn Equinox

With the precession of the heavens and passage over time, the first day of Autumn and the Autumn Equinox now lies within Virgo, close to the start of when Beta Virginis or Zavijava is high over head.

The Autumn Equinox used to be marked by the constellation of Libra.

Zodiac

The constellation of Virgo is the sixth sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from August 23 to September 22. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during May around 9 p.m. The planet Mercury is said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. In some astrology reports, the asteroid or planetoid Ceres is also said to be the ruler for Virgo. Its element is Earth, an extroverted sign and is one of four mutable signs.

Virgos are said to be known for their attention to detail natures and can often come under condemnation from others for being too picky and critical. Virgos see this as only trying to help and they do love to help and serve. Their methodical, industrious and efficient manners are frequently a great boon when getting a job done and getting it done correctly. It’s good for a Virgo to remember to keep themselves well ground and not to over do it when working. They are also known for their modest and humane natures. Virgos enjoy their practicality and will gives themselves fully to a project until it is done.

Leo

Leo - Constellation

Etymology – the Lion

The constellation Leo is one of many familiar constellations that form the classical Greek Zodiac. It is often represented as a sickle-shape series of stars, with the sickle part being the lion’s head and the rest forming the body and tail of the lion.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Leo is one of the oldest recognized constellations and was one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations. It is the 12th largest constellation in the night sky. The Leo constellation is a rather small constellation and is found between Cancer to the west and Virgo to the east. Other constellations bordering with Leo are Cancer, Coma Berenices, Crater, Hydra, Leo Minor, Lynx, Sextans, Ursa Major and Virgo.

Several other cultures have known of Leo throughout the millennia. Hindu astronomers have known of Leo as Asleha and Sinha, The Persians referred to this constellation as Ser or Shir, to the Turks as Artan, the Syrians as Aryo, the Jews as Arye, the Tamil as Simham and the Babylonians, Aru; all of which mean Lion in their respective languages.

Chinese Astronomy

The Chinese know of the constellation Leo, or at least know most of that stars that make up Leo as their constellation: Xuanyuan, the Yellow Dragon. In the Chinese zodiac, the stars that make up Leo are thought to represent a horse.

The star Beta Leonis while not part of Xuanyuan, was part of the myth connected to this constellation. It was called Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, a legendary ruler and founder of Chinese civilization. His image, along with the Yellow Dragon, Yuanyuan were immortalized up in the heavens as a constellation.

A set of four stars to the north, south, west and east of Huangdi controlled and ruled the four season. These stars along with Huangdi formed an asterism known as Wudi, the Emperors. The chariots of the Emperors were represented by the fives that outline the constellation Auriga. North of this group of stars was the Emperor’s heir, Taizi (93 Leonis), his personal assistant Congguan (92 Leonis) and a bodyguard Huben (72 Leonis) who kept watch.

Wudi, Taizi and Congguan fall within a larger area called Taiwei which represented a court where the Emperor met with his private council. Taiwei extends out into the constellation of Virgo. A chain of five stars along the south of Delta, Theta, Iota and Sigma and up to Beta Virginis form one of the boundary walls for Taiwei.

Another fainter line of four stars from the north of Leo into Leo Minor form Shaowei, represent either a delegation of nobility welcoming Huangdi or a group of scholarly advisors. Its unclear which stars were meant to represent Shaowei. Some sources say they are 53 Leonis to 41 Leonis Minoris. This same line of stars later forms Changyuan, an outer wall protectiong Taiwei.

There are a few other smaller constellations that the Chinese saw in the area of Leo. The stars Xi Leonis and a couple other stars formed Jiuqi, a banner of a wine maker or merchant. Jiuqi is probably meant to be connected to the kitchen, Waichu seen in the constellation of Hydra to the south.

The stars Chi, 58 and 59 Leonis represent Lingtai, an astronomical observatory. The star Upsilon Leonis and two more stars formed Mingtang, the “bright hall”, an administrative center where the Emperor announced the forecast of events for the coming year. The “brightness” part of this asterism’s title may refer to the Emperor’s presence.

The sickle part of the Leo constellation is recognized as a completely different constellation. One that forms a snaking line up into the Lynx constellation.

Egyptian Mythology

The ancient Egyptians were known to have worshipped lion headed gods. They also believed that the world was created during a time when the Sun rose in the Leo constellation near the star known as Denebola. The Sun in Leo during the time of the Egyptians marked the annual flooding of the Nile River, the life blood of the Empire’s agriculture.

Greek and Roman Mythology

The Twelve Labors of Hercules

In Greek mythology, the hero Hercules was tasked with a series of twelve labors by King Eurystheus that needed to be performed as penance for the killing of Hercules’ family. The first of these tasks was to slay the Nemean Lion, one of many children of the giant Typhon and the monstrous Echidna. Other sources say the lion was the offspring of the god Zeus and Selene and that Selene may have deliberately set the monster against the people of Nemea for not giving her proper dues and respect as a goddess. Some sources will add too that the Nemean Lion was the brother of the Theban Sphinx. And finally, there is also mention of the dog Orthrus having sired the Nemean Lion.

When heading out to accomplish this task, Hercules stopped at the town of Cleonae where he stayed with a poor man known as Molorchus. When Molorchus heard of Hercules’ task, he offered to do a sacrifice to ensure a successful lion hunt. Hercules convinced Molorchus to wait thirty days. That way then, if Hercules returned with the slain beast, a sacrifice would be made to Zeus. If Hercules didn’t return, Molorchus would make a sacrifice to honor the fallen hero.

The nefarious beast was well known and Hercules lost no time at all in finding the beast’s lair; a cave with two entrances. When Hercules arrived, the lion showed itself and the hero began his battle in earnest with it. The lion was said to have a hide so tough that no weapon could pierce it as Hercules quickly discovered when his arrows had no effect on it. Hercules decided to seal off one of the cave entrances before pursuing the beast. Eventually Hercules caught up with the beast and ended up strangling the Lion to death by ramming his fist down its throat.

Obviously, Hercules was able to return to Cleonae where he and Molorchus made a sacrifice to Zeus, King of the Gods. And with the lion now dead, Hercules used one of its claws to skin it for its pelt. Wearing the pelt as a cloak, along with the lion’s head, Hercules returned to King Eurystheus to show proof of having finished the first of his twelve labors. Eurystheus was so frightened of the beast that he fled in terror from it. In any event, Hercules skinned the lion and used its hide for a shield.

Depending on the version of the story of Hercules and his first labor, it will be either Hera or Zeus who places the lion up in the heavens to become the constellation of Leo.

Pyramus and Thisbe

A story told by the poet Ovid, it tells how the parents of the title characters Pyramus and Thisbe, believed them too young to marry and forbade the two from seeing each other. As is the nature of rebellious youth passionately in love, the two still arranged to meet secretly with each other under a mulberry tree with white berries.

When Thisbe arrived to wait for Pyramus, a lion sprung out from under some bushes and she ran away in terror from it. As she did so, her veil fell to the ground and the lion already bloody from an earlier kill, pounced on it.

So later, when Pyramus arrives, he sees the bloodied veil of Thisbe and believes it as proof of her having been killed. Beside himself with grief and unable to see life without her, Pyramus thrusts himself on his sword. As he lays dying, Thisbe returns and seeing that her love is dead, takes up the sword to kill herself too. This tragedy was used to explain why mulberries are red as its believed the blood of the lovers colored them so. Other sources will say that Zeus placed Thisbe’s veil up in the heavens as the constellation Coma Berenices.

Other Names and Zodiac

Leo was also known as Bacchi Sidus, the star of Bacchus and identified with the god Bacchus. Roman poets like Ovid called the Leo constellation Herculeus Leo and Violentus Leo. Others like Manilius referred to this constellation as Jovis et Junonis Side, the Star of Jupiter and Juno. The Greek scholar Eratosthenes and Roman author Hyginus both have said that the lion was placed in the heavens as it is the king of beasts.

In regards to the zodiac and summer solstice, the Greeks and Romans had many various lion-headed fountains that may or may not have symbolized the strong connection of Leo to the life-giving waters and rains that the Egyptians revered.

Mesopotamian Mythology

Like many of the classic constellations, the Leo constellation was known as far back as 4000 B.C.E. by the Mesopotamians. The Babylonians called this constellation UR.GU.LA, the “Great Lion.” The star Regulus was known as “the star that stands at the Lion’s breast” and held distinct regal authority as it was also known as the “King Star” or Star of the King.” The ancient Chaldeans associated Leo with the sun as back during their time; the sun was in the sky during the summer solstice.

King Of The Beasts

The ancient Greeks Eratosthenes and Hyginus both mention that the shape of a lion to have placed in the night sky as it is the King of the Beasts.

Loosing A Tail

Around 240 B.C.E., the Leo constellation lost its tail when an astronomer-priest under Ptolemy III reassigned the stars to make up the constellation of Coma Berenices or Berenice’s Hair.

Stars In Leo

Alpha Leonis – Also known as Regulus and believed to be so named by the astronomer Copernicus, it is the brightest star in Leo and it is the 22nd brightest star in the sky. In the northern hemisphere, Regulus is best seen in late winter and spring evenings. Due to the earth’s orbit and rotation around the sun, Regulus can’t be seen for about a two month’s time during August and September. The name Regulus means “little king” or “prince” in Latin. The Greek name Basiliscos also holds the same meaning. And the Arabic name for this star, Qalb al-Asad means: “the heart of the lion.” Among those civilizations located around the Euphrates river, Regulus was known as “The Flame” or “Red Fire” as it had been believed anciently that this star was responsible for the hotness of Summer.

Another name with the same meanings is Cor Leonis. Regulus was known anciently as one of the four “Royal Stars” of Heaven. The other three are Aldebaran, Fomalhaut, and Antares.

Beta Leonis – Also known as Denebola or the tail of the lion. It is the second brightest star in the Leo constellation. The name Denebola comes from the Arabic name ðanab al-asad.

Gamma Leonis – Also known as Algieba, it is a double star. The name Algieba or Al Gieba comes from the Arabic word Al-Jabhah which means “the forehead” or “lion’s mane.” The star is also known by a Latin name of Juba. Along with other stars, Adhafera or Zeta Leonis and Al Jabbah or Eta Leonis, they are sometimes called the Sickle.

Delta Leonis – Or Zosma from the Greek language for “girdle,” it refers to this star’s location on the lion’s hip.

Wolf 359 – This star is a red dwarf and is one of the lowest-mass stars discovered to date. After Alpha Centauri and Barnad’s Star, it is one of the closest stars to our Sun. As a result of this, Wolf 359 has enjoyed some claim to fame by being mentioned shows like Star Trek and location of the Battle of Wolf 359 where the Borg destroyed a number of Star Fleet ships. Wolf 359 also has mention made in an episode of The Outer Limits.

Leo Ring

One of the more interesting celestial objects found in the Leo constellation is the Leo Ring is a huge ancient cloud of helium and hydrogen gas that orbits between two galaxies. Astronomers have determined that it is left over material from the event known as the Big Bang. This gas cloud was discovered by radio astronomers in 1983.

Leonids

The Leonids are the meteor showers associated with the Leo constellation. They’re seen in November and peak around November 14-15 with 10-20 meteors per hour. These meteors are known to come from the Tempel-Tuttle comet which orbits the sun every 33 years. Three times a century, this meteor shower will become particularly dense with several hundred to even bursts of 1,000 meteors per hour. These denser showers typically happen in years ending in 33, 66 and 99.

There is another minor January Leonid shower that typically occurs between January 1 and January 7.

Summer Solstice

The constellation Leo had at one time been associated with the Summer Solstice. This has changed over the millennia, with progression of the equinoxes and shifts in the Earth’s axis as it rotates around the sun.

Anciently, it had been believed that the star known as Regulus was responsible for the excessive heat at the height of summer. Around 2,300 B.C.E. the Summer Solstice was located near Regulus and marked the beginning of summer. Nowadays, we’re close to the end of summer and getting to head into autumn. The role of the summer star has changed to that of Sirius and the dog days of summer.

The ancient Egyptians believed the world to have been created during a time with the Sun in Leo and close to the star known as Denebola. On the Temple ceiling in Dendera Temple complex in Egypt, there is a night sky painting depicting the whole zodiac and their constellations. All of which shows a strong Greco-Roman influence.

Zodiac

The constellation of Leo is the fifth sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from July 22 to August 22. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during April around 9 p.m. The Sun is said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Fire, an extroverted sign and is one of four fixed signs.

Those born under the sign of Leo are thought to love taking the spot light and center stage in everything they do as they are very outgoing and enthusiastic. This can cause a seeming appearance and belief that the world revolves around them. Leos are also seen as being rather ambitious and take up a lot of different creative activities. The down side to Leos is that they can be seen as brash and arrogant in their self-confidence. Leos can be rather opinionated about matters and may rub others the wrong way. Leos can be very generous in spirit, fierce in their determination and loyal.

Cancer

Cancer

Etymology – The Crab.

Cancer, the Crab is one of twelve familiar signs of the Zodiac in Western Culture. Surprisingly for all of its importance in the Zodiac, the part it plays in Greek mythology is only that of a bit part.

The modern-day symbol for Cancer is a pair of pincers like those on a crab. The constellation shape for cancer itself looks more like an upside-down “Y” which is interpreted to be the back of the crab. Over the millennia, the Cancer constellation has been used to represent a number of different animals, most often those of an aquatic, shore-dwelling animal with an exoskeleton.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Cancer is one of the oldest recognized constellations and was one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations. It is the 31st largest constellation in the night sky. The Cancer constellation is a rather small constellation and is found between Gemini to the west and Leo to the east. Other constellations bordering with Cancer are Leo Minor, Lynx, Canis Minor and Hydra.

There is a 12th century illustrated astronomical book that depicts the Cancer constellation as a water beetle. In 1489, an Albumasar wrote about Cancer, describing it as a large crayfish. Then in the 17th century, Jakob Bartsch and Stanislaus Lubienitzki describe the constellation as being a lobster.

Chinese Astronomy

In Chinese astronomy, the stars that make up Cancer lie within the Vermillion Bird of the South or Nán Fāng Zhū Què.

The four stars (Delta, Gamma, Eta and Theta Cancri ) surrounding the star cluster known as Praesepe or the Beehive Cluster were known as Gui, meaning ghosts, which referred to the spirits of the dead. The 23rd Chinese Lunar Mansion was also called Gui for this asterism. In China, Praesepe was called Jishi, a group of corpses. This star cluster and the four stars surrounding it were seen as a ghost being carried in a sedan chair on a wagon. For this reason, this group of stars was known as Yugui or Ghost Wagon.

North of Gui was another grouping of stars that formed a figure called Guan, a beacon fire on a watchtower. Sources will differ as to which four groups of stars this was to have been and it may have changed from time to time too. Some sources place Gui as being around Chi Cancri while other sources place Gui around Iota Cancre. A final chain of four stars that crosses into Cancer from Canis Minor was known as Shuiwei or the “water level.”

Egyptian Mythology

In ancient Egyptian records dating back to around 2,000 B.C.E., the Cancer constellation was seen as Scarabaeus or the Scarab and a sacred emblem for immortality. A scarab was also responsible for pushing the Sun across the heavens.

In Coptic Egypt, Athanasius Kircher reports that Cancer was Κλαρια, the Bestia seu Statio Typhonis or the Power of Darkness. The scholar, Jérôme Lalande identified Cancer with Anubis, one of the Egyptian divinities commonly associated with Sirius.

Greek & Roman Mythology

Cancer the crab was known by several names. In Latin, the name Cancer means crab. Manilus and Ovid both referred to this constellation as Litoreus or “shore-inhabiting.” In Greece, it was Karkinos, meaning crab. In the Alfonsine tables, it was called Carcinus, a Latinized form of the Greek word. Aside from being known as a crab, it was also called Asses and Crib.

The famous hero Hercules had to perform a series of twelve tasks or labors as part of his penance for the death of his sons after he had been driven mad by Hera. For the second of these labors, Hercules traveled to the swamps of Lerna where the Hydra dwelt. With Athena’s aid, Hercules was able to locate the Hydra’s lair. The Hydra was a gigantic water snake with nine heads and immortal. The mighty hero found himself at a standoff with the beast as he soon discovered that for every time a head was chopped off, two more would grow back and its breath could kill on contact.

The crab, Cancer enters the story here as either the Hydra called on it for help or the goddess Hera sent it to hinder the hero Hercules. It’s considered a large crab, large enough that it tries to do a number on Hercules’ foot with its pincers. For all its trouble, Hercules simply kills it by crushing it in return with his foot and then turning his attention back to the Hydra and finally succeeds at killing it. A slight variation to this turn of events places Hercules as having kicked the crab hard enough that it flew up into the heavens to become the familiar constellation of Cancer.

With the Hydra’s death, Hercules proceeds to dip his arrows into the beast’s blood. As the Hydra’s blood is poisonous, the slightest scratch from one of these poisoned-tipped arrows would be instant death to his enemies. Instead later, it results in the accidental poisoning and death of either Chiron or Pholus depending on the version of the story of Hercules’ battle with the centaurs being told.

Late addition or down grade of a legend?

Several scholars have come to believe that its very well possible that the crab part of the myth when Hercules battles the Hydra in the Twelve Labors of Hercules, is a latter addition by early astrologers and astronomers trying to connect and relate all the constellations to Hercules’ legends.

Regardless of what the case is, the crab is awarded a place in the heavens as a constellation by Hera. As the crab failed to kill Hercules, it only has faint stars that make it up; no bright stars are found within it.

Cry Havoc And Let Slip The Donkeys of War!

There are two stars, Delta and Gamma Cancri, respectively known as the Northern and Southern Donkey that are part of an old Greek legend. When the gods went to battle the Titans, Hephaestus, Dionysus and several other gods rode in on donkeys. The Titans, having never heard the sounds of Donkeys braying, thought that they were monsters and so fled the field of battle. To commemorate this event, Dionysus placed the donkeys in the night sky as a star next to the star cluster Praesepe, which represented a manger or crib.

Another version from Greek Legend

In another legend, Hera is to have driven the god Dionysus insane. As a result, he ended up wandering through Egypt and Syria in the throes of madness. In an attempt to recover his sanity, Dionysus visited the Oracle of Zeus in Dodona to find a solution. While on his way there, he came upon a swamp where, he encountered two asses or donkeys which he subsequently caught. Dionysus then proceeded to ride the donkeys through the swamp in order to avoid getting wet. Once through and on the other side, Dionysus found that he was cured of his insanity and rewarded the donkeys by placing them up in the heavens as the Northern and Southern Donkey.

And from Roman Legend

In this one, the god Silenus’ donkey that he rode got into a contest with Priapus over the size of their erect manhoods. When the god won, he killed the beast and Silenus taking pity, placed the donkey up into the stars where it can be found in Cancer.

Hindu Mythology & Astronomy

In Sanskrit, Cancer is known by the name of Karka and Karkata. In Telugu it is called Karkatakam. Other dialects from India such as Kannada call Cancer Karkataka or Kataka. In Tamil its Karkatan and in Sinhalese its Kagthaca. Later Hindus would know Cancer as Kuilura. Etymologists believe that all of these word variations have influenced the Greek name for Cancer.

Malaysian Mythology

In Malaysian myths, Cancer was the “First and Only Crab” which existed long ago, the primal or mother crab from which all crabs came. It was a huge crustacean who lived in a deep hole in the sea. This hole was so large that the crab’s coming and goings from it would cause the ocean tides.

Mesopotamian Mythology

In Akkadia, Cancer was known as Alluttu. It marked the location for the Sun of the South during the Summer Solstice. Later on, it became associated with the fourth month of Duzu that roughly corresponds with the modern, western calendar of June-July. Duzu was known too as the Northern Gate of the Sun.

Among the Babylonians, the constellation was known as MUL.AL.LUL, or Bulag a name that can refer to either a crab or a snapping turtle. One source places the meaning of the word Bulag as “the Wicked One.” This is to be an early reference to the stars as having a reputation for being of an unfortunate nature. On boundary stones, the image of a turtle or tortoise is found regularly and thought to be what represents Cancer. A crab symbol has yet so far, not been found on any of the boundary stones.

Gate Of Men

There also seems to be a strong connection linking the ideas of death and passage into the Underworld that may contribute to the Greek myths and legends associated in the story of Hercules and his battle with the Hydra.

In the ancient Chaldean and Platonic philosophies, Cancer was known as the Gate of Men. This was a gateway or portal by which souls descended from the heavens when they were ready to be born. About 2700 years ago, the sun passed through the Cancer constellation during the Summer Solstice. At this point and time, Cancer was the apex of the Zodiac. The symbol of a crab came into use as it was believed that the sun’s seemingly backwards motion through the heavens were much like those of a crab in how they walk; that is sideways and backwards once it reached the Summer Solstice. The symbolism of the crab is also used as it’s a shore creature and represented a bridge between the land and ocean from where all life began. The opposite sign of Cancer is Capricorn, seen as the Gate of the Gods through which the souls of the dead would ascend back up to the heavens.

Stars of Cancer

Alpha Cancri – Also known as Acubens or Al Zubanah, both meaning “the claws.” Another name for this star is Sertan, “the crab.” It is the fourth brightest star of the Cancer constellation.

Beta Cancri – Also known as Al Tarf or Tarf, the name is thought to come from the Arabic “aṭ-ṭarf” which means “the eye,” or “aṭ-ṭarfah” meaning “the glance of Leo.” Beta Cancri is the brightest star found within the Cancer constellation.

Delta Cancri – This star is the second brightest star within the Cancer constellation. An orange giant, it is also known as Asellus Australis or the “southern donkey colt.” Additionally, this star also holds the record for the longest name. Arkushanangarushashutu is from the ancient Babylonian language and means: “the southeast star in the Crab.” This star also marks the location of o Praesepe or the Beehive Cluster.

Gamma Cancri – Also known as Asellus Borealis or “northern donkey colt” is a white A-type star or subgiant.

Both Delta and Gamma Cancri as the Northern and Southern Donkey are associated with a Greek legend in which Dionysus, Hephaestus and several of the gods rode into battle against the Titans riding on donkeys.

Zeta Cancri – Also known as Tegmine, meaning “the shell of the crab” is a star system of at least four stars.

Beehive Cluster

Also known as M44 and better known by its Latin name Praesepe which also means hive or crib, is the brightest star cluster found in Cancer that can be seen by the naked eye at night without the aid of a telescope. The Beehive Cluster is found in the center of the Cancer constellation. It is best seen and observed during the months of February to May on the Northern side of the Equator when Cancer appears at its highest point. There’s well over three hundred stars found in the Beehive Cluster. It thought that over a hundred of these stars are brighter then the Earth’s own Sun.

The ancient astronomer Ptolemy described the Beehive Cluster as “the nebulous mass in the breast of Cancer.” Hipparchus referred to this cluster as a “Little Cloud” and Aratus called it the “Little Mist.” In antiquity, this cluster had often been used to predict the weather. If it wasn’t crystal clear or visible, then inclement weather could be expected. The Beehive Cluster was also one of the first objects that Galileo observed in his telescope in 1609. At that time, he identified 40 stars within the cluster. Nowadays, there are about 1010 likely members with most of them being red dwarfs. Halley’s Comet was discovered in this part of the night sky in 1531.

Both the Greeks and Romans identified the Beehive Cluster as a manager that two donkeys, represented by neighboring stars as Asellus Borealis and Asellus Australis eat from. These two stars represent the donkeys that the god Dionysus and his tutor Silenus rode on during the war with the Titans. The ancient Chinese saw in the cluster a ghost or demon riding in a carriage and called it a “cloud of pollen blown from under willow catkins.”

Cancrids

Cancer has only one meteor shower associated with it and it’s known as the Delta Cancrids.

Tropic of Cancer

The tropic of Cancer is the latitude line on the Earth that marks the northernmost point when the Sun appears to be overhead at noon. Particularly during the Summer Solstice on or roughly around June 21.

Summer Solstice

In ancient times, Cancer marked the location of the Sun’s most northerly position in the heavens and Summer Solstice. With the precession of the equinoxes over the years, the sun is now technically in Taurus come June 21st when its time for the Summer Solstice.

Zodiac

The constellation of Cancer is the fourth sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from June 21 to July 21. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during March around 9 p.m. The Moon is said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Water, an extroverted sign and is one of four cardinal signs.

Those born under the sign of Cancer are thought to have sensitive, shy and caring natures. On the extreme side of things, a Cancer person can be seen as being too emotional, touchy and moody. They can be tough when they need to be. Home is important to a Cancer person. They love all the creature comforts of home and family. A Cancer person may have a strong love for family traditions and certainly family values.

Dark Sign Of The Zodiac

Because it has so few stars and isn’t very bright as a constellation to begin with, Cancer is often seen as the “Dark Sign,” described as being black and without eyes.

House Of The Moon

In Richard Hinckley Allen’s book Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, the constellation of Cancer was considered the House of the Moon as it was believed that the moon was found here at the time of creation.

Gemini

Gemini
Etymology – The Twins

The constellation known as Gemini is one of twelve constellations that form and make up the classical Greek Zodiac. It is associated with the myth of Castor and Pollux, also known as the Dioscuri. It is also one of the few constellations that actually look like its namesake and what it’s to represent.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Gemini is one of the oldest recognized constellations and was one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations. It is the 30th largest constellation of the night sky. The constellation of Gemini is also unique as it’s not just named for two twin heros, but has two stars found within it named for those same heroes. The planets Uranus and Pluto were discovered in Gemini. Bordering constellations to Gemini are Auriga, Cancer, Canis Minor, Lynx, Monoceros, Orion and Taurus.

The constellation of Gemini is one that can be seen with the naked eye. The easiest way to locate the constellation in the night sky is to find its two brightest stars Castor and Pollux. These two stars lay in an easterly direction from the familiar “V” shaped asterism of Taurus and the three stars of Orion’s belt. Another method is to mentally draw a line from the Pleiades star cluster located within Taurus and the brightest star in Leo, Regulus.

Arabian Astrology

Gemini is represented by a pair of peacocks.

Babylonian Mythology

In Babylonian astronomy, the stars Castor and Pollux were known as the Great Twins, MUL.MASH.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL. The Great Twins were minor gods and known as Meshlamtaea and Lugalirra, each meaning respectively: “The One who has arisen from the Underworld” and the “Mighty King.” Both of these names are titles of Nergal, the major Babylonian god of plague and pestilence, who was king of the Underworld.

In some sources, the constellation of the Great Twins is believed to commemorate the friendship of Gilgamesh and Enkidu who adventured together and fought the gods in twelve adventures and a quest for immortality.

Another point of interest is that the symbol for Gemini was a pile of bricks and referred to the first city built and not just the twins. The Sumerian name for the lunar month that fell between May and June is Araḫ Simanu.

Chinese Mythology

In Chinese astronomy, the stars that correspond to Gemini are located in two areas: the White Tiger of the West and the Vermillion Bird of the South. The stars known as Castor and Pollux are seen as Yin and Yang, an important concept and principle in Buddhism on how all things are connected and related.

The largest part of Gemini forms a constellation in Chinese known as Jing, meaning “Well.” It is sometimes called the Eastern Well is comprise of eight stars: Lambda, Zeta, 36, Epsilon, Xi, Gamma, Nu and Mu Geminorum. Together, these stars form the shape that resembles the Chinese character for “well.” Tthe 22nd Chinese lunar mansion is also called Jing after this constellation and is the widest of the 28 lunar mansions. The star known as Eta Geminorum, which is next to the Well is called Yue and represents a battle axe used for decapitating the corrupt and immoral.

The actual stars called Castor and Pollux are not part of Jing. They, along with Rho Geminorum are part of another constellation called Beihe, the Northern River. The Chinese constellation Nanhe that’s the Southern River is found in Canis Minor. Both of these constellations lay on the north and south along the ecliptic and were seen as gates or sentries. To either end of Beihe were Jishui and Jixin, each represented by a single star and represent the supply of water needed for winemaking and brewing and a pile of firewood used for cooking. Sun and Kistemaker identified these stars as Omicron and Phi Geminorum, though Kappa is also a good candidate for the latter.

The star Alhena is known as “the Third Star of the Well.” Another five stars from Theta to Kappa Geminorum and possibly Phi Geminorum were part of a constellation known as Wuzhuhou and represented five feudal lords or princes that acted as the Emperor’s advisors and teachers. Delta Geminorum was one of a triangle of stars along the ecliptic that formed Tianzun, a wine cup or water jar with three feet.

The last Chinese constellation found in or makes up part of the western Gemini is Shuiwei, the “water level.” It is a curved line of four stars, often seen as extending out from Canis Minor into Cancer. In some older versions, Shuiwei will be shown as the stars 68 to 85 Geminorum. All of which shows that over time, the Chinese constellations have changed and been altered.

Egyptian Mythology & Astronomy

The twin stars of Castor and Pollux formed an important part of Egyptian astronomy. They were represented by a pair of goats made mention of in the Ramissede Hour Tables that were used to keep track of time at any point during the night as the two stars followed each other. These two stars were known to rise at the dawn. The constellation Gemini can also represent Horus the older and Horus the younger. Or sometimes just the “Two Stars.”

Greek Mythology

In Greek mythology, the constellation of Gemini represents the twin heroes Castor and Polydeuces. They are also sometimes called Iabal and Ivbal. Together, the two are also known as the Dioscuri. In Latin, the twins are known as Gemini or Castores. And finally, they are also sometimes called the Tyndaridae or Tyndarids, in reference to their father and stepfather Tyndareus.

The two were born from an egg laid by Leda after she had been seduced or raped by the god Zeus in the guise of a swan. Slight variations to this story state that Polydeuces was the son of Zeus and that Castor was the son of Tyndareus, the king of Sparta. This explanation of the twins’ parentage is used to explain why Polydeuces is immortal and Castor is mortal. Either way, the two brothers were good friends who became gods, patrons of athletes and the protectors of sea goers and sailors for whom they could appear as St. Elmo’s fire. The two brothers also had twin sisters Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra, working out that the two sets of twins are Polydeuces and Helen and then Castor and Clytemnestra.

As demigods, Castor and Polydeuces held power over the winds and waves. Castor became famous as a horsemanship and Polydeuces was equally skilled and famous at boxing and his fighting prowess in battles. The two were even the students of the centaur Chiron and were raised by him. They would later join Jason and the Argonauts in their search for the Golden Fleece. Other exploits of theirs are joining the hunt of the Calydonian Boar.

In time, the two took wives, two daughters of the King of Sparta. Strangely enough, these two women were already married to the twins’ cousins Idas and Lynceus who are also twins themselves. In some accounts they don’t seem bothered by the fact that Castor and Polydeuces simply take off with the two women and settle down with them else where. Though in other accounts, this does cause a problem and a few years later, the two cousins join the twins on a joint raid for some cattle in Arcadia. They take their revenge on the twins when it came time to divide up the stolen cattle.

Idas had a solution involving cutting one of the cows up into four equal parts and said that whichever two pairs could completely finish their parts first could divide up the spoils. This took the twins off guard as they watched their cousins completely wolf down their quarters of the cow. Once finished, Idas and Lynceus then drove off with the entire stolen herd of cattle.

Tricked by their cousins, Castor and Polydeuces vowed to get even. A few days later they set off after their cousins to claim their share of the cattle. In the fight that followed, Idas killed Castor with a spear. Enraged at the loss of his brother, Polydeuces pursued his cousins. He managed to kill Lynceus in a single blow. Just as Idas was about to hurl a tombstone at Polydeuces, Zeus interceded, hurling a a thunderbolt at Idas and killing him.

His twin dead, Polydeuces, being the immortal son of Zeus, begged for death so he wouldn’t be separated from his brother. Not able to do such a thing, Zeus did the next best thing that he could and placed them together up in the heavens to form the Gemini constellation. In another variation to this ending, Polydeuces was given a choice by Zeus of spending all of his time on Mount Olympus or giving up half of his immortality to his brother Castor. Polydeuces choose the latter and thus enabled the twins to alternate between being on Olympus or in Hades. As symbols of immortality and death, the twins, like Hercules are also said to have been initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries.

Apollo and Heracles – Alternate Identification

Of course, not everyone identified the constellation of Gemini with Castor and Polydeuces. The ancient writer Aratus does refer to the constellation of Gemini as the twins but he doesn’t say who they were. A century later, Eratosthenes named them Castor and Polydeuces. Some like Hyginus and Ptolemy identified the stars with Apollo and Heracles, both half-brothers and sons of Zeus, though they aren’t twins. Ptolemy referred to the stars Castor and Polydeuces as “the star of Apollo” and “the star of Heracles” respectively. A reference found in Ptolemy’s more obscure Tetrabiblos that is about astrology. Additionally, several ancient star maps portray the constellation of Gemini as Apollo and Heracles. One example is Bode’s Uranographia which shows Apollo carrying a lyre and arrow while Heracles is shown carrying a club.

Hindu Mythology – Rigveda

In the texts of the Rigveda, a Hindu text that dates back more than 6,000 years, the two main stars of Gemini, Castor and Pollux are known as twin horsemen who appear at dawn. They were members of the Ashvins, known as Sahadeva and Nakula. Back during this time, the stars were only visible at during Spring. This in turn lead to linking the twins to the Spring Equinox. Mithuna is the Sanskrit name for this pair of twins and they nearly match the same meaning as the Gemini constellation in terms of the Zodiac.

Norse mythology

In Norse mythology, Gemini is strongly associated with the god Loki.

A constellation called Þjazi’s eyes (augu Þjaza) is one of the few known Norse constellation. It’s not certain which stars in the sky made up this constellation. One idea put forth is that they are the stars Castor and Pollux in the constellation Gemini.

In Norse mythology, Þjazi is a giant who kidnapped Idun. When he didn’t return home after chasing Idun and her rescuer Loki, Þjazi’s daughter Skadi realized he must be dead and took up arms, swearing vengeance for her father’s death.

As she marched upon Ásgarð, Heimdall sounded the alarm and several of the gods went out to meet her. As they had no desire to continue the feud, the gods asked Skadi if she would accept wergild, basically gold as payment for her father’s death.

Skadi said she would only accept or settle instead for a husband of her choosing from among the gods. They agreed, saying in turn that she must choose her husband by looking only at his feet.

She agreed and Odin arranged for all the gods to gather. With her eyes shield so that she could only see their feet, Skadi made her choice of the most good looking feet, believing that they belonged to Baldur. To her surprise and horror, the feet belong to the god Njord an elderly god of the sea as well as fertility.

The next part to this bargain was for the gods to make Skadi laugh, something she thought that they would be unable to do. Odin called for Loki to come make her laugh. He came and told a story of taking a goat to market and how he had tied one end of rope to the goat’s beard and the other to his own testicles. The description of the tug-of-war that followed between Loki and the goat caused Skadi to laugh in spite of her self.

In an effort to try and please Skadi further, Odin brought out two liquid orbs that Skadi immediately recognized as her father’s eyes. Odin threw them up into the sky where they became two stars, presumably the stars Castor and Pollux that form part of Gemini.

The two gods Njord and Skadi decided to live for half of the year in Skadi’s frozen hall in the mountains of Þrymheim and the other half in Njord’s hall in the sea at Nóatún. Neither liked the other’s hall, Njord didn’t enjoy the cold or the howling wolves and Skadi couldn’t tolerate the motion of the sea and the noise of crashing waves. They eventually agreed that they would live apart.

Roman Mythology

For the Romans, the constellation Gemini can represent the twins Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome.

As the Romans were famous for absorbing and taking many of the Greek myths and legends into their own mythology, the previous story of the two twin heroes mentioned under Greek mythology is still very much so the same, only the Romans refer to them as Castor and Pollux instead of Castor and Polydeuces.

Stars of Gemini

The two brightest stars found within Gemini are Castor and Pollux. Castor also holds another designation as Alpha Geminorum even though it is second brightest to Pollux or Beta Geminorum. The problem in their naming with brightness and designations is owed to a mistake made by Johann Bayer in 1603 when he was cataloging the stars.

Castor – Castor is also a sextuplet star system In Arabic culture, Castor is known as “The Head of the Foremost Twin,” or Al-Ras al-Taum al-Muqadim. To the Chinese, Castor represents Yin, one of two fundamental principles and concept on which all things depend, are connected and related to.

Pollux – This star is also known as “The Head of the Second Twin,” from the Arabic Al-Ras al-Tau’am al-Mu’akhar. To the Chinese, Pollux represents Yang, one of two dundamental principles and concepts on which all things depends, are connected and related to.

Geminga – Geminga is a neutron star found within the Gemini constellation. It is the decaying core of an old massive star that went supernova some 300,000 years ago. The name Geminga comes from the Italian gh’è minga, meaning “it’s not there.” At the same time, the name is also short for “Gemini gamma-ray source.” It has the distinction of being the first unidentified gamma-ray source to be discovered and the first example of a radio-quiet pulsar.

Mebsuta – Also known as Epsilon Geminorum, it marks Castor’s outstretched right leg. In Arabic, the name Mebsuta means “the outstretched paw.”

Mekbuda – The star known as Mekbuda is a super-giant star with a radius about 220,000 times the size of the Sun.

In Arabic culture, both Epsilon and Zeta Geminorum are called Melboula or Melucta as they represent a lion’s outstretched paws.

Eskimo Nebula

The Eskimo Nebula or Clown Face Nebula is a planetary nebula located about 4,000 light-years away from Earth. For those using amateur telescopes, its central star that’s 10th in magnitude can be seen and has a blue-green elliptical disk. The name comes from its resemblance to the head of a person wearing a parka. It was discovered in 1787 by the German-born British astronomer William Herschel.

Jellyfish Nebula

The Jellyfish Nebula is the remnant of a Galactic supernova that can be found near the star Eta Geminorum. The supernova that created this Nebula is thought to have happened some 3,000 to 30,000 years ago.

Medusa Nebula

The Medusa Nebula or Sharpless 2-274 and Abell 21 is a planetary nebula found within the Gemini constellation near the border with the Canis Minor constellation. It gets its name from the filaments of glowing gas that look like the snake hair of the monster Medusa. It was first discovered by the UCLA astronomer George O. Abell in 1955. Until the 1970’s it was thought to be the remnant of a supernova when Soviet astronomers stated it was more likely a planetary nebula. The Medusa Nebula is rather large and old, formed when a red giant turned in a hot white dwarf and shed its outer layers.

Geminids

The Geminids are a bright meteor shower that peaks around December 13th to 14th with roughly 100 meteors per hour.

Another is the Epsilon Geminid that peaks around October 18 to October 29, they overlap with the Orionid meteor shower and are hard to distinguish from the Orionid. The difference though is that the Epsilon Geminid meteor shower has a greater velocity than the Orionid meteor shower.

Summer Solstice

As information on the exact Zodiacal calendars can change each year (and by sources) along with the precision of the equinoxes over the year, the Summer Solstice is falling more and more into Gemini. The Summer Solstice of course is when the days are at their longest and the nights at their shortest.

Zodiac

The constellation of Gemini is the third sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from May 22 to June 22. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during February around 9 p.m. The planet Mercury and the Moon are said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Air, an extroverted sign and is one of four mutable signs.

Gemini people are said to be lively, versatile, intellectuals, adaptable, communicative, observant, fickle, inconsistent, cunning, inquisitive, two-faced, gossipers, expressive, quick-witted, clever, changeable, ungrateful, scatterbrained, restless and scheming. Those born to this sign seem to need a lot of stimuli, they like doing and taking on a lot of projects and can move from one topic to another easily during conversations. A Gemini seems to have duality to their nature and can seem like yin and yang with how they appear to others as it can seem as if you’re not sure if you’re dealing with the good twin or the bad twin with how mercurial their natures are.

It’s easy for a Gemini to become a jack-of-trades person, learning a little bit about everything, but if they’re not careful, they’re not masters of a particular area, knowledge, trade or skill. A lack of focus can make a Gemini seem fickle, uninterested or have an uncaring attitude. A Gemini aware of their nature is more than capable of multi-tasking and taking care of multiple tasks and challenges. With their love for talking, a Gemini can also make a good diplomat when tensions are high and people need to communicate, to listen as much as say what needs to be said. As great communicators, a Gemini is able to see both sides of a situation. The Greek myth of Castor and Pollux explores the inherit duality of life – of mortality and immortality forever intertwined and perpetually in conflict.

The ancient writer Ptolemy has commented that the star Pollux, as it’s a fiery red star, has a nature similar to Mars and that Castor, a bright white star has a nature similar to Mercury. On more specific notes, Pollux is thought to denote a more spirited nature and encourages violence, rashness and a love for sports. Pollux is renowned for strength and ferocity. Castor though is then believed to be more intellectual and aids in the success of all studies. Castor is also thought to pass on a skill of natural horsemanship for those born under the sign of Gemini.

Taurus

Taurus
Etymology – The Bull

Taurus is a familiar zodiac symbol to many representing power and strength. It is considered and believed that Taurus is one of the oldest constellations known to man, dating back to the Bronze Age and depictions found on cave walls.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

The Taurus constellation is Latin for “Bull.” This constellation is one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. It is the 17th largest constellation found in the night sky of the northern hemisphere. In modern times, Taurus is one of 88 known constellations and is bordered by the constellations of Aries, Auriga, Cetus, Eridanus, Gemini, Orion and Perseus.

The constellation of Taurus is formed from two star clusters, the Hyades and Pleiades. When looking for the Taurus constellation in the night sky, the pattern of stars depict only the front half of a bull. The reasoning given is that the bull’s hind quarters are underwater as this image shows the Greek story of the white bull carrying Europa to Crete.

Further, it’s only in the imagination that the front quarters of the bull can be seen. The Hyades, a V-shaped grouping of stars form the face of Taurus, which have their own mythological story.

If you can find Orion in the night sky, follow his familiar three star belt pattern to the right. You should be able to spot Alderbaran, the Bull’s Eye and then find the rest of this constellation.

The Taurus constellation has been called Al Thaur by the Arabs, Il Toro by the Italians, Le Taureau by the French, Taura by the Persians, and Shor by the Jews all of which mean the Bull in their respective languages.

Bronze Age

The Taurus constellation is believed to be one of the oldest constellations, known since at least the Early Bronze Age. It has been placed as dating to the Chalcolithic and possibly even the later Paleolithic eras. During this time, Taurus had marked the Spring Equinox between 4,000 B.C.E. to 1,700 B.C.E. which is also known as the Age of Taurus.

A Michael Rappenglück believes that depictions of the Taurus constellation and the Pleiades stars have been found in a cave painting at Lascaux, France. These paintings date back to 15,000 B.C.E. That both Taurus and the Pleiades are and have been known in many cultures as a bull and seven sisters gives cause for many paleontologists and astronomers to believe in a common origin and myth for their names.

Babylonian Mythology

In Babylonian astronomy, the Taurus constellation was listed in the MUL.APIN as GU4.AN.NA, meaning “The Heavenly Bull.” As Taurus marked the Vernal Equinox, it was the first constellation in the Babylonian zodiac and was referred to as “The Bull in Front.” The Akkadian name for Taurus was Alu.

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, an early literary work from Mesopotamia, Gilgamesh faces off against the Bull of Heaven after it was sent by the goddess Ishtar to kill him for spurning her advances. Gilgamesh is associated with the constellation of Orion. The two constellations of Orion and Taurus are often shown as being Gilgamesh and the Heavenly Bull in combat.

In early Mesopotamian art, the Bull of Heaven is connected in myths to Inanna, the Sumerian goddess of sexual love, fertility and warfare. One of the oldest depictions of the Heavenly Bull shows it standing in front of Inanna’s standard. It had three stars on its back; the cuneiform symbol for the “star-constellation” and archaeologists use this as good evidence that Taurus constellation is connected to Babylonian myths.

Buddhist Mythology

In Buddhist legends, Gautama Buddha had been born during a Full Moon in the month of Vaisakha, which coincides about the time of Taurus. The Buddha’s birthday is held and celebrated with the Wesak Festival or Vesākha. This happens during the first or second Full Moon while the Sun is in Taurus.

Druidic Mythology

The druids held an important religious festival involving bulls when the Sun passed through the Taurus constellation.

Egyptian Mythology

The Heavenly Bull of Babylonian myth is also found on the Dendera zodiac, an Egyptian bas-relief carved into the ceiling of a temple. In these early depictions, the bull’s horns are shown facing upward or backwards. Later Greek depictions of Taurus show it pointed forwards.

For the Egyptians, the constellation of Taurus represented Osiris, a Sun god and in some accounts, his sister Isis. Both were represented by a bull and cow. As a bull, Osiris became known as the Bull-God Apis; seen as an aspect of the Sun god. Though worship of the Bull-God, Apis was worshipped in ancient Egypt at a much earlier time than Osiris. The priests of Apis would find a bull bearing the marks that would prove it embodied the soul of the deity. This bull was worshiped and cared for by the priests until it died and another bull was found bearing the marks of Apis.

Archaeologists in Memphis, Egypt found the ancient tomb of the Apis-bull. Inside the tomb is a broad paved avenue lined on either side by stone carved lions. On entering the tomb, a person passed through a long, high arched corridor with recesses carved into the rock wall on either side. Within the recesses were the entombed remains of the Apis-bulls.

Springtime is when the festivals honoring the Apis-bulls would occur. This was also the time of year when the Nile River has overflowed its banks, leaving the life-giving waters and silts behind for farmers to till and plant. The constellation of Taurus as a sacred bull was associated strongly with the renewal of life during Spring.

During this point and time of history, around 4,000 B.C.E., the Sun’s position in the heavens along the Zodiac rested on the first day of Spring, in the constellation we recognize now days as Taurus, the Bull. For many centuries, Taurus was the first constellation in the Zodiac and some scholars suggest that Taurus may have been the first Zodiac constellation invented.

Greek Mythology

Zeus and Europa

In Greek mythology, Zeus in many of his various affairs; had fallen love with Europa, the daughter of Agenor, a King of Tyre in ancient Phoenicia. The problem with Zeus getting close to show his affection is that Europa was always guarded by her father’s servants. Being a god and a shape-shifter, Zeus changed himself into the form of a handsome white bull with golden horns.

That accomplished, Zeus in his white bull form then mingles with the King’s royal herds grazing in a large field near the sea. While a walk along the beach, Europe noticed the handsome white bull and couldn’t resist going up to feed it. The bull was so very friendly and gentle, that Europe climbed up on its back when it lay down; taking hold of the golden horns.

Once she was on the bull’s back, it stood up and the white bull wandered closer and closer to the sea and then when they approached the beach, took off running for the water. Once in the sea, the bull starts swimming towards the island of Crete. And for Europa, it was too late to get off now.

When they arrived in Crete, Zeus changed back into his own form, revealing himself to Europa. As he’s already married to Hera, Zeus gives Europa instead in marriage to Asterius, the King of Crete.

In slightly different versions of this story, Zeus and Europa have three children together. One of whom is Minos who grows up and goes on to be a famous king of Crete. He had the palace in Knossos built where bull games were held and is more infamous for the sacrifice of fourteen youths (seven boys and seven girls) to his Minotaur in a labyrinth every year. In either event, Zeus is said to have commemorated the white bull he turned into by placing it up among the heavens as a constellation.

Io

An alternate story of the myth of Taurus holds that it the nymph Io, whom Europa is descended from. In this story, Io was changed into a cow in order to hide her from Hera during an affair with Zeus.

Cretan Bull

The Greek mythographer Acusilaus indentified the constellation of Taurus as being the Cretan Bull, which was one of the Twelve Labors of Heracles.

Hebrew Mythology

For the Hebrews, Taurus was also the first constellation in their zodiac. It was represented by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet as Aleph.

The Bull’s Eye and other Stars in Taurus

Aldebaran

The brightest star found in the Taurus constellation is Alpha Tauri or Aldebaran, from the Arabic language meaning: “The follower” (of the Pleiades). It is part of the group of stars known as the Hyades that form the Bull’s face. Aldebaranm being a giant red star, is seen as being the Bull’s bloodshot eye. This eye is often said to be glaring at the constellation of Orion the Hunter. Incidentally, Alderbaran is the 13th brightest star in the night sky.

The Chinese refer to Alderbaran as the Fifth Star of the Net. The Inuit call it the Spirit of the Polar Bear. The Seris of Mexico believe that Alderbaran provides light for seven women giving birth (the Pleiades). The Dakotas of North America saw Alderbaran as a hero chasing a white buffalo, again the Pleiades.

El Nath

The second brightest star in Taurus is Beta Tauri or El Nath, from the Arabic language meaning “the butting,” in reference to a bull butting someone with their horns.

Crab Nebula

A rather familiar nebula known as M1 (NGC 1952) or more popularly the Crab Nebula is found within the constellation of Taurus. The Crab Nebula is roughly 5,000 light years away from Earth. Astronomers say it is the remnant of a supernova that happened on July 4, 1054. This supernova was so bright it could be seen during the daytime and even has mention in Chinese historical records. The people of North America also saw this event and there is a painting of it on a canyon wall in New Mexico along with various pieces of pottery showing this event. Those archaeological finds weren’t discovered until 1731 by John Bevis.

The name of this nebula comes from its resemblance to a crab. The Crab Nebula is one of the most studied and well known Nebulas in the night sky. In 1968, a pulsar that emits radio waves at regular intervals was discovered. It’s figured the that this radio energy is the result of a dense neutron star.

Other famous nebulas found in Taurus include: Hind’s Variable Nebula (NGC 1555), the colliding galaxies NGC 1410 and NGC 1409, the Crystal Ball Nebula (NGC 1514), and the Merope Nebula (NGC 1435).

Crystal Ball Nebula

The Crystal Ball Nebula is found in the northern part of Taurus and to the northwest of the Pleiades. It gains significance as it was discovered by the German-born English astronomer William Herschel in 1790. Before this time, astronomers believed that nebulae were merely unresolved groups of stars. With Herschel’s discovery, he found that there are stars in a nebula’s center and that it is surround by a cloud of some sort. In 1864, the astronomer William Huggins figured out that this nebula is a luminous gas, not stars as previously supposed.

Hyades

The Hyades are a V-shaped group of stars that form the face of the Taurus constellation. The Arabs called to this group of stars the “Little she-camels.” In Greek mythology, the Hyades were five sisters of Atlas and thus, half sisters to the Pleiades. The Hyades also had a brother, Hyas who was a great hunter. When he was killed by a wild boar, the sisters grieved. The sisters were later chosen by Zeus to care for his son, Dionysus, the god of Wine when his mother died. In a mixture of gratitude and pity, Zeus placed the sisters up into the night sky and despite their reward, the sisters still mourn for their dead brother.

Pleiades

The stars known as the Pleiades are another group of famous stars found in or associated with the Taurus constellation. They are known as the “Seven Sisters,” the daughters of Atlas and Pleione. In one myth, they were the companions of Artemis and when their father Atlas was given the task of holding the world on his shoulder, they became so grief stricken that Zeus placed them up in the stars. A closely related myth to this, the hunter Orion fell in love with the seven sisters and pursued them endlessly. In order to save them, Zeus placed the sisters up in the Taurus constellation.

Astronomers have shown there to be many more stars then the initial seven. The star known as Aldebaran is considered the lead star of this group or cluster. It is estimated by astronomers that there may be 500-1000 stars in the Pleiades cluster, all of which are roughly 100 million years old. The stars though vary by size and only the largest stars in Pleiades typically represent it.

Taurids

There are a couple of meteor showers that radiate from the Taurus constellation. They are the Taurids that occur in November and the Beta Taurids that occur in June to July during the day.

Zodiac

The constellation of Taurus is the third sign of twelve signs that form the Greek Zodiac. In more current and modern zodiacs, Taurus is the second sign of the zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be sometime from April 21 to May 20. The best time of year to see this constellation in the northern hemisphere is during the month of January at about 9 p.m. The planet Venus rules Taurus and the element of Earth is associated with this zodiac.

Taurus people, those born during the time of Taurus, are said to be both practical and stubborn. A Taurus tends to plod along at a steady pace when getting their goals and agendas done. So stubbornness can mean a great determination to get a job done right or a failure to see things any other way and seeing only one way to get their objectives done. When it comes to games, Taurus people love the rewards a game offers, they are also viewed as interested only in physical pleasure and material possessions. In that sense, Taurus people do enjoy a lot of physical contact and love creature comforts. With a Taurus’ love for the material, they can also be very sentimental in why they keep some items or the amount of affection they show on their loved one.

Aries

Aries Constellation

Etymology – The Ram

Aries is a familiar constellation that is part of the Western or Greek Zodiac and symbolized by a Ram. Like many of the constellations, Aries has ancient origins that date it as far back as the ancient Babylonians. The constellation of Aries is often shown as a crouched, wingless ram with its head facing towards the constellation of Taurus.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Aries is Latin for ram and is one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations and is located in the Northern Hemisphere between the constellations of Pisces and Taurus. It is a mid-sized constellation, about 39th in size among the other recognized constellations. Other constellations close to it are Cetus, Perseus, Pisces, Taurus, and Triangulum.

Reportedly, in May of 1012 C.E. a nova was seen within Aries constellation.

For a time, the Aries constellation wasn’t recognized and had been divided up into other constellations that are now considered obsolete. These included: Musca Borealis, Vespa, and Apis constellations. It wasn’t until 1922 that the International Astronomical Union decided to officially recognize it. And it wasn’t until 1930 when it was fully outlined and defined by the astronomer Eugène Delporte.

Musca Borealis consisted of the stars: 33 Arietis, 35 Arietis, 39 Arietis, and 41 Arietis.

In 1612, the astronomer, Petrus Plancius introduced Apis, a constellation representing a bee. In the year1624, the same stars were used by Jakob Bartsch to create another constellation called Vespa, representing as a wasp. Neither of these constellations became widely accepted. And a Johann Hevelius renamed the constellation to “Musca” in 1690 in his book Firmamentum Sobiescianum.

To differentiate this constellation from Musca, the southern fly, it was later renamed to Musca Borealis but it still didn’t gain acceptance and its stars ultimately went back to being known as Aries.

Arabic Astronomy

Among Muslim astronomers like al-Sufi, they saw a ram in the Aries constellation as set forth by Ptolemy. Other astronomers showed the Aries constellation as an unknown four-legged animal with antlers instead of horns. Al-Sufi’s depiction of a ram differed from other Arab astronomers in that his ram is shown running while looking behind itself.

Other early Bedouin astronomers did see a ram, but placed it as being elsewhere in the night sky. This ram constellation had the Pleiades as its tail. Most though generally accepted an Arabic formation of the Aries constellation that had thirteen stars and five “unformed” stars, four of which were to be the ram’s hindquarters and one over the ram’s head.

The brightest star in the Aries constellation is Hamal, from the Arabic phrase: “Al Ras al Hamal,” meaning “the Head of the Sheep.” The star, Beta Arietis is known as Sharatan, that along with Gamma Arietis, in Arabic meaning “two signs” that marked the start of the Vernal Equinox. Gamma Arietis is known as Mesarthim, thought to be the result of a series of mispronunciations over the millennia.

Hebrew Astronomy

Among the Hebrews, Aries was called: “Teli” and signified either Simeon or Gad. This constellation was typically thought to symbolize the “Lamb of the World”. The nearby Syrians called the constellation “Amru”, and the Turks referred to it as “Kuzi”.

The Jewish month of Nisan that roughly corresponds to March-April was associated with Aries for it is believed that during this time, the Hebrew people had been freed from slavery in ancient Egypt. The same month of Nisanu in Assyria, the constellation Aries represents the Alter and Sacrifice, usually of a ram.

Hindu Astronomy

In a similar system to the Chinese, the first lunar mansion in Hindu astronomy was called “Aswini”, after the traditional names for Beta and Gamma Arietis, the Aswins. Because the Hindu new year began with the vernal equinox, the Rig Veda contains over 50 new-year’s related hymns to the twins, making them some of the most prominent characters in the work. Aries itself was known as “Aja” and “Mesha”.

Polynesian Astronomy

Among the Marshall Islands, several stars in Aries along with stars from other constellations such as Cassiopeia, Andromeda and Triangulum form a porpoise.

The Marquesas islanders called Aries: Na-pai-ka. The Maori constellation of Pipiri may be modern Aries as well.

South American Astronomy

Among the indigenous Peruvian, a constellation with many of the same stars as Aries was recognized. It was called the “Market Moon” as well as the “Kneeling Terrace”, it was a reminder for people of when to hold the annual harvest festival, Ayri Huay.

Babylonian Mythology

Although Aries came to represent specifically the ram whose fleece became the Golden Fleece of Ancient Greek mythology, it has represented a ram since late Babylonian times. Before that, the stars of Aries formed a farmhand.

The Babylonian clay tablets known as the MUL.APIN, was a comprehensive list and table of stars marking an agricultural calendar. The constellation we know today as Aries, was known as MULLÚ.ḪUN.GÁ, meaning “The Agrarian Worker” or “The Hired Man.” It was depicted as being the last or final constellation on the ancient Babylonian’s agricultural calendar.

It’s thought by scholars that the MUL.APIN was compiled in either the 12th or 11th century B.C.E. At this point in time, during the Middle Bronze Age, with the procession of stars, the Pleiades marked the Vernal Equinox.

The clearest and earliest reference to depicting Aries as a constellation come from some boundary stones dating between 1350 B.C.E. to 1000 B.C.E. Several of these boundary stones clearly show a ram figure that is distinct from any other characters shown.

The identification of the Agrarian Worker to the Ram as the image for this constellation is thought to have happened in later Babylonian traditions due to the increased association of Dumuzi the Shepard. When the MUL.APIN was created around 1000 B.C.E., the constellation we know as Aries was associated with both Dumuzi’s ram and a hired laborer. Exactly when this change and shift of association for the Aries constellation was to have happened is difficult to determine due to the lack of surviving records for archaeologists to look at it.

Another source lists a Sumerian name LU.HUN.GA, which may be a pun. The name, taken at face value refers to hired workers for bringing in the Spring harvest of barley. However, in the Akkadian language, the word LU can also mena “sheep” and may mean something like “The Sheep of Appeasement.”

Chinese Mythology

In traditional Chinese astronomy, the stars of the Aries constellation are part of several other constellations. The Aries constellation along with Taurus and Gemini are part of The White Tiger of the West, Xī Fāng Bái Hǔ. It is also known as the Lake of Fullness, the Five Reservoirs of Heaven, and the House of the Five Emperors.

The stars known as Alpha, Beta and Gamma Arietis from a constellation called Lou, which has been translated to mean “bond,” “lasso,” and “sickle” and has been associated with the ritual sacrifice of cattle. The name Lou has been used for the 16th lunar mansion and the location closest to the Autumn Equinox. This lunar mansion represented the place where animals would be gathered and held before they were sacrificed. The constellation has been associated too with harvest-times and may also represent a woman carrying a basket of food on her head.

The stars 35, 39 and 41 Arietis form part of a constellation known as Wei, representing a fat abdomen and the name of the 17th lunar mansion which symbolized the granaries. Causing for some confusion, two other lunar mansions are also called Wei. One is located in Scorpius and the other in Aquarious and Pegasus, though their Chinese characters are different. The Wei in Aries represents the granaries for storing cereals and grains.

The stars Delta and Zeta Arietis form part of the constellation Tianyin (“the celestial yin force”) and is thought to represent the Emperor’s hunting partner. North of Tianyin is a solitary star called Tian’e or Tianhe, meaning “celestial river” For modern astronomers, this is the star known as HR 999.

Another constellation known as Zuogeng (Tso-kang) represents a Forestry manager or Ranger. This constellation is composed of the stars Mu, Nu, Omicron, Pi and Sigma Arietis. Zuogeng is also accompanied by Yeo-kang, another constellation representing an official in charge of pasture distributions.

Other names for Aries have shown it as a dog, Heang Low or Kiang Leu. In more modern times with Western influence, the constellation is known as Pih Yang, “the White Sheep.”

Christian Mythology

Under the influence of many English writers during the 14th through as late as the 17th century, the constellation of Aries was Anglicized to Ariete. There were many efforts to rewrite the stories of the constellations along biblical terms. Aries was to represent the ram caught in a thicket during the story of Abraham and Isaac. Saint Peter, a bishop of the early Christian church saw the constellation known as Triangulum become associated with his Mitre. And Caesius saw in Aries the Lamb sacrificed on Calvary Hill for the redemption of all mankind.

Egyptian Mythology

Among the ancient Egyptians, the constellation of Aries was associated with the god Amon-Ra, often depicted or shown as a man with a ram’s head. Amon-Ra represented fertility and creativity for the Egyptians.

With the Aries Constellation being close to the Vernal Equinox, it was called the “Indicator of the Reborn Sun.” During this time of the year when Aries was said to be in the heavens, the priests would dedicated statues of Amon-Ra in temples. This practice would be modified later by Persian astronomers later on. The constellation of Aries also gained the title of “Lord of the Head,” indicating an important symbolic and mythological meaning in Egyptian theology.

Greek Mythology

Ancient Temples

Between 1580 B.C.E. to 360 B.C.E., the ancient Greek built and oriented many of their sacred temples in alignment to the star Hamal.

The Golden Fleece

The story of the Golden Fleece is perhaps the most well known and famous story linked to the Aries constellation.

In Greek mythology, King Athamas of Orchomenus (a region of Boetia) had married the cloud nymph Nephele after the incidents and her involvement with Ixion and the resulting birth of the Centaur race. By her, Athamas had twin children; a son, Phrixus and a daughter, Helle.

Due to the previous baggage of Nephele’s from the incident with Ixion and that she wouldn’t stop crying, Athamas eventually got fed up with Nephele and divorced her for another woman, Ino, the daughter of Cadmus and Queen of Thebes. Being a jealous woman and rather ambitious, Ino conspired and plotted to kill Athamas’ children so any children of hers could inherit the throne.

To do this, Ino created a famine throughout Orchomenus wherein she had roasted all of the town’s crop seeds so they couldn’t grow. Scared of the idea of starvation, the local farmers went to the nearest Oracle for help. Ino had already beaten them to it and had bribed the men of the Oracle of Delphi to tell the farmers that in order to avoid the famine, that Athamas’ son Phrixus needed to be sacrificed.

Reluctantly, Athamas agreed to the sacrifice his son Phrixus. But before that could even happen, a golden, flying ram arrived at the top of Mount Laphystium, where the sacrifice was to take place, and rescued both Phrixos and Helle. In one source, this ram was sent by the god Hermes, but it makes far more sense when looking at other sources, that this ram was sent by Nephele, the twin’s own mother Another source says the ram’s name is Chrysomallus and that he was the son of the sea god Neptune and Theophane. That same source also says that Ino’s whole plot to kill Phrixus is because he refused to have sex with her. His step-mother. I don’t blame him, not when she’s to be married to his dad.

From there, the twins flew towards the land of Colchis where King Aeetes, the son of the Sun God Helios ruled. Unfortunately during this flight, Helle fell off of the ram’s back and drowned in the Dardanelles, also known as the Hellespont to honor her.

Once they arrived in Colchis, the golden ram instructed Phrixus to sacrifice it to the gods. In one version of this tale, this god is Zeus and in others it is Poseidon. Phrixus did the sacrifice and removed the ram’s Golden Fleece, presenting it to King Aeetes who then arranged for a marriage with his daughter Chalciope.

King Aeetes hung the Golden Fleece in a sacred Grove of Ares, the God of War, where a dragon that never slept guarded it. In a later myth of Jason and the Argonauts, the title character Jason steals the Golden Fleece in order to claim and restore his own rightful claim to his throne in Iolcos.

For its sacrifice in helping Phrixus, the golden ram was placed up in the heavens to become the constellation of Aries.

Zeus

In the story where the Greek gods were down by the Nile River and they were attacked by the monster Typhon. When the Gods all changed themselves into various animals to escape, Zeus is said in some accounts to have changed into a ram before turning to do battle with Typhon. And that it is for this battle, the constellation of Aries is commemorated as a constellation in the heavens.

Roman Mythology

When the god Bacchus (frequently identified by his Greek name Dionysus) and his entourage were wandering through the Liberian desert, they ended up being rescued from death by a ram. This ram showed them the way to a well and as a reward, Bacchus placed the ram up in the heavens to become the Aries constellation and mark the beginning of Spring when the sun passes through it annually.

The First Point of Aries – The Beginning of Spring

With the precession of the Equinoxes and the Earth’s “wobble” as it rotates around the Sun, the exact timing of the Vernal Equinox has been changing over the millennia. The ancient peoples used the constellation of Aries at one time to mark the beginning of Spring. Around 1800 B.C.E., this point of time was indicated by the constellation of Aries and was known as the First Point of Aries.

With the changes of the Equinox over the millennia, the First Point of Aries now occurs in Pisces and will later move into Aquarius around 2600 C.E. Despite these changes, Aries is still associated with the beginning of Spring.

Arietids

Like many constellations, Aries does have several meteor shows that originate from it. The Daytime Arietid meteor shower is considered one of the strongest meteor showers that happens between May 22nd to June 2nd. It is an annual meteor shower that sees its peak around June 7th with the Marsden comets and up to 54 meteors per hour. The rest of the time, these “earthgrazer” meteors can sometimes be seen just before dawn at a rate of about 1 to 2 per hour. However, it’s usually only using the radio spectrum that these Arietids can be seen and not with the naked eye.

There are several meteor showers such as the Daytime Epsilon Arietids (between and the Northern and Southern Daytime May Arietids. These meteor showers were discovered by the Jodrell Bank Observatory in 1947 when the World War II radar systems were adapted for meteor observations.

These only name a couple of the more notable Arietids as there are several meteor showers that radiate or come from Aries.

Zodiac

In the Greek Zodiac, Aries marks the second spot of the Zodiac Calendar of which there are twelve Zodiac signs in all. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from March 21 to April 19, right about the time that many Pagans celebrate Ostara. Under the old Roman calendar, March 21 marked the beginning of the New Year and the start of Spring. This carries on as in modern astrology, Aries is the first sign of the Zodiac The best time of year to see this constellation is during December around 9 p.m.

In Astrology, Aries is associated with the head and can indicate someone who has a strong temper. Those born under this sign are believed to have strong leadership skills, assertiveness, optimism, to be bold and independent. All said to be the very spirit of Spring. Aries people are believed to very dexterous and like to be the center of attention in many social settings. Though they can be rather stubborn, it’s a stubbornness and head butting that Aries learn to use rather well. In addition, Aries is associated with the planet and Roman God Mars. The element of fire is also associated with this zodiac.