Category Archives: Werewolf
Etymology: Possibly from the ancient greek “phḗnē/φήνη” meaning “vulture”.
Pronunciation: fin-ee-uhs, fahy-nyoos
Alternate Spellings: Phineas, Φινεύς
When researching this name, I’ve found that the name Phineus can refer to at least two different people from Greek Mythology. Though there is potentially at least one other figure named Phineus.
1) King Phineus from the Argonauts
This Phineus is perhaps the most well-known of the figures in Greek mythology bearing the name. The son of King Agenor in Thrace, Phineus had been given the gift of prophecy from the god Apollo. Now, because Phineus prophesied truly and revealed too much of the gods’ secrets, how he treated his sons, gave Phrixus directions for their journey, or chose a long life to having sight, Zeus blinded him as punishment. It was either that or death. Then, because that wasn’t enough, Phineus was exiled to the island of Salmydessus, where every time he would sit down to eat, the Harpies would come and steal all the food. What little food would be left after was foul and inedible.
Later, when Jason and the Argonauts arrived, they came to Phineus’ aid by having the winged Boreads, Calais, and Zetes (brothers of Cleopatra) chase after the Harpies. The goddess Iris intervened, keeping the Boreads from killing the Harpies and promising that Phineus would never be bothered by the Harpies again.
In gratitude for their service, Phineus prophesied to Jason about the Symplegades and how to get past the clashing rocks to continue their quest.
Other sources have the two Boreads pursue the Harpies until they fell from exhaustion into the sea below. Another source says that it is Helios, the sun god who sent the Harpies to torment Phineus for choosing to be blinded. Alternatively, Helios blinds Phineus at the behest of his son Aeëtes for helping his enemies. A more obscure source says that it is Poseidon who blinds Phineus instead of Zeus, in those versions of the stories, Phineus’ sons have their vision restored by the Boreads or Asclepius.
In the versions where Phineus doesn’t kill his sons, but instead either blinds them or has them buried to their waists to be tortured and has his first wife Cleopatra imprisoned and tortured when the Argonauts arrive, they learn of the punishments being meted out. As the Boreads are brothers to Cleopatra and that is their nephews, a battle breaks out between Phineus’ army of Thracians and the Argonauts’ crew. The Argonauts emerge victorious when Herakles slays Phineus.
Some accounts of this Phineus place him as a king in Paphlagonia or Arcadia instead of Thrace. Yet other sources state that Phineus is killed by Boreas, or that he is carried off by the Harpies into the country of either Bistones or Milchessians.
Parentage & Family
In Apollonius of Rhodes’ account, Phineus is the son of Agenor. The Bibliotheca names Poseidon as the father of Phineus, who was in another account Agenor’s father. Hesiodic Catalogue of Women names Phoenix and Cassiopeia as Phineus’ parents.
Phineus’ first wife is Cleopatra, the daughter of the North Wind, Boreas, and Oreithyia. Cleopatra (not to be confused with Mark Anthony and Cleopatra) bore Phineus two sons. There is a very long list of just who these two sons are. Either Plexippus and Pandion (these two are the most commonly named), Gerymbas and Aspondus, or Polydector (Polydectus) and Polydorus, or Parthenius and Crambis, or Oryithus (Oarthus) and Crambis. If you are confused as to who to go with, you are not alone.
Phineus’ second wife is Idaea, a Scythian Princess and daughter of Dardanus. Idaea claimed her stepsons raped her and Phineus blinded the sons. After Phineus is killed, Idaea returns to her people, where her father Dardanus kills her for how she treated her stepsons. Other wives that Phineus had are Dia, Eidothea (sister of Cadmus), and Eurytia.
With Idaea, Phineus has two other sons, Mariandynus and Thynus, and two daughters, Eraseia and Harpyreia. A third daughter, Olizone is mentioned, in some sources, she is named as Dardanus’ wife. That could just owe to more than one person who has the same name.
Lost Play & Works
Phineus – A now lost play written by Aeschylus, the first in a trilogy that includes The Persians and thought to have been produced in 472 B.C.E. In this play, Helios transforms Phineus into a mole over an unknown insult.
Antigone – The story of Phineus and Cleopatra has a brief mention of this story by Sophocles.
2) Uncle Phineus from the story of Perseus & Andromeda
In the story of Perseus & Andromeda, Phineus is the son of Belus and brother to King Cepheus of Egypt. At the beginning of the story, Phineus had been promised his niece, Andromeda in marriage. However, when the oracle told King Cepheus to offer up his daughter Andromeda in sacrifice to appease Poseidon’s anger, it is Perseus who comes and rescues the Princess and defeats the monster Cetus. As a reward, Cepheus offers Andromeda’s hand in marriage to Perseus. Had Phineus been the one to defeat Cetus and rescue Andromeda, this wouldn’t have been disputed or contested.
Phineus is adamant that because he was promised Andromeda’s hand first, he has the first claim and picks a fight with Perseus about his right to marry her during the wedding. After slaying a Gorgon and a Sea Monster, a mere mortal man is no challenge for Perseus who once again pulls out Medusa’s head and turns Phineus to stone. Given variations of the story, sometimes this is when Cepheus and Cassiopeia are also turned to stone when they accidentally look at the gorgon’s severed head. With Phineus now dead, Andromeda accompanies Perseus back to his home Tiryns in Argos where they eventually founded the Perseid dynasty.
Ovid’s Metamorphosis goes into detail about how Phineus may have arrived alone in Aethiopia but soon had many friends within Cepheus’ court. When Phineus threw a spear at Perseus, missing, Perseus soon after pulled the Gorgon’s head out and many of Phineus’ allies were turned to stone before it was finally turned on Phineus despite pleading for his life.
3) Phineus, Arcadian Prince
This Phineus would be one of the fifty sons of the infamous King Lycaon and the naiad Cyllene, Nonacris, or an unknown woman. Given how notorious King Lycaon and his sons were, Zeus came down to test them in the guise of a peasant. When these brothers mixed the remains of a child into the god’s meal, a justifiably enraged Zeus threw his meal over the table. All of the brothers and Lycaon were slain by lightning bolts.
In the Apollodorus, this version of the story sees Lycaon transformed into a wolf and a prototype for the werewolf legends as a curse.
Other Names: All-Heal, Birdlime, Devil’s Fuge, Donnerbesen, Druid’s Herb, Golden Bough, Herbe de la Croix, Holy Wood, Lignum Sanctae Crucis, Misseltoe, Mistillteinn, Mystyldyne, Thunderbesem, Witches’ Broom, Wood of the Cross,
Deity: Apollo, Balder, Cerridwen, Freya, Frigga, Odin, Taranis, Thor, Venus
Sphere of Influence: Defense, Dreams, Exorcism, Fertility, Health, Hunting, Invisibility, Locks, Love, and Protection
Symbols: Friendship, Peace
Victorian Language of Flowers: “I surmount difficulties, I send you a thousand kisses.”
What Is It?
Mistletoe is the common name for plant that is parasitic (hemiparasite) in that it grows by attaching itself to the branches of a tree or shrub, taking water and nutrients from the host plant. The mistletoe species, Viscum album is the one referred to in folklore is that is native to Great Britain and most of Europe. It is characterized by having a smooth-edged, oval shaped evergreen leaves set in pairs along the stem and white berries that are known to be poisonous.
There are a variety of other species of mistletoe plants found in other countries of Europe such as Spain and Portugal and on other continents. American Mistletoe is also known as False Mistletoe as the homeopathic remedies and uses are different from the European Mistletoe. Over time, the term mistletoe has come to include other species of parasitic plants. Even plants get parasites…
Despite mistletoe’s parasitic nature, it does have an ecological benefit with being a keystone species in that it provides food for a variety of animals that feed on it as well as providing nesting material for various birds.
There used to be all sorts of folkloric beliefs about how mistletoe would come to grow on various shrubs and trees. By the sixteenth, botanists had it figured out that seeds were passed by the digestive tracts of birds who fed on mistletoe or by the birds rubbing their bills on trees to get rid of the sticky seeds. An early reference to this is in 1532, an Herbal book by Turner.
What’s In A Name
One etymology for mistletoe that seems fairly accurate are the Anglo-Saxon words for “mistel” meaning “dung” and “tan” meaning “twig.” Making the meaning of mistletoe as “dung-on-a-twig.” Which makes sense, people observed that mistletoe grew wherever birds roosted and thus did their business.
The Latin word “viscusas” and the Greek word “ixias” both refer to the white coloration of mistletoe berries and being thought of to resemble sperm. The same words “visand ischu” mean “strength” In the Greek and Roman mindsets, sperm was connected to strength and vitality and thus to fertility for life springing seemingly out of nowhere. Mistletoe berries harvested from Oak trees were believed to have regenerative powers.
Mistletoe is a plant strongly associated with Christmas, Yule and other Winter Celebrations where it is used in decorations for its evergreen leaves that symbolize the promised return of spring.
Hanging Mistletoe – Anyone standing beneath the mistletoe can expect to be kissed. This probably originates in Druidic beliefs where mistletoe is strongly connected with fertility as the white berries of the mistletoe resembled semen. Now, proper etiquette says that when someone is kissed beneath the mistletoe, a berry needs to be removed until all have been plucked, at which point, there are no more kisses.
One tradition holds that if any unmarried woman went unkissed after the hanging of the mistletoe, they would not be able to marry for a year.
British farmers would feed a bough of mistletoe to their livestock on January 1st, believing it would ward off any bad luck for the coming year. Alternatively, a farmer feeding mistletoe to the first cow calving in the New Year was what brought good luck.
In some regions of Britain, mistletoe would be burned on the twelfth night after Christmas to ensure any boys or girls who didn’t get kissed could still marry.
Celtic Druidic Mythology & Traditions
In the Celtic language, the name for mistletoe translates to “All-Heal” as they believed this plant to have healing powers that could cure a number of ailments and held the soul of the host tree. By Mistletoe was held the chief of the Druid’s sacred seven herbs. The other sacred plants were: vervain, henbane, primrose, pulsatilla, clover and wolf’s bane.
The tradition of kissing under the mistletoe is attributed to the Druids who held the plant as being sacred. It held a magical virtue and served as a remedy to protect against evil. Mistletoe found growing on Oaks were especially sacred. Ovid’s writings mention how Druids would dance around oak trees with mistletoe growing on them. If mistletoe were to fall to the ground without being cut, it was considered an ill omen.
In Between – Seen as a tree that was not a tree. One of the things making mistletoe sacred was its seeming ability to spring forth out of nowhere. It represented the “in between” or a gateway to other worlds and spirit.
Harvesting – Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, circa 77 C.E. notes how the Druids revered the mistletoe. Pliny goes on to explain how white-clad Druids would use a golden sickle when harvesting mistletoe; taking great care to make sure that none hit the ground, believing that the plant would lose its potency and sacred powers. The sacrifice of two white bulls would follow. Pliny’s accounts are the most well-known documentation of Druid beliefs regarding the sacredness of mistletoe. Either the Midsummer or the Winter Solstice were the times to harvest and collect mistletoe. Better when done so on the sixth day after a waning moon.
Oak King & Holly King – This is a particularly old folkloric belief. With the Oak King and Holly King being personifications for the cycle of the year. Mistletoe berries found on an Oak tree were thought to be representative of the Oak King’s semen. So when the Oak King’s power waned and gave way to the Holly King, the harvesting of mistletoe and it’s berries off of Oak trees was symbolic of emasculating the Oak King. Hence, why two bulls would be sacrificed, to compensate the Oak King.
The white berries of mistletoe would be made into fertility potions as they were thought to be regenerative as on the Winter Solstice, the Oak King would be reborn, gaining power again as the new year progressed.
Fire & Lightning – It was thought that mistletoe would grow on an Oak tree that had been struck by lightning. For this, mistletoe was believed to be able to stop fires.
French farmers would burn mistletoe in their fields in order to have a successful harvest with the coming year.
Maidens would place a sprig of mistletoe beneath their pillows so they could dream of their future husband.
Herbe de la Croix – In Brittany, there is a legend how the cross that Jesus is to have been hung on was made from the wood of mistletoe. After Christ’s death, mistletoe is said to have been cursed or degraded to become a parasitic plant. Now days, thanks to 16th century Botanists discoveries, it’s better understood how the seeds of mistletoe or spread.
Immortality – Asclepius, the son of Apollo and god of medicine was greatly renowned for his healing skills to the degree that he could even bring people back from the dead. This knowledge of healing came about after Glaucus, the son of King Minos of Crete had fallen into a jar of honey and drowned. Asclepius had been called onto the scene and while there, saw a snake slithering towards Glaucus’ body. Asclepius killed the snake and then saw another snake come in and place an herb on the body of the first snake, bringing it back to life. After witnessing this, Asclepius proceeded to take the same herb and place it on Glaucus’ body and bring him back to life.
This herb is said to have been mistletoe. Now armed with this knowledge, Asclepius brought Glaucus back to life. Later, he would bring Thesues’ son, Hippolytus after the king’s son had been thrown from his chariot.
This angered Hades enough that he complained to Zeus that humans would become immortal and that there wouldn’t be anyone entering the Underworld. To prevent people from becoming immortal, Zeus agreed to kill Asclepius, doing so with a lightning bolt. Later, Zeus placed Asclepius’ image up into the heavens to become the constellation of Ophiuchus in honor and memory.
Golden Bough or Mistletoe is the plant Aeneas uses to enter the Underworld to Hades’ realm.
Saturnalia – Many traditions regarding mistletoe and the Christmas traditions are believed to trace their origins to this ancient Roman festival once held on December 17th of the old Julian calendar.
The Death Of Balder
This is one of the bigger, more well-known Norse stories. Balder’s mother Frigg, the goddess of Love had received a prophesy concerning Balder’s death, who was the most beloved of all the gods. Wishing to try and avoid this fate, Frigg got an oath from all living things that they wouldn’t harm her son. In her haste to do so, Frigg overlooked the mistletoe, believing it to be too small and inconsequential.
Leave it to Loki to learn of this oversight and to test the validity of the prophesy. Depending on the source, Loki either makes an arrow or a spear out of mistletoe and hands it off to the blind god Hod, instructing him to aim it at Balder. This act doesn’t seem so unusual when taken into account that many of the other gods were taking aim at Balder to test his invulnerability.
Hod then, unknowingly of Loki’s true intent, fires the mistletoe weapon at Balder and impales the god who soon dies. Frigg is grief stricken and Hermod rides off on Sleipnir down to the Underworld to plead for Balder’s release from Hel, how everyone loves him. The Underworld goddess replies that if this is so, then every being in the living world will weep for the slain god. If everyone does weep, then Hel will release her hold on Balder and allow him to return.
Hermod returns with the news and every creature on the earth cries for Balder. All, that is except for an old giantess by the name of Tokk (or Þökk, meaning “Thanks,”) she was most certainly and likely Loki in disguise.
With this failure to have everyone weep, Balder remained in Hel’s domain.
Some variations to this legend have mistletoe becoming the symbol of peace and friendship to make-up for it’s part in Balder’s death.
In the version of the story with a happy ending, Balder is restored to life, and Frigga is so grateful that she reverses the reputation of the offending plant–making it a symbol of love and promising to bestow a kiss upon anyone who passes under it.
The white berries of mistletoe are to have formed from Frigg’s tears when she mourned Balder’s death. Shakespeare makes an allusion to the story of Balder’s death by referring to mistletoe as “baleful.”
Peace & Love
Due to the above story, the Norse held the belief that hanging the mistletoe would be a symbol of peace, indicating that any past hurts and anger would be forgiven. Enemies would cease fighting each other for the day.
Under the incoming Christian religion as it spread throughout Europe, the symbolism of the mistletoe would be converted to have Christian meanings as older pagan beliefs and traditions would get adapted and changed.
For example, in the Norse story with the death of Balder, mistletoe would keep its meanings as a symbol of life and fertility.
Wearing sprigs of mistletoe is believed to help conceive, attract love and for protection.
During Medieval times or Antiquity, branches of mistletoe would be hung to ward off evil spirits. Mistletoe would be hung over the house and stable doors to protect from witches and keep them from entering.
Mistletoe could also be worn in amulets, bracelets, and rings for its magical qualities of protecting from evil, witches, poisoning and even werewolves!
Yes, there are medical uses for mistletoe. However, the white berries are poisonous as they do cause epileptic type seizures and convulsions. Keep the white berries away from small children and pets who might decide to try and eat them.
Do make sure to consult an accredited medical source as some information has changed.
Homeopathic Remedies – Due to the nature of the poisonous berries, it causes many cultures such as the ancient Celts to use mistletoe berries in remedies for treating convulsions, delirium, hysteria, neuralgia and heart conditions. Some Native American tribes used a tea wash for bathing the head to treat headaches and infusions for lowering blood pressure and treating lung problems.
Warning – Do make sure to consult an accredited medical source as some medical experts disagree about the applications of homeopathic remedies and information is likely to change with better data and research.
Mistletoe is seen as an all-purpose plant and has been attributed a wide variety of magical uses and even a number of herbal and homeopathic remedies. A lot of it ending up very contradictory and suspect as to which to see as accurate. Further, you want to make sure you have the right mistletoe species.