Category Archives: Welsh
Alternative Name: Devil Jonah, Deva, Davy or Taffy
If you ask most people today who the figure of Davy Jones is, most are likely to comment on him being a character in Disney’s Pirates of the Caribbean movie “Deadmen tell no Tales.” Or they might bring up the character from the SpongeBob SquarePants cartoon.
At some point, many hear about someone being sent to “Davy Jones’ Locker” as a euphemism for sending them to the bottom of the sea and death by drowning. Given this, many have an idea of Davy Jones as being some sort of demon or evil spirit who roams the seas, claiming all those unlucky to be lost at sea and drown.
We know that the mention of Davy Jones’ Locker became popular during the 1800s among sailors and would continue to be a part of the broader cultural knowledge of sea lore.
The earliest mention we have of Davy Jones is in Daniel Defoe’s 1726 book “The Four Years Voyages of Capt. George Roberts” where he mentions laying someone to rest in David Jones’ Locker. The next mention we have of Davy Jones and cementing him with a negative connotation is in the 1751 publication “The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle” by Tobias Smollett.
As to the historical figure of Davy Jones? That part is unclear and there have been a few theories put forward. There was a David Jones who was a pirate on the Indian Ocean during the 1630s, but scholars respond back that this David Jones wasn’t fearsome enough to be worthy of the notoriety. Another source suggests that Davy Jones could have been a Duffer Jones, a nearsighted sailor who frequently found himself falling overboard. There is also a British song written in 1594 called “Jone’s Ale is Newe.” The lyrics of the song tell of a pub owner who would throw drunk sailors into his ale locker and then dump them on any passing ship. The pub owner becomes a pirate after he goes bankrupt, stealing a ship and sailing across the Atlantic Ocean where he would capture other ships and their crew. Most captive crew members would be decapitated while others were locked down below before sinking the ship.
The Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue by Francis Grose, written in 1785 gives a definition of “David Jones. The devil, the spirit of the sea; called Necken (Nixie) or Draugr in the northern countries, such as Norway, Denmark, and Sweden.”
Crossing The Equator – There are nautical traditions held as an initiation ceremony for sailors crossing the Equatorial line for the first time. Those who had done it before are called shellbacks or the Sons of Neptune. The oldest shell back is called King Neptune and the next oldest is his assistant and called Davy Jones.
Saint David – Another suggestion is that Welsh sailors would call upon Saint David or Dewi for protection from danger. Incidentally, Jones is a common Welsh surname.
Daeva – This is an evil spirit that loves to cause harm and destruction in Persian mythology.
Duppy – This is a West Indian name for an evil or malevolent ghost.
God Or Devil?
There are suggestions that Davy Jones is either a dark god of the sea or the devil. They point towards the name Davy and Devil. Other names to call Davy Jones are Deva, Davy, or Taffy, the thief of the evil spirit.
A few apocryphal sources go so far as to suggest that Jones is a corruption of Jonah, as in the biblical prophet who was swallowed by a whale. Thus, Devil Jonah is a dark angel or devil of the sea. In this respect, a particularly evil or bad sailor would go to Davy Jone’s Locker, the bottom of the sea. Whereas those sailors who were good or holy would go to the Fiddler’s Green, a sailor’s paradise and heaven in British folklore.
This one will vary. In general, Davy Jones has been accepted as some sort of fiend, devil, or evil spirit that roams the seven seas claiming the souls of unlucky sailors to drown at sea and all ships lost at sea.
In Tobias Smollett’s book “The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle,” Davy Jones is described as having saucer eyes, three rows of teeth, horns, a tail, and blue smoke that come from his nose.
American author Washington Irving mentions Davy Jones in his 1824 book as arriving by storm, during the night.
It should come as no surprise that Davy Jones is also mentioned in Herman Melville’s novel “Moby Dick.” Robert Louis Stevenson’s 1883 novel “Treasure Island” sees frequent mention of Davy Jones and he is mentioned in J.M. Barrie’s novel “Peter Pan” where Captain Hook sings about sending someone down to Davy Jones by way of walking the plank. Just about any story taking place at sea seems to mention Davy Jones at some point.
“Hitting The High Seas”
An episode of the 1960s The Monkees t.v. series. In this episode, the band member Davy Jones plays the character of the same name, claiming to be the grandson of the original Davy Jones while his bandmates are all held hostage.
This cartoon series would feature Davy Jones in several episodes and would have an actual gym locker to hold souls. One episode shows one of the Monkee’s band members Davy Jones and gym socks would be kept in there.
Disney’s Pirates of the Caribbean
I would say the current description of Davy Jones that many are familiar with and that strongly influences their mental image comes from his introduction in the second and third movies, Dead Man’s Chest and At World’s End. The character also appears again in a cameo at the end of Dead Men Tell No Tales.
The movie version of Davy Jones looks like a cross between a human and an octopus with numerous tentacles coming from his face like a beard and has a crab-like claw for his left arm and a long tentacle on his right hand to replace an index finger. And the leg of a crab for his right leg, much like a pegleg.
This version of Davy Jones connects him to the ghost ship, The Flying Dutchman. In life, he was a Scottish captain who falls in love with the sea goddess Calypso. The goddess entrusts Davy Jones with ferrying the souls of those who’ve died at sea to the next world. To aid him, Davy Jones is given the ship, The Flying Dutchman. They promised to meet again in ten years and when he kept his part and Calypso failed to appear, Davy Jones swore vengeance on her. It is in failing to perform his duties that Davy Jones and his crew began transforming into monstrous people merged with aquatic animals. Davy Jones also comes to command the Kraken.
Herne The Hunter
Etymology – Horn (Old English)
Suffice to say, Herne is a well-known figure in British and Modern folklore. At first glance, it’s easy to say that Herne is one of the names for the Horned God in Wicca and Modern Paganism. A slightly more knowledgeable response would say that Herne is who leads the Wild Hunt. Or perhaps that he is the ghostly specter of a Games Keeper with antlers who haunts Windsor Forest.
It does get a bit tricky on trying to get into what’s concrete for the figure of Herne.
Many descriptions of Herne will agree that he is human either wearing antlers or has antlers. Sometimes he is on foot others he is on horseback and may or may not be accompanied by hunting hounds or other animals of the forest.
Ghost – The version of Herne that appears in Shakespeare’s play, clearly terrorizes the forest animals and people alike, blasting or withering the trees of the forest as he shakes his chains. The alternative lines say he can take on the shape of a stag. Later descriptions of Herne will have him riding a horse as part of the Wild Hunt.
The Merry Wives Of Windsor
The earliest known mention that we have of Herne is in William Shakespeare’s play The Merry Wives of Windsor written in 1597.
That certainly is a case for having been around for quite a while just based off that alone.
In Act 4, Scene 4, we have the characters Mistress Page and Mistress Ford deciding that they will play a trick on Sir John Falstaff because of his unwanted advances. The two ladies convince Falstaff to disguise himself as a ghost and meet them out under an oak in Windsor Forest at midnight. The two ladies also convince and get some children to show up at the same time who are dressed up as fairies to pinch and burn Falstaff.
“There is an old tale goes, that Herne the hunter,
Sometime a keeper here in Windsor Forest,
Doth all the wintertime, at still midnight,
Walk round about an oak, with great ragg’d horns;
And there he blasts the trees, and takes the carrle,
And makes milch kine* yield blood, and shakes a chain
In a most hideous and dreadful manner.”
Milch kine? Yeah, milking cows.
There is a set of alternative lines from 1602 that hint that Herne was a local ghost story used by mothers to get their children to behave.
The alternative lines are as follows:
“Oft have you heard since Horne the hunter dyed,
That women, to affright their little children,
Says that he walkes in the shape of a great stagge.”
Whether the character of Herne existed before the creation of Shakespeare’s play or is a creation of it, isn’t clear. What is clear is that this play is for certain where the figure of Herne enters British folklore and onwards to a larger, global audience… at least the West.
Cuckold’s Horns – With an Elizabethan audience, they would know that a cuckold is a name given to a husband with an unfaithful wife. A cuckold like the cuckoo bird that lays its eggs in the nests of other birds. So, a husband is likely raising a child who is not his own. The horns were likely a theatrical device of the Elizabethan stage to inform an audience of a character’s role.
In Windsor’s Home Park, there have been a few different oak trees since the mid-1800’s that people have claimed to be either Falstaff’s Oak or Herne’s Oak.
The main oak that people pointed to as Herne’s Oak fell in 1796 due to declining botanical health. The other oak was blown over during a windstorm on August 31st 1863. The logs from this tree were burnt in order to exorcise the ghost of Herne. One log was kept to carve a bust of Shakespeare from and is on display in the Windsor and Royal Borough Museum in the Guildhall.
Later, Queen Victoria planted another oak to replace the one that fell in 1863. Later, King Edward VII would have the tree removed in 1906 during a landscaping project. Still, another oak would be replanted to replace the fallen tree from 1796 and named Herne’s Oak.
All’s well that ends well.
As the legend of Herne continues to grow and expand, the 20th century sees Herne’s ghost now appearing shortly before national disasters and before the death of monarchs, much like a Banshee.
At the very least, because people expect to see something, more and more people claim to have encountered Herne’s ghost or to have heard the sounds of hounds or a horn blowing in Windsor Forest.
Truth In The Telling
With the authenticity of Herne being lost to history and up for debate, there are enough people who believe that Shakespeare must have been using a local legend. To this end, people have been trying to add some historical veracity and authenticity to legitimize Herne’s legend. If nothing else, the legend and imagery of Herne have succeeded at capturing people’s imaginations for centuries and has well earned a place in folklore.
The Restless Gamekeeper – This is the next literary source, written by Samuel Ireland in 1791 in his Picturesque Views on the River Thames. In the story, Herne is to have been based on a historical figure by the name of Richard Horne, a yeoman who lived during Henry VIII’s reign. Horne was accused of poaching and as a result, he hung himself from an oak tree. As this was a suicide death, Herne’s spirit is believed to be barred from entering either heaven or hell and is doomed to haunt the place of their death.
Shakespearean scholar James Halliwell-Phillips found a document where Herne is listed as a hunter and confessed to poaching. Plus, early versions of The Merry Wives of Windsor spell the name as “Horne” instead of “Herne.”
There are of course, a couple variants to this story.
Variation 1 – In this version, Herne is the huntsman to King Richard II. After some local men grew jealous of Herne’s status, they conspired to accuse him of poaching on the King’s land. Falsely accused and outcast, Herne hung himself from an oak tree.
Variation 2 – In this story, Herne saves King Richard II from a stag. Fatally wounded, Herne is healed by a magician who takes Herne’s skills in forestry and hunting as payment. Part of this being cured involved having the dead stag’s horns tied to Herne’s head. Distraught by the loss of his skills, Herne hung himself from a tree. As a result, his spirit is doomed each night to lead a spectral hunt through Windsor Rest.
Windsor Castle – Written by William Harrison Ainsworth in 1842. This novel aims to be a historical drama set during the reign of the Tudors and follows Henry VIII’s pursuit of Anne Boleyn. Herne features throughout the novel as a ghostly figure haunting the nearby woods of Windsor. This version of Herne is somewhat sinister as Harrison Ainsworth created a history where Herne was gored by a stag. Herne makes a deal with the Devil to spare him. Part of the deal is that Herne would forever wear antlers. This version of Herne had served Richard II and likely the source of the two previous folkloric versions of where he originates from.
The Wild Hunt
The Wild Hunt is a phenomenon found in many different European countries and cultures. It is a nightmarish, supernatural force led by some dark spectral hunter on horseback and accompanied by a host of other riders and hounds as they chase down unlucky mortals, either until they drop dead of exhaustion, are caught and forced to join the Wild Hunt or able to evade the Hunt until dawn.
Just exactly who it is that leads the Hunt does vary country by country in Europe. The Wild Hunt is known for making its ride during the Winter Solstice or New Year’s Eve. Jacob Grimm of Grimms Brothers fame makes a connection of Herne to the Wild Hunt due to the epitaph of “the Hunter.” That does seem to work, a Huntsman, connect him to the Wild Hunt and for Britain, the idea really jells of a local person who becomes a lost soul, doomed to forever ride with the Hunt.
Of course, the point is brought up that as a ghost, Herne is connected to one locality whereas the Wild Hunt wanders, moving from one place to another, seemingly randomly.
Ultimately, just who leads the Wild Hunt will vary from country to country. In Welsh mythology, it is Gwyn ap Nudd or Annwn who lead the hunt with a pack of spectral hounds to collect unlucky souls. The Anglo-Saxons of Britain hold that it is Woden who leads the hunt at midwinter. Wotan is very similar to Odin (just another name for the same deity really), Herne has been linked to them as both have been hung from a tree.
With Wicca and many modern pagan religions, Herne is frequently identified with the Horned God. As a Horned God, Herne is seen as a god of the Hunt, the sacred masculine, animals, nature, crossroads, sacrifice, fertility, virility, forests, hunters, and warriors.
Close on the heels of a horned deity, Herne has been connected to the Celtic deity of Cernunnos. Most notably, Margaret Murray made this connection in her 1931 book, “God of the Witches.” She sees Herne as a manifestation of Cernunnos and a very localized god found only in Berkshire. Take that as you will, for as much as Margaret Murray is hailed as the Grandmother of Wicca, many of her ideas and theories have been discredited and contested or challenged as they often appealed to emotional desires didn’t fulfill proper scrutiny and criteria for research. She is still very important in getting the ball rolling for those who follow Wicca and Paganism.
Archeological Discoveries – Of note is that a headpiece made from the top part of a stag’s skull with antlers still attached was found in Britain at Star Carr near Scarborough. This headpiece is thought to date back to around 8500 B.C.E., dating it to the Mesolithic era. The headdress is thought to have served shamanic rituals to ensure a successful hunt.
Cernunnos – Gaul
It’s not just Margaret Murry who sees Herne as being very similar to or an aspect of Cernunnos, it is also R. Lowe Thompson in his 1929 book “The History of the Devil – The Horned God of the West” who makes the connection.
Thompson makes the connection of Herne to other Wild Huntsmen, looking for a connection of all of these horned deities being really the same being or aspects of each other. He goes on how Herne and Cernunnos are the same, just as the English word “horn” is a cognate of the Latin word “cornu.”
So… “cerne” and “herne.” It’s enough for many Wiccans and Pagans to accept Herne as an aspect of Cernunnos just on the fact that both have horns or antlers.
Depending on the source and who you ask, Herne hunts and destroys nature and wildlife where Cernunnos seeks to protect it.
Pan – Greek
While we’re at it, the Grecian rustic gods of the wild, Pan is also seen as a syno-deity who can be equated with Herne and other Horned Gods.
Woden – Anglo-Saxon
Also spelled Wotan.
Because so many have tried to make connections, I already touched on this above with the Wild Hunt, Herne as been connected to Wodan as well. Both Herne and Wodan hung from a tree. Herne out of shame and suicide and Wodan as he was seeking knowledge of the runes. Herne is also bandied about as being derived from one of Wodan’s titles, Herian (“Warrior-Leader”), a titled used when leading his fallen warriors, the Einherjar.
The Play’s The Thing!
Even if the origins of Herne are rooted in a Shakespearean play solely as a creation of the great bard himself. People assume that Shakespeare must have drawn on some unverifiable local myths and folklore.
While we can argue and aren’t completely sure, Herne has more than earned a place in folklore. Afterall, Herne continues to inspire and find his way into literature and modern media.
There are numerous books and T.V. series where Herne has a part or features and continues to be a character people readily draw inspiration from.
Such as a British show, Robin of Sherwood where Herne is a pagan priest and spirit of the woods. Books such as Susan Cooper’s The Dark Is Rising and Terry Pratchett’s Discworld series.