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Category Archives: Satyr

Orpheus

orpheusPronunciation: OHR-fee-us or OHR-fyoos

Alternate Spelling: Ὀρφεύς, Greek

Other names:

Etymology: There are more than a few different etymologies that have been given for the name of Orpheus. One suggestion has been orbhao, meaning “to be deprived” and another is orbh, “to put asunder or separate.” This later is in reference about Orpheus having been torn apart by the Maenads. A last word is “goao,” meaning “to lament, sing wildly or cast a spell,” this word appears to combine all the traits that Orpheus is known for as a forlorn lover, musician and priest.

Golden Age Hero

Among the Greeks, Orpheus is the name of the greatest and legendary musician and poet of mythology and religion. His music was so great that he could charm all living things and even the stones of the earth. The story that Orpheus is the most well-known for, is that of going to the Underworld to bring his wife, Eurydice back to the lands of the living. Orpheus’ other claim to fame in stories is being a member of the Argonauts.

Parentage and Family

Parents

There’s typically a couple slight variations as to who Orpheus’ parents are.

Apollo & Calliope – In this version of parentage, Orpheus is very much so a god, even if a minor god.

Oeagrus & Calliope – With this version of parentage, with his father a mortal king and his mother the muse Calliope, Orpheus is certainly considered a demigod.

Siblings

The Muses (though I’d think them more like Aunts), the Graces, Linus (who goes on to Thebes, thus becoming a Theban).

Aristaeus – the son of Apollo and a potential half-brother to Orpheus if we use the parentage of Apollo and Calliope for Orpheus.

Consort

Eurydice – Sometimes known as Argiope. Some versions of the story mention her to be a Nymph. Orpheus travels to the underworld to bring her back to life after her untimely death.

Children

Musaeus of Athens is thought to be Orpheus’ son.

Orpheus’ Lineage – Divine Heritage

There are a couple of different lines of parentage for Orpheus that are given.

In one, he is the son of the god Apollo and the muse Calliope.

In the second, he is the son of a mortal king, Oeagrus and again, the muse Calliope.

Depending on the lineage one goes with, Orpheus is either a minor god or demigod.

The ancient writer, Strabo wrote of Orpheus as a mere mortal who lived in a village near Mount Olympus. According to Strabo, Orpheus would have made his living as a wizard, likely the charlatan, street performer kind and musician.

Pimpleia, Pieria

For those interested, this city in ancient Greek and likely located where the modern village of Agia Paraskevi close to Litochoron, is reputed to be the birthplace of Orpheus. Dion and Mount Olympus also nearby to Pimpleia. There are several springs and memorials dedicated to Orpheus and the Orphic Cults. Even the Cults of the Muses were honored and known by the epithet of Pimpleids.

Early Literature & History

The ancient Greeks, except for Aristotle, seem to have accepted Orpheus as a historical personage. Neither Homer or Hesiod mention him in any of their writings. Pindar makes note of Orpheus, calling him “the father of songs” and that he is the son of the Thracian king Oeagrus and the Muse Calliope. The earliest reference to Orpheus is found in the fragments of a poem by the 6th century B.C.E. poet Ibycus. In this fragment, Orpheus is called onomaklyton Orphēn or “Orpheus famous-of-name.”

Orphism – The Orphic Mysteries

Orpheus is considered by the Greeks to be the founder of the Orphic Mysteries. He is often credited as being the composer for the Orphic Hymns, of which, only two have survived to the present day of this body of literature and hymns. Some 87 hymns have been attributed to Orpheus for the god Dionysus and sung for the Orphic and Bacchus Mystery cults. The composer, Onomacritus is likely to have written many of the early Orphic hymns.

Orphism was at its height during the 6th century B.C.E. in ancient Greece. Shrines dedicated to Orpheus reportedly containing relics of his have been regarded as Oracles. In the sanctuary of the Eleusinian Demeter in Taygetus, there was a wooden statue of Orpheus.

Orphic – The word orphic derives from Orpheus’ name and has come to have the definition of mystic, fascinating and entrancing. With the connection to the Oracle of Orpheus, the word orphic can also refer to or mean oracular. As a seer and auger, Orpheus also practiced astrology and founded cults for Apollo and Dionysus.

Orphikos – Or the “Orphic Way of Life.” Plato makes mention of a class of vagrant beggar-priests who would offer purification rites for the wealthy and have a collection of books attributed to Orpheus and Musaeus. The most devoted to the Orphic rites would frequently practice vegetarianism, refusing to eat eggs and beans as well as practicing celibacy.

Orphic Ritual & Eschatology – It’s thought that this ritual involved a symbolic or actual dismemberment of an individual who represented the god Dionysus reborn. There was a lot of Orphic eschatology doctrine centered around the rewards and punishment for the soul once the body died and being free to pursue their true purpose or life.

Wine – Wine was an important element of the Orphic religion, used in their sacrament for a sacred intoxication they believed would bring them closer to god and as a means of gaining mystic knowledge. This concept was introduced to the Greeks by Pythagoras, who was viewed as a reformer to the Orphic Mysteries that succeeded the Dionysus Mysteries. It’s easy to see or assume this concept of wine in religious sacraments makes its way into other religious practices.

Gifts Of Orpheus

Other gifts that Orpheus is thought to have given to his fellow humans is that of medicine, though that is credited as more having been Aesculapius or Apollo. Writing, often more the purview and invention of Cadmus. Lastly, agriculture, though with this role, Orpheus takes on the Eleusinian role of Triptolemus who gives Demeter’s knowledge of agriculture to humans. The ancient writers Aristophanes and Horace go so far as to state that Orpheus even taught cannibals to live on eating fruit. According to Horace, Orpheus is the one who brings order and civilization to otherwise lawless and savage people.

Other Cults And Religious Worship

Orpheus is credited with establishing the worship of different deities in other places throughout ancient Greece.

Hecate – in Aegina.

Demeter Chthonia – in Laconia

Kores Sōteiras – also in Laconia as a savior maid

Orpheus & His Lyre

While Orpheus was living with his mother Calliope and her other sisters, the muses in Parnassus, the youth met the god Apollo who was courting the muse Thalia at the time. In his role as the god of music, Apollo gave Orpheus a golden lyre and taught him how to play. Calliope, as Orpheus’ mother, taught him how to compose songs and lyrics.

A minor note though is that while Hermes is the one who invented the lyre, Orpheus is who perfected the art of music with it.

Jason and the Argonauts

In the stories of Jason and the Argonauts, Orpheus is but one of many companions who journeyed with Jason.

In his quest for the Golden Fleece, Jason had been advised by Chiron in a prophesy that he would need the famed musician Orpheus.

Feeding The Crew – Armed only with his golden lyre, Orpheus aided and helped feed the crew of the Argos by charming fish from the sea with his music.

Calming The Storm – In one episode, a storm rolled in and Orpheus played his lyre, thereby, immediately calming the seas and ending the storm.

Siren Call – This the most famous episode in the tale of Jason and the Argonauts that Orpheus is known for. When the Argonauts encountered the Sirens, Orpheus pulled out his lyre and played his music much louder than the Sirens, drowning out their voices so that the crew could bypass the danger. One account has the Sirens changing into rocks.

However, one Argonaut, Boutes is mentioned as still being affected by the Sirens’ call and leaps overboard when the Argo started sailing further away. Lucky for Boutes, the goddess Aphrodite saved him and took him to Cape Lilybaeum.

These are the same Sirens that Odysseus encounters in Homer’s epic of the Odyssey. The Sirens lived on a series of three small, rocky islands known as the Sirenum scopuli. The voices of the Sirens, when they sang or called out would cause sailors to leap to their deaths into the sea and crashing their boats on the rocks to sink beneath the waves.

Unrequited Love – The 3rd century B.C.E. poet Phanocles, wrote of Orpheus being in love with Calais, the son of Boreas, the god of the North Wind. The affection doesn’t seem to have been returned as Phanocles writes of how Orpheus would go to shady groves and sing of his unfulfilled desire and longing for Calais.

Pederasty – Since we’re on this subject of love, Ovid writes of how Orpheus eventually came to spurn the love of women due to his loss of Eurydice. Due to Orpheus fame and skill with music, many people still wanted his companionship and not just as friends either. Continuing with Ovid’s line of thought, Orpheus is to be counted as the first Thracian to engage in pederasty. Pederasty being the relationship between an older man and a younger man, often in his teens. Ancient Greek social customs say this relationship was consensual.

Orpheus & Eurydice

This is perhaps the most well-known of the stories surrounding Orpheus, the death of his wife Eurydice and Orpheus’ journey to the Underworld to try and bring her back.

There are a few different variations to how Eurydice died. Most versions agree that in one way or another, she had been bitten by a venomous snake.

When Orpheus met and fell in love Eurydice, like many couples, they decided to tie the knot and get married. Hymen, the god of marriage presided over the marriage to bless it. However, Hymen prophesied that this marriage would not last.

Sooner than anyone thought, the trouble would come. Shortly after their marriage, Eurydice went out walking in some tall grass. In one version of the story has Eurydice bitten while dancing to Orpheus’ music. In another version, a satyr jumped out and did as all satyrs do when confronted by a female, they chased after Eurydice. In her flight from the satyr, Eurydice fell into a viper’s nest where she was bitten on the heel.

Yet another version of the story, told by Virgil in his Georgics, has a man by the name of Aristaeus, a shepard chasing after Eurydice before she is bit by a viper. In Ovid’s retelling of the story, Eurydice’s death comes about by dancing with the Naiads on her wedding day. Aristaeus is also, incidentally Apollo’s son. So, potential half-brother that might have been invited to the wedding and lusting after his brother’s wife.

When her body was later discovered by Orpheus; in his overwhelming grief, he played a rather sorrowful tune. This music caused all of the nymphs and gods to grieve for Orpheus’ loss. Virgil describes Dryads as weeping from Epirus and Hebrus and as far as the land of Getae. Orpheus is further described as having wandered to Hypberborea and Tanais in his grief for Eurydice’s loss.

Moved by Orpheus’ laments, the gods and nymphs advised the great musician to go into the Underworld to bring back Eurydice. Sometimes it is just the god Apollo who advises Orpheus to make the descent. Eventually Orpheus descends into the Underworld to bringing his wife back to life. Using his famous lyre, Orpheus succeeded in charming Charon, the ferryman for the river Styx, the three-headed dog Cerberus, and both Hades and Persephone. They agreed to a bargain, that Orpheus could lead Eurydice back up to the lands of the living. However, there was one condition for this and that was that Orpheus could not look back at Eurydice until they had reached the surface.

Tragically, just before they reached the surface, Orpheus’ anxiety and love for Eurydice overwhelmed him, that he looked back at his wife. This caused Eurydice to be pulled back down to the lands of the dead, this time for good.

Ancient Views –

Interestingly, Orpheus’ visit to the Underworld is sometimes viewed in a negative light. Some, like Plato, speaking through the voice of Phaedrus in his Symposium, say that Hades never intended for Eurydice to return to the lands of the living and had presented Orpheus with an illusion or apparition of his deceased wife. Plato saw Orpheus as a coward, who instead of choosing to die and be with the one he loved, decided to defy the gods and the natural order by going to Hades and bringing his dead wife back. By Plato’s argument, Orpheus’ love wasn’t true as he did not want to die for love, so the gods’ punishment is that Orpheus would have only the illusion of getting his wife back and would than later be killed by women, the Maenads.

Late Addition?

It has been suggested that the story of Orpheus and Eurydice might be a later addition to the Orpheus myths. One example put forward is that of the name Eurudike, meaning “she whose justice extends widely” is very probably one of Persephone’s titles.

Don’t Look Back!

This mythical theme of not looking back is a stable of many stories. It is famously known in the biblical story of Lot’s wife looking when his family fled the destruction of Sodom. Other stories are those of the hero Jason’s raising up the chthonic Brimo Hekate with Medea, Adonis’ time in the Underworld and that of Persephone’s capture by the god Hades. Even in general folklore, there is the one simple task the hero is to do to win the prize and yet, they still manage to fail, thus upsetting the gods, fay or other supernatural being.

Orpheus’ Death

Distraught with the loss of his wife a second time, Orpheus fell into solitude, spurning the companionship of others and even disdaining the worship of the Greek Gods. In Ovid’s telling of Orpheus and Eurydice, Orpheus went mad in his failure to bring back his wife.

An Affront To Bacchus/Dionysus

In the version of this account by Aeschylus, in his play the Bassarids, Orpheus worshiped only the sun, Apollo. One morning, when Orpheus went to the Oracle of Dionysus located near Mount Pangaion to do his morning respects to the sun, he ended up getting torn to pieces by the Maenads for failing to give proper respect to Dionysus whom he had previously been devoted to. Eventually Orpheus was buried in Pieria. The Greek writer Pausanias says that Orpheus was killed and buried in Dion. Per Pausanias, the river Helicon is to have sunk underground when the Maenads who killed Orpheus went to wash the blood off their hands.

Where it’s the god Bacchus who is mentioned, Orpheus had once been a devotee to the Bacchus’ Mysteries. So this version of the story has Bacchus punishing the Maenads for Orpheus’ death by turning them all into trees. This version of the story is disputed as whey would Bacchus punish his own followers even if Orpheus had once been a follower himself. Though an argument comes that Bacchus allows the death for Orpheus when the musician abandoned Bacchus’ Mystery Cult.

A slight variation to all of this as recounted by Dürer in his Death of Orpheus, the Ciconian women, when they set about to kill Orpheus, first did so by throwing sticks and stones at him. Due to Orpheus’ skill with music, the very stones of the earth and sticks wouldn’t hit him. It is then, that these enraged women tore Orpheus apart with their bare hands in a fit of Bacchae madness.

Orpheus’ head and lyre would eventually find their way to the shores of Lesbos where the local people buried his head and built a shrine near Antissa to honor him. Orpheus’ head would offer up prophesies. When this oracle began to become more famous than Apollo’s Delphi Oracle, the god silenced the Antissa oracle.

Sometimes the Muses are credited with having taken Orpheus’ body for burial, first in Leibethra before the river Sys flooded and eventually to Dion. It’s expected that Orpheus’ shade does return to the Underworld to be reunited with his love. In Edith Hamilton’s Mythology, Orpheus’ limbs are entombed at the base of Mount Olympus where nightingales to this day, “sing more sweetly than anywhere else.”

As to the lyre, the Muses would come claim it and place it up into the heavens to become the constellation Lyra.

Instead of being killed by a group of women, Orpheus is said to have committed suicide in his inability to bring back Eurydice, after a failed trip to the oracle found in Thesprotia. This suicide is seen as Orpheus playing his lyre, calling for the wild animals to come tear him apart. Another story says that Zeus struck Orpheus with lightning as punishment for revealing the secrets of the gods to mortal men.

 Analogies To Other Greek Figures Of Myth

The story of Orpheus’ death at the hands of the Maenads has similarities with other figures of Greek myths and legends.

Dionysus – In terms of the Orphic Mystery Cult, the death of Orpheus seems to parallel the story of Dionysus’ death and their decent into the Underworld of Hades.

Pentheus – A former king of Thebes who was also torn apart by the Maenads. His story is mainly found and best retold by Euripides in his The Bacchae.

Cygnus Constellation

After Orpheus was murdered by either the Ciconian group or Thracian Maenads, he was turned into a swan and placed up into the heavens to become the constellation Cygnus next to his lyre, the constellation Lyra.

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Krotos

Krotos
Etymology: Rattling-Sound, Clamor

Clapping has been mentioned as the literal meaning for Krotos’ name.

Alternate Spelling: Κροτος (Greek) or Crotus (Latin)

Krotos is the son of Pan and Eupheme. In his own right, he is a minor god or daimon and a satyr like his father Pan. Krotos is noted for being a great hunter, musician and lover of the arts. In Greek mythology, he is credited with inventing the hunting bow and rhythmic beats or clapping to accompany music. So impressed were the Muses, that they awarded Krotos a place up in the heavens as the constellation Sagittarius. A slight variation to this story is that Krotos pleaded with Zeus to place him up among the heavens at his death.

Krotos is best known for hanging out with the Mousai or Muses on Mount Helicon whom his mother was a nurse-maid to. The Muses were the goddesses of the arts and sciences of whom there are nine of them.

Crotus Or Krotos?

That will depend, both spellings are correct. Crotus is the Latin spelling used by the Romans and Krotos of course is the Greek spelling. When looking up information on Crotus after doing my post for Sagittarius, many of the links that came up on him are in connection to this zodiac sign and constellation.

When trying to find information separate from the constellation, it is the spelling of Krotos that yielded any results. And due to extreme similarities for spelling, I also got links for Kratos, God of War video game. So be careful not to confuse the two, Kratos will be a post for another day.

You Called Him A Daimon!

Yes, as in the Greek term and meaning for the word spirit. It is Christianity that takes and twists the word and meaning to Demon, for an evil spirit or being.

Among the ancient Greeks, the word daimon means spirit or “replete with knowledge.” They recognized both good (eudemons) and bad (cacodemons). The word or term daimon also means “divine power,” “fate,” or “god.” And in Greek mythology, daimons could also include deified heroes. This seems to be the case for Krotos, a defied hero according 1st century C.E. Roman Mythographer, Hyginus in his writings: Fabulae.

Daimons functioned as messengers or intermediary spirits between men and gods. The good daimons were viewed as guardian spirits who gave guidance and protection to those they watched over. The bad daimons, naturally, weren’t so nice and could mislead people, getting them into trouble.

Let’s Give A Round Of Applause!

Growing up with the Muses and hanging around with them meant that unlike other satyrs, who were a rough and wild bunch, Krotos was more cultured and refined, having an education beyond that of just hunting skills and physical prowess.

What’s significant to this, is that Krotos is the one who came up with clapping or the applause at the end of a performance as a way of showing audience appreciation instead of loud yelling or cheering. That is what won the adoration of the Muses more than anything with Krotos, his love and appreciation for the arts, sciences and general knowledge. Far more than strutting around and showing off his manly or satyrly prowess.

Sagittarius Constellation

As stated before, the Muses were so impressed with Krotos’ skills that they made a request of Zeus to place him up in the heavens as a constellation. This of course being Sagittarius. As Krotos wanted to show off all of his skills as a hunter, the horse body was to show that he rode a lot. The arrows then show Krotos’ keenness and swiftness. He also ends up with a satyr’s tail as the Muses loved Krotos as much as Dionysus loved his satyr retinue. Lastly, at Krotos’ feet are a few stars forming a circle which represents a wreath like ones that could be found thrown off at play.

Later mix ups in the story of Sagittarius Constellation that link Chiron instead of Krotos seem easily explained as both were known for being greatly skilled and peaceful by nature where the other centaurs and satyrs were known for being more wild, rowdy and uncivilized in their behaviors. It has been pointed out by Eratosthenes that centaurs like Chiron didn’t use bows, so he can’t be who is mentioned as Sagittarius but Krotos who invented and used the bow.

Capricorn

Capricorn Constellation

Those familiar with Greek mythology, will no doubt be familiar with the image of the Sea-Goat known as Capricorn. The lower half of Capricorn resembles that of a fish, while the upper half is that of a goat. There are a few different conflicting myths regarding the Capricorn constellation.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

The Capricornus or Capricorn constellation is Latin for “Goat-Horned.” This constellation is one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, Capricornus is one of 88 known constellations and is bordered by the constellations of Aquila, Sagittarius, Microscopium, Piscis Austrinus and Aquarius. Many of the constellations bordering with Capricornus are water-related and are located in an area of the sky known as the Sea or Water. The latitude at which the Capricorn constellation appears overhead and can be seen by observers and star gazers is still known as the Tropic of Capricorn. This is when the sun is at its most southerly position during the Winter Solstice. The term also applies to the line on the Earth, on atlases that marks when the sun is directly over head at noon on the Winter Solstice.

Chinese Astronomy

In the Chinese system of Astronomy, the constellation Capricornus is located in The Black Tortoise of the North or Bei Fang Xuán Wu. Its name in modern Chinese is mó jié zuò, meaning “the rub ram constellation.”

Middle Eastern Astronomy

The Arabs, Persians, Turks and Syrians all knew of Capricornus as the Goat. In certain places of the Middle East, the constellation was known as the Southern Gate of the Sun, indicating that it is in this constellation that the Sun reached its lowest point in the solar year before the days become longer and the nights shorter.

Other Cultural Astronomy

The Nakh people call this constellation Negara Bjovnaš, the “Roofing Towers”

In the Society Islands, the figure of Capricornus is called Rua-o-Mere.

The planet Neptune was discovered in Capricornus by German astronomer Johann Galle, on September 23, 1846.

Mesopotamian Mythology

The constellation of Capricornus dates back to the ancient Babylonians and Sumaria. The first recordings and depictions of this constellation date to the 21st century B.C.E. before 1000 B.C.E. It was associated with the planet Saturn and the Mesopotamian god Enki, the Babylonian Ea. In the beginning, Enki was the God of the city Eridu. He was the god of artisanship, water, saltwater, lake water, intellect and creative activity. Enki or Ea was described as being fish-tailed and was called the “Antelope of the Sea.” He was seen as coming up from the abyss of the deep ocean teaching humans knowledge and the wisdom of the gods.

Enki’s symbols were the goat and fish that both combined into the sea-goat. This symbol of a goat-fish represented the great propriety of the buildings of Babylon out of the low, damp lands they were once located in. The horns of the goat represented the towns of Nineveh and Babylon built on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

The Capricorn constellation is called “šaxû ibex” in Babylonian. The sun in that month moves into the “suxûru” or fish constellation, which is called the star of Tashmetum, named after a goddess of Akkadian mythology. Tashmetum is the wife of the god known as Nabu. Nabu is the god of wisdom and writing in Babylonian legends. The ancient Babylonians revered Nabu because he was the son of Marduk and his wife, Sarpanitum. Finally, Enki or Ea is Nabu’s grandfather.

Greek Mythology

Amalthea

In one account of Greek mythology, this constellation is the symbol for Amalthea, the she-goat who nursed the god Zeus when he was an infant. Her broken horn that was used to feed Zeus was changed into the horn of plenty or cornucopia. A slight variation to this is that Amalthea is the name of the nymph who raised Zeus and took care of the goat that provided milk and nourishment for him. After Zeus had grown up and was able to over throw his father Cronus, Zeus placed Amalthea up in the heaven in thanks as the constellation of Capricornus.

Cornucopia

The horns from Amalthea the goat later become the Horn of Plenty, or Cornucopia. It is also said that the association with cornucopia is because this is the period of time when the sun is resting and “nourishing itself” before moving northwards on its solar path across the heavens. This was also seen as a symbol of discipline.

Pan

In Greek mythology, Capricorn is known as Pan and he is usually portrayed as the son of Hermes. He had the upper half of a man and the legs of a goat. How Pan becomes associated with the constellation of Capricorn is that one day when Pan and the other Gods were down by the Nile River, they were attacked by the monster Typhon. The Gods all changed themselves into various animals and forms in order to escape. In the confusion and panic, Pan jumped into the Nile River, intending to change into a fish, but only his lower half changed while his upper half turned into a goat. When the other Gods saw this half-goat, half-fish form of Pans, they laughed so much and decided to place an image of it up among the stars where it becomes the Capricornus or Capricorn constellation.

This myth is called “Egyptian” by Gaius Julius Hyginus in his Poetic Astronomy and serves as a way to justify a connection of Greek-Roman Deities with those of Egypt. Something the Romans loved to do, equating all of their gods with those of other cultures. Pan is one example here, as some retellings of this story will call him Aegipan and depending on the source, some scholars will say that Aegipan is a separate deity from Pan, or that he is one of the Panes or many names by which Pan is known.

Aegipan

In a more elaborate retelling of the story of the Greek Gods versus Typhon, while the Gods did change into various animal forms, Zeus changed into the form of the ram, Aries and remained in this form for a while. Other gods like Aphrodite and Eros became a pair of fish that form the constellation of Pisces. Now Aegipan had also transformed himself into an animal to escape Typhon, but he was already halfway submerged in the Nile River when he finally decided what animal form he would be. He had decided to be a goat, but only from the waist up and a fish from the waist down. And its this result of indecision during panic and trying to escape that results in the familiar half-goat, half-fish from of Capricorn.

Zeus finally reappears back in his own form and battles against Typhon, but he was however defeated. Typhon proceeds then to cut out the tendons of Zeus’ hands and feet and therefore unable and helpless to move. Typhon hid the tendons in a cave in the land of Cilicia. The draconic being known as Delphyne, a half-serpent, half-woman creature was tasked by Typhon to guard Zeus’ tendons.

Between the gods Hermes and Aegipan, they were able to steal back Zeus’ tendons and return them so Zeus could become whole again. With his strength restored, Zeus was now able to battle Typhon again and this time, defeated him hurling thunderbolts at him. For Aegipan’s role in this battle the Titan, Zeus set the Capricorn constellation up in the stars to honor him.

Aegipan or Pan?

Well now that all depends… some scholars will say that Aegipan is a separate deity from Pan like Nomios and Phorbas who are collectively called the Panes. Other scholars will say that the Panes are merely different aspects of the same god, in this case, Pan. Additionally, Aegipan is sometimes said to be the father of Pan and not Hermes. It can create for a lot of confusion. Which is what Pan is good at and hence the origin of the word panic.

Winter Solstice

During the early Bronze Age, Capricornus marked the Winter Solstice, the day and time of year when the days are their shortest and the nights are at their longest. Due to the rotational axis shift of the Earth, around 130 B.C.E., the Winter Solstice occurs earlier and no longer in the Capricorn constellation. The solstice still marks the start of the astrological sign of Capricorn in the Zodiac with the sun in Sagittarius.

As of 2002, the Sun now appears in the constellation of Capricornus from January 19 to February 15. In tropical astrology, the Sun is in the sign Capricorn from December 22 to January 20, and in sidereal astrology, this time is from January 15 to February 15.

Zodiac

The constellation of Capricorn is the tenth sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. It is the second faintest constellation of the zodiac after the Cancer and can be seen at its brightest in September about four A.M. in the morning.

For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be sometime from December 22 to January 19. Oftentimes, this is very close to the time and start of the Winter Solstice.

Capricorn is recognized by the name of the “Gate of Death” and is opposite to the constellation Cancer, the “Gate of Birth. “ Capricorn relates to the time the Sun embarks on the tenth part of its orbit and relates to a time of new knowledge. The planet Saturn is said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Earth, an introverted sign and is one of four cardinal signs.

Capricorn people or those born under this sign are thought to be well ground and capable of exercising a lot of discipline as needed. They make for great listeners due to their great patience. This ability allows Capricorns a good insight into the lives of other people, traditions and personal histories. They can be very cultured and knowledgeable about the world and society. Capricorns may also care a great deal about personal appearances and perceptions, always seeking to dress neatly or be very stylish. They can be seen as generous, interesting and tactful as dispensers of wisdom.

Sagittarius

Sagittarius
Etymology – The Archer; “sagitta” means “arrow” in Latin. Toxotes in Greek

For those who study either Astronomy or Astrology, the constellation of Sagittarius is easily recognizable by the image of a centaur drawing a bow. It is found between the constellations of Ophiuchus to the west and Capricornus to the east.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Greek Mythology

In Greek mythology, I’ve come across a couple of different stories related to the constellation of Sagittarius.

Chiron

Most people will identify Sagittarius as a centaur, half human, half horse, wielding a bow. Generally this centaur is supposed to be Chiron and in others, it’s the centaur Phollus. Upon their death, they were placed up in the heavens to form the familiar constellation of Sagittarius. More scholarly sources will point out that the story of Chiron is actually more correctly identified with the constellation of Centaurus.

Crotus

Interestingly, it wasn’t until I went looking up information on Sagittarius that I’ve come across the name of this satyr, Crotus. None of the books I have mention, name or come close to referencing him. Everything I’ve come up with on him is through on-line and these sources reference Theony Condos’ book Star Myths and two ancient sources of Eratosthenes (1st/2nd century C.E.) and Hyginus (1st century B.C.E.).

Just who is he? Crotus in the myths I found, place him as the son of Pan and Eupheme, apparently a nursemaid to the Muses and one of the Charities. Eupheme is another name that once I went looking up Crotus, I couldn’t find anything on her in my books except for on-line sources. But I can see why there’s a mix up with Chiron who was peaceful by nature and Crotus who was also peaceful by nature where other Centaurs and Satyrs were known for wild and rowdy behaviors.

But this story makes far more sense for Crotus to be the figure shown in the constellation of Sagittarius. Satyrs, depending on the source and book read, are sometimes described as having a horse’s tail along with the hooves and goat-like horns. And in the myths that I’ve found regarding Crotus, he’s described as being a very skilled hunter and the inventor of the bow. So well loved was he by the muses that they asked Zeus to place Crotus up among the stars to be commemorated as a constellation.

Perhaps in a vague effort to connect Sagittarius with its earlier Babylonian astronomy, the constellation of Sagittarius is said to aiming an arrow at the constellation of Scorpio, specifically the star called Antares, the heart of the Scorpion.

Babylonian Mythology

The constellation of Sagittarius was well known to earlier civilizations in the Middle East and Mesopotamian cultures. When the twelve constellations were listed sometime around the third millennium B.C.E., Sagittarius, the Archer was on it. It’s generally agreed by many that the Babylonian’s constellation of Sagittarius later becomes the root of the Greek Sagittarius mythology.

In some myths, the character of Enkidu, a feral man raised by beasts, was seen represented in the constellation of Sagittarius. Enkidu was a close friend and companion to Gilgamish of the city Uruk. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Nergal, the god of war is found on two cuneal inscriptions. In Sumerian, Nergal’s name means “Lord of the Great Dwelling,” that is the Underworld. Nergal was one of seven deities to who sacrifices and offerings of sheep and cattle were made. Nergal was originally associated with fire and the heat of the sun. One of his epitaphs is sarrapu, “the Burner.” He later came to be seen as a god of War, Pestilence and Devastation.

The Babylonians saw Nergal in the constellation of Sagittarius. Nergal was said to be a strange centaur-like creature firing a bow. One source states that this image is usually depicted with wings, two heads, one being a panther, the other a human head and a scorpion’s stinger raised above it instead of a horse’s tail.

The Sumerian’s also saw their god Pabilsag. This deity’s name is comprised of two words, the first being Pabil, meaning “elder paternal kinsman” and Sag, meaning “chief head.” The thought or idea is that the name can then translate to “Forefather” or “Chief Ancestor.” Pabilsag’s look contains several complex characteristics not interpreted in the Greek icon of a centaur. Pabilsag had a scorpion’s tail, a dog’s head and wings. In other variants the characteristics are altered, the dog’s head or wings could be overlooked all together, while in other icons bird like feet supplant the scorpion’s tail.

Some scholars like to try making a connection of the Greek Sagittarius to the ancient Babylonian constellation through the etymology of words. With how Sagittarius is from the Latin meaning the Archer. This is translated from the word Sagitta meaning an arrow. This is then translated from the Greek word Taxotes, meaning the Archer, and when translated to the Akkadian language, is Nedu the Soldier. Once more this gets translated to the Sumerian word “Us,” meaning the Soldier). And ultimately, it is finally translated to the Sumerian words Pa.bil.sag, meaning the Archer.

The Arabs named a number of the brighter stars in the constellation after parts of the human body and for parts of a bow and arrow, indicating that they too associated this constellation with an archer. One star, called Nunki, is a fairly recently used name by navigators and comes from a list of Babylonian star names. The name Nun-Ki was the name of a group of stars representing the Babylonian’s sacred city of Eridu on the Euphrates River. This name is now used exclusively for the star Sigma Sagittarii, and is considered to be the oldest star name in use.

Chinese Astronomy

For the Chinese, they view the constellation of Sagittarius as two separate constellations of the seventh and eighth lunar mansions called Ji and Dou Ji, representing a winnowing basket used for separating rice grains from their chaffs. The chaff was represented by a single star called Kang. A related constellation called Chu, the pestle is to the south of Ji, used for pounding the rice to remove the husks.

Dou, “dipper” or Nandou “southern dipper” was formed by the stars Mu, Lambda, Phi, Sigma, Tau and Zeta Sagittarii. This constellation is also called the Milk Dipper. In Chinese proverbs, the southern dipper marks life while the northern dipper, Beidou, the familiar Big Dipper found as part of Ursa Major, marks death. A solitary star nearby was called Nongzhangren, an old farmer, measures out the grains in the dipper and winnowing basket.

North of Dou, an arc of stars, Upsilon, Rho, 43, Pi, Omicron and Xi Sagittarii is called Jian and represents a banner, possibly at a city gate. Next to it is Tianji, the “celestial cock” who is in charge of time as they’re the first to crow the dawn while all the other birds follow it.

To the south of Tianji are two canine related constellations. Gouguo which consists of stars Omega, 59, 60 and 62 Sagittarrii. The name Gouguo translates to “territory of dogs” or “dog kingdom” and could represent a nation of Chinese myth and history, possibly the Mongols. Next to Gouguo, is Gou, formed by the stars 52 and Chi-1 Sagittarii, and is said to represent a guard dog.

In the southern part of Sagittarius, a group of ten stars formed the constellation Tianyuan and represented a body of water such as a lake or ocean. Tianyuan was said to control or govern the irrigation of fields. A group of fainter stars in Sagittarius on the border with the constellation Ophiuchus form part of another constellation, Tianyue. This constellation lay on an ecliptic threshold and represented a lock or keyhole through which the Sun had to pass every year. It lays directly opposite in the heavens from Tianguan, a gate on the edge of Taurus.

The Teapot

The eight brightest stars of Sagittarius form an easily recognizable, smaller constellation or asterism known as the “the Teapot.” Four stars form the body of the pot, while other stars form the lid, spout and even the handle. Another smaller group of these stars form a ladle shape called the Milk Dipper. Ancient Chinese astronomers also saw a dipper among these same stars as mentioned above.

The Galactic Center!

According to Astronomers, the constellation of Sagittarius sits at the center of the Milky Way galaxy as it is at its densest there. Many star clusters and nebulae are also found within the constellation of Sagittarius. Some of these nebulae are the Lagoon Nebula, the Omega Nebula, which is also called the Loon, or Swan or even the Horseshoe Nebula, and the Trifid Nebula. The brightest star cluster is called Messier 55. In addition to all this, it is believed that the exact center of the Galaxy is marked by a radio signal that astronomers call Sagittarius A.

Zodiac

The constellation of Sagittarius is the ninth sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from November 21 to December 21. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during early summer. The planet Jupiter is said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Fire, an extroverted sign and is one of four mutable signs.

Sagittarius people are said to like being straight forward, getting to the heart of the matter with honesty. Sometimes their sense of honesty and truthfulness can hurt as they may not necessarily sugar coat anything. A younger Sagittarius will be rather abrasive about this, sometimes coming off as a smart alec whereas an older Sagittarius has learned to better temper their words will still being very frank and forthright. A Sagittarius person may also aspire to a lot of athleticism, philosophy, scholarly pursuits, travel, adventure or high and noble ideals. They’re known for being loyal and being those who can give as well as effectively follow directions.