Category Archives: Red

Caishen

Etymology: “God of Wealth”

Also Known As: Ts’ai-shen, Tsai Shen Yeh, Zhao Gongming, Bi Gan

Alternative Spellings: T’shai-Shen, 財神 (Traditional Chinese,) 财神 (Simplified Chinese)

In the Taosist and folk religions of China, Caishen is the god of wealth, specifically prosperity who is rather popular that even atheists will worship him from time to time, at least during the Lunar New Year celebrations.

Description

In some depictions, Caishen is shown dressed in exquisite flowing red robes and riding a black tiger. He is said to have a black face with a thick mustache and wears an iron helmet along with holding an iron weapon. Unless this misunderstanding is on my part, Caishen may also be shown with a Ri Yu staff or scepter that he holds. A golden yuanbao (gold ingot, bar of gold) is also shown near to Caishen or he may be holding one. Other imagery of Caishen will show him with several attendants with various gold bars, scrolls and fruit to pass to people that Caishen has blessed.

A temple to Caishen was built in the 2000s in Zhouzhi, Xi’an, Shaanxi. That is fairly recent in the grand scheme of things.

Prosperity

Caishen aids in ensuring that a person will receive profits from any commercial transactions.

Gold – This is rather obvious as a symbol of Caishen. He is often shown with a gold yuanbao or ingot as this holds value. The iron weapon that Caishen is shown holding also sometimes transforms into gold, showing Caishen’s power over wealth and prosperity.

Alchemy – There is sometimes another tool, a golden cudgel that Caishen holds that he can use to turn stone or iron into gold.

Tiger – In Chinese symbolism, the tiger represents persistence and represents that a person must do more than wish for wealth, they must do more and act on it.

Bureaucracy

Close on the heels of being a god of prosperity, Caishen presides over a bureaucracy with numerous minor deities under him.

Protection

Aside from promoting prosperity and wealth, Caishen is known to protect or ward against thunder and lightning.

Lunar New Year

During the Chinese Lunar New Year, Caishen descends from the heavens to come down to the earth and check on his followers.

With the Lunar New Year, this is a good time in the days leading up to it to do some spring cleaning of your home and remove unwanted clutter. Do any repairs that need it and check the lightbulbs, especially for the front door.

Families worship Caishen in the early morning by setting three candles on the dining table and burning three incense sticks of choice as the main entrance and windows are open to invite Caishen into the home. After bowing and inviting Caishen in, it is traditional for the family to set a place for him at the table and to eat dumplings on this day as they look like the gold yuanbao or ingot associated with Caishen. Images of Caishen are also displayed, in more modern times, posters are acceptable.

On the second day of the Lunar New Year, Caishen ascends back up to the heavens, and the pictures used to welcome him on the first day are now burned to see him off. Burning the pictures is part of wishing for a more prosperous and luckier year.

The fifth day of the Lunar New Year is Caishen’s birthday, so its natural to want to celebrate that and wish him a happy birthday too! Cake, dumplings, and fireworks!

It is popular among friends and family to say the traditional New Year greeting of “Gongxi Facai” or “May you become rich!” Admittedly, many Westerners confuse the saying as being equivalent to the English “Happy New Year” when it’s a prayer wishing someone wealth and prosperity.

Feng Shui

For those who practice feng shui, an image of Caishen can be displayed in one’s home or office to attract money, good luck or fortune, wealth, and prosperity. Some believe that this can come in the form of a sudden windfall of financial luck. The higher that you are able to place this image of Caishen, the better as that is believed to show more respect for him with the best places being the foyer, entryway, or living room for him.

Buddhism

Among the “Pure Land Buddhists,” they venerate Caishen as a buddha. In esoteric Buddhism, Caishen is identified with Jambhala, the God of Wealth.

Taoism

In various Chinese and Taosist temples, a statue of Caishen may sometimes stand near a door, usually in conjunction with Randeng Daoren, the Burning-Lamp Taoist.

Maoism

Under Mao and Communism, the veneration of Caishen in mainland China hasn’t faired too well as the state believes in making it’s own way and luck with money. Several of the temples and statues of Caishen were destroyed during this time.

As luck would have it, 1979 saw a renaissance from the “Four Asian Tigers” of overseas Chinese communities in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea where the veneration of Caishen had been kept alive, finding themselves wealthy and prosperous, even well developed. This wouldn’t be hard for people back in mainland China to see a correlation and have a swift return to using Caishen’s symbols from abroad and to place statues of Caishen in several prominent places, there are shrines, incense burned and statuettes tucked away on a shelf in a restaurant.

Possible Reality Behind The Myth

Many of China’s mythical figures are often said and thought to have once been a living person in life before ascending a deified or higher state. In this case, there are several legends of whom Caishen has been linked to, making it a bit dubious to determine if these were real, living historical people once.

With Caishen, we see him linked to the historical figure of Zhao Xuan-tan or Chao Hsüan-t’an, “General Zhao of the Dark Terrace,” during the Qin Dynasty. As Zhao Xuan-tan, he gained enlightenment on the top of a mountain. While still mortal, Zhao Xuan-tan is said to have assisted Zhang Dao-ling during his search for the Life-Prolonging Elixir.

Bi Gan – The historical figure of Bi Gan is the most ancient person to link Caishan with and the first incarnation. Bi Gan had been married to a woman with the surname of Chen. Their son’s name was Quan. After Bi Gan was sentenced to death by his nephew, King Zhou of Shang, Bi Gan’s wife and son fled to the forest. Bi Gan’s death is noted to mark the collapse of the Shang dynasty. Later, Quan would be revered as the ancestor to the Lins by King Wu of Zhou.

Zhao Gongming – There is a novel written during the Ming dynasty era called Fengshen Yanyi that tells the story of a hermit by the name Zhao Gongming who used magic to support a failing Shang dynasty. Jiang Ziya, who supported the following Zhou dynasty, made a straw effigy of Zhao and after twenty days of spells, prayers and incantations, fired an arrow made of peach tree wood through the heart of this effigy. At the moment the arrow struck, Zhao became ill and died. Later, when Jiang visited the temple of Yuan Shi, he was chastised for causing the death of a virtuous man. Jiang Ziya, having remorse, carried Zhao’s corpse to the Yuan Shi temple to make atonement. As Jiang expounded on Zhao’s virtues, Zhao would become canonized as Caishen, the god of Wealth, and become the president of the Ministry of Wealth. There are some sources that reverse the loyalties of Zhao and Jiang for this story.

The historical figure of Bi Gan is the most ancient person to link Caishan with. Bi Gan had been married to a woman with the surname of Chen. Their son’s name was Quan. After Bi Gan was sentenced to death by his nephew, King Zhou of Shang, Bi Gan’s wife and son fled to the forest. Bi Gan’s death is noted to mark the collapse of the Shang dynasty. Later, Quan would be revered as the ancestor to the Lins by King Wu of Zhou.

Fan Li – During Confucius’ time, Caishen came to be associated with Fan Li, a military strategist, businessman, and advisor to Goujian who ruled over the kingdom of Yue. Both Fan Li and Goujian were taken hostage by the state of Wu and held for three years. After they were freed, Fan Li continued to serve Goujian, carrying his government appointments and reforms that improved the kingdom of Yue. Fan Li’s reforms aided Goujian to be able to conquer the Wu state. After this victory, Fan Li resigned from his position and took on the name Tao Zhu Gong.

Fan Li and his wife, Xi Shi went to live on a boat out on Lake Tai. Fan Li’s success with business and his reforms led to his being defied and regarded as a reincarnation of Caishen.

Caibo Xingjun – This is another name linked to Caishen as a possible historical figure. Originally born Li Guizu, he was born in the Zichuan district in the Shandong Province where he held a position as a magistrate. Due to his service and contributions, Li Guizu was given the title of Caibo Xingjun by the Wude Emperor of the Tang dynasty and the people built a temple to worship him.

These are just some of the stories I was able to find of those historical people who have been linked with Caishen.

The Caishen Of All Directions

With all of these various historical figures linked to Caishen and seeing them as various incarnations; they all lead to the fact that there are multiple Caishen who are associated with the various directions. Additionally, a person wanting Caishen’s aid should pick one of these nine different Caishen to call on.

Center – Zhao Gong Ming, the Military God of Wealth

East – Xiao Sheng, the God of Collecting Treasures

West – Cao Bao, the God of Collecting Valuables

North – Yao Shao Si, the God of Profitability

South – Chen Jiu Gong, the God of Attracting Wealth

South-East – Han Xin Ye, the God of Gambling

South-West – Liu Hai, the God of Luck

North-East – Shen Wanshan, the God of Gold

North-West – Tao Zhugong, the Civil God of Wealth

恭喜发财

Elegua

Pronunciation: uh·leh·goo·uh

Etymology: “Master of Force” or “Messenger of the Gods”

Other Spellings: Eleggua (Cuba), Elegu, Elegua, Elewa, Elegba

Other Names and Epithets: Legba, Club Bearer, Eshu-Eleggua

Elegua is a noted trickster and Orisha in Yoruba traditions from West Africa of Benin, Nigeria and Togo. It is an area known as Yorubaland that is a collection of some twenty plus groups with overlapping traditions and beliefs. Which means that trying to pin Elegua down is going to be rather tricky and I’d say precisely what Tricksters enjoy. These numerous groups mean that there will numerous variations to the stories and even spellings for Elegua’s name.

He is the first Orisha created by Olodumare and was present to witness the rest of creation. Elegua is a divine trickster who is seen as both young and old at once. The Orisha of the crossroads, he provides numerous opportunities and choices wherein he will enjoy sitting back to watch the chaos unfold.

Attributes

Colors: Black, Red

Day of the Week: Monday, Sunday

Element: Spirit

Feast Day: January 1st, June 13th, November 2nd

Number: 3, 21

Patron of: Doorways, Justice, Messengers, Tricksters

Sphere of Influence: Crossroads, Doors, Time, Trickster, Mischief, Mayhem

Symbols: Cement or Sandstone head with eyes and mouth formed of seashells, Hooked Staff (painted red & black), Keys, Whistle

Taboo: Pigeon (no food offerings of this please)

Depictions Of Elegua

Because he represents both the beginning and end of life, Elegua can often be shown as either a young child, an old man or both simultaneously. He is frequently shown wearing black and red clothing, either traditional or jester’s attire. Elegua often takes on the role of warrior and protector as noted when shown carrying a club. He represents the endless wanderer who often appears in the guises of a beggar or crazy person.

What’s In A Name?

Studying Elegua as a separate entity from Eshu can get a bit confusing. Some traditions hold the two as brothers, other traditions say they are one and the same. That the name Elegua is one title for Eshu representing the light half with Eshu being the dark or shadow half.

In Cuba, where the spelling is Eleggua, it is generally thought that this name is a mispronunciation of Elegbara, one of Eshu’s many caminos and manifestations in Africa. That the name Eleggua is probably the Hispanic form of Elewa for Eshu meaning: “Handsome One.”

With enough sources discussing the two, Elegua and Eshu as separate, Eshu will get a separate entry later on.

Modern Day Worship

Elegua is venerated throughout Latin America and Nigeria, especially in the Candomblé, Quimbanda, Santeria, Umbanda and Youran religions.

Statues of Elegua are kept behind the front entrance to a home. Elegua’s alter will be kept either behind the front door of the house or outside, directly to the left of the door. Additionally, Elegua’s alter is always kept on the ground and never at a human height.

Elegua has a beaded necklace or eleke that has a repeated red and black pattern. These colors of red and black represent the duality of life and death, war and peace, health and sickness and so. In Santeria, is well understood that you want to be on Elegua’s good side as he is the one to help things go smoothly or cause the mishaps that life can throw at a person. He is very much so at the crossroads and a part of every decision that a person can make in life for good or ill.

Offerings To Elegua

Elegua will extend his protection and help to those who give offerings of candy, cigars, coconuts and rum.

Like many Orishas, in the Santeria religion, it is important to properly propitiate Elegua; for as often as he will provide opportunities, he is just as likely to toss challenges and obstacles in one’s way.

For food offerings, Elegua will eat almost anything but pigeon. The young, child-like manifestations of Elegua often receive offerings of candy and toys. Older manifestations lean more towards the hard candy, popcorn, smoked fish, bush rat, goat, and rooster. Elegua is especially found of black & white hens and she-goats as offerings.

Orisha

Elegua is a member of the Orisha, the first one created by Olodumare. The Orisha are either a spirit or deity. In the Yoruban religion, a nature-based tradition, it is believed that the source of everything is called Olorun or Olodumare. The Orisha themselves are regarded as being different aspects of the main deity, Olorun-Olodumare. The Orisha act as messengers and go between for humans, answering the different prayers and requests as Olodumare is seen as being too busy to answer or do everything.

The Orisha are not perfect and like humans, will have many different good and bad traits. They also function as a family and the different relations and stories about how different Orisha relate to each other are known as Pataki, much like a fable or parable. The story doesn’t have to be true in that it actually happened in a historical sense but is made true in the telling.

With the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, the worship of Elegua was brought with the slaves and is now found throughout much of the southern U.S., Latin America and South America.

In places such as Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico, the various aspects of an Orisha are called caminos, meaning road or path.

In Nigeria, every city has a patron Orisha. Eleggua’s city is Ketu.

The First Orisha – Elegua is the first Orisha that Olodumare or Olofe created. As such, Elegua existed before the rest of creation and was present to witness everything else come into being.

However, there are other Yoruban traditions that state that Elegua is the youngest of the Orisha and the most powerful after Obatala. Elegua did come to be venerated and fed first in ceremonies after he successfully healed Olodumare. Like anyone could, getting to be first has gotten to Elegua’s head and he can cause a lot of mischief, mainly with ceremonies not going right if he isn’t appeased first. Just as Elegua must be called on first in ceremonies, he is also called upon last when closing them out.

Parentage & Family

There are a few different stories for the origins and parentage of Elegua.

Mother Oya is given as the mother of Elegua.

Father – This part isn’t clear as Oya herself has a couple of different consorts. Either Chango or Ogun.

Other sources and myths will list Elegua as the son of Obatala and Yemmu.

Siblings

Following where Obatala and Yemmu are his parents, Elegua’s siblings will be Ogun and Orunla.

As an Orisha, one could argue that ultimately, they are all brothers and sisters.

Messenger

Elegua is the messenger orisha for Olofi, one of the three manifestations of the Supreme god in Yoruban religion. As a messenger, Elegua has the power or Ashe (Ase) to make things happen or get things done.

Divine Judgment

As messenger, that also puts Elegua in the position to mete out justice to wrong doers. Anything from financial losses. To accidents and even jail. Naturally, Elegua can also bless those whom he favors too.

Trickster

Due to his nature, Elegua is seen as a trickster in Santeria as he is present everywhere. He was the first to witness creation, he is witness to all of humankind’s events and history. Elegua provides both opportunities and obstacles in a person’s life. If you’re particularly lucky, you might even get a second chance with him.

God Of The Crossroads

A trickster, Elegua is known for opening the crossroads in the Santeria religion. Elegua is also associated with doorways and will protect a home from any danger or ills entering. Especially for those who have made the right offerings.

Within the Santaria religion, before starting any ritual or ceremony, Elegua must be called upon first, getting his approval at the beginning of every ceremony and to ensure it will proceed in an orderly manner. By the same token, Elegua will be called on last to close out a ceremony too.

As an Orisha of Crossroads, Elegua rules over different “roads” or caminos. Elegua is believed to have 101 (some traditions say 21) different such caminos or aspects. Some traditions, these caminos are also called “Eshu.” There is Eshu Alawana, the one who wanders alone in the wilds, Eshu Larove, the talkative one and Eshu Olona, the owner of the road. These are just a few of the different aspects or caminos that Elegua can take on.

As a god of the crossroads, he is the guardian of not just the crossroads, but marketplaces, curved streets and thresholds to houses. With this aspect, also comes providing choices and options, for a person to decide which direction they will go or to make mistakes in the process as Elegua stands back and watches.

Divination

Elegua is not an Orisha of Divination. However, due to his nature of facilitating the flow of energy and crossroads, Elegua does hold close ties to Orunmila, who is the Orisha of Divination. It makes sense given that Elegua has the keys to time to see the past, present and potential futures.

For general readings, Elegua’s diloggun or cowrie shells are used as he is considered to speak for all the Orishas.

Keys Of Time

There is a Pakati or story within Santeria where Olodumare gives Elegua the keys to the past, present and future. It is from this story, that Elegua is sometimes shown holding keys.

In the traditions where Elegua is the youngest of the Orishas; Olodumare had fallen extremely ill and lay sick in bed. All the Orisha gathered around and in turn, each one tried their best to heal Olodumare to no avail. Finally, Elegua arrived and offered to try healing Olodumare. The other Orisha scoffed at this, for how could Elegua, a mere child accomplish what the others, adults couldn’t do? Undaunted by the others, Elegua tried his hand and successfully healed Olodumare. In gratitude, Elegua was made the first Orisha to be called upon in every ceremony.

Variation – Other versions will say that it is Obatala who fell sick that Elegua healed. In thanks, Olodumare or Olofi then gives him the keys to all doors.

An Argument Among Friends

This is one story involving Elegua that I came across in full.

Elegua heads out one day on a Monday wearing a hat that is red on one side and white on the other. As he’s heading to the crossroad, he passes between two friends. One only sees the side of the hat that’s red and the other, the side that’s white.

Later on, the two friends comment about the stranger that walked past them earlier in the day. One friend comments on the red hat while the other says he is wrong, it was white. They get into such an argument about who is right and who is wrong, that it comes to blows.

Elegua had been watching the two from a hidden spot. He laughed at the two as he strode over to separate the friends and chastise them for fighting over the color of a stranger’s hat. He points out how his hat is red on one side and white on the other. That the two should be ashamed as their clothing is now torn and that there are more important matters to argue about.

In some versions of this story, the two friends apologize, while in other versions that two are so furious with each other that they continue their fight to the point of destroying their village.

Eshu – Synodeity

Elegua is also associated with Eshu (Echu). In many traditions, the two are seen as brothers while in others, they are one and the same. In Santeria, Elegua’s energy is tamer and more constrained compared to Eshu whose energy is wilder and more unpredictable. Basically, light and shadow.

In Brazilian traditions, Elegua is known as Elegbara and is just one of the titles that Exu or Eschu is known by.

Among the Yoruban practitioners of Nigeria, Eshu is just another name for Elegba or Elegua. Here, Eshu is a protective spirit who serves the chief god Ifa as a messenger.

Legba – West Africa/Haitian

A trickster deity and Loa found among the Fon people and Voudon religion, he is often equated as being the same figure as Elegua, especially variations of Eshu-Eleggua.

Janus – Roman

Given that Janus is the Roman god of portals and crossroads, shown to protect doorways, symbolism with keys and was invoked first in Roman rites, I see a lot of similarities between Janus and Elegua.

Catholic Saints

There are a few different Saints that Elegua has been equated to and it varies by the religion. Often the connections are fairly superficial.

Anima Sola – Not exactly a saint, but this is the Lonely Soul in Purgatory that is popular in Latin America in Catholosism with the Saint Cults. The Santeria religion in Cuba makes this connection of Elegua, more specifically Eshu with this figure.

Holy Child of Atocha – As in the infant Jesus, he is a popular folk image among Hispanics and as a protector of travelers, has easily been syncretized with Elegua.

Saint Anthony of Padua – One of the beloved Saints in Catholism, Pictures of Saint Anthony often show him carrying the Child-Jesus and a lily. The connection to Elegua is made as he is sometimes shown as a child.