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Category Archives: Nature

Idaea

Idaea

Other names: Ida, Idaia

Pronunciation: /ɪˈdiːə/ or /aɪˈdiːə/

Etymology – Ida (Greek) “Wooded Mountain”

Idaea is either the name of several different mountain nymphs or an epithet of the goddess Cybele in Greek mythology. Most of the stories about all of these different nymphs named Idaea tend to be foundation myths linking the start or beginning of different tribes and their corresponding kingdoms with older, local beliefs and traditions before the Hellenic era of Greek history.

Epithet Of Cybele

As an epithet, the name Idaea refers to Cybele’s connection to Mount Ida within Asia Minor where there was an ancient site of worship.

Mount Idaea

The Homeric Hymns describe Mount Ida or Idaeas as a “shadowy mountain” with “lofty peaks where many fountains flow.” The mountain nymph who resided here was described as the mother of beasts.

There are two mountain nymphs of the same name who lived on Mount Idaea or Ida.

Cretan Nymph –

The first nymph lived on the highest mountain or elevation in Crete. Nowadays, this mountain is known as Mount Psiloritis.

In the mythological stories from Crete, Idaea was the daughter of Corybas, a priest of the goddess Cybele, who was worshiped as fertility god and the progenitor of the Corybantes. The Corybantes were a group of mountain gods or daimons from Asia Minor and whom, in Crete, are associated with the Curetes.

Another version of the stories state that Idaea was the wife of Lycastos, the son of King Minos and the nymph Itone who would later become s Minos’ successor to the throne. Sometimes this lineage is reversed and Idaea and Lycastos are the parents of Minos.

Other variations of the stories place Idaea and Zeus as the parents of Cres, the father of the Cretan tribe.

The Birthplace Of Zeus – The Idaean Cave found in Crete below the summit of Mount Ida is known as the birthplace for the infant god Zeus. Ida and her sister Adrasteia took care of the infant as his nannies and wet-nurses, guarding him until he was old enough.

Lover’s Tryst – The ancient Hesiod tells of a love story between the goddess Demeter and the hero Jason of Argonaut fame meeting on the mountain side of Mount Ida.

Phrygian Nymph –

The second nymph lived on the Mount Ida found within ancient Phrygia near the city of Troy found in Troad. In modern times, this place is located in the north-western region of Turkey. Mount Ida is now known in modern times as Mount Kaz Gagi.

The Phrygian Idaea was known as the Idean Mother, a Mother Goddess. In these stories she is noted as being the daughter of the river god Scamander. In addition, Idaea is the mother of the first king of Troy, Teucer.

Scamander – Another version places Idaea as being a river-nymph or mountain nymph. When Scamander jumps into the river Xanthus, she becomes his wife or mate and through that connection, Teucer’s mother. In either event, Teucer is the forefather to the kings of Troy and Dardania.

Zeus And Mount Ida – In Homer’s writings, Zeus lived on Mount Ida and whenever a storm gathered, the other gods and goddess would often be in attendance.

Dardanus – Zeus And Electra had an affair in which Dardanus was born. When sailing away during the Flood from his home island of Samothrace to Phrygia, Dardanus married the daughter of King Teucros. Dardanus goes on to become the founder of Dardania within the region of Troad.

Scythian Princess – There is, in this lineage with Dardanus, an Idaea who is the great-granddaughter of Bateia and Dardanus and who is also the second wife of Phineus. With Phineus, she is the mother of Mariandynus and Thynius

As the second wife of Phineus, Idaea accused her stepsons of rape. As a result, Phineus had them blinded. Later, when Phineus is killed, Idaea returned to her people and her father, Dardanus killed Idaea for the way she had treated her stepsons.

Ganymede In the story of Ganymede, it is on Mount Ida that Zeus comes in the form of an eagle or sends one to abduct the youth to Mount Olympus.

Paris – In the stories from the Trojan War, Paris lived in exile on this sacred mountain as a shepherd. He had been left there by Priam to die of exposure after an ill-boding prophecy told of Paris’ part in the story of Troy. Obviously Paris lived and would return.

Other stories involving Paris during his time on Mount Ida have the goddesses Hera and Aphrodite coming to have him decides which of the goddesses was the most beautiful.

 

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Nephele

Nephele
Ancient Greek Spelling: Νεφελη

Alternate Spellings: Nefeli

Etymology – From the Greek word: nephos, meaning “cloud” or “cloudy.” The latinized spelling is nubes.

Pronunciation: NEF-eh-lee

Nephele is an interesting character found in Greek Mythology. We first hear of her in the story of Ixion. Yes, that Ixion who is the first murderer in Greek Myths; who also puts some unwanted moves on Zeus’ wife Hera. When Hera complained, Zeus fashioned a cloud in Hera’s likeness in order to catch Ixion in the act.

Cloudy Beginnings

As previously mentioned in the story of Ixion, Nephele is the name of the cloud that Zeus fashions in Hera’s likeness in order to catch Ixion in the act of some unwanted moves.

Mother Of The Centaurs

Nephele is the mother of the Centaurs when she is raped by Ixion who thought she was the goddess Hera. She either gives birth to Centaurus, who is an ugly deformed child that goes on to be the progenitor of the centaurs or Nephele gives birth directly to the centaurs as a race. Either way, Ixion and Nephele do ultimately sire the centaur race.

In the version of the story where Ixion is bound to a flaming wheel in Tartarus, the resulting centaurs that are born were left on Mount Pelion where the Centaur-God Chiron and his daughters took them in to raise. In this lineage, the Centaurs are sometimes referred to as the Ixionidae or as Nubigenae, meaning cloud-born and connecting them to Nephele as their mother.

Hercules Versus The Centaurs

In one of many of Hercules adventures, he does battle against the Centaurs. Nephele is commented by a Diodorus Siculus in his Library of History, to have sent a heavy rain to make the ground more treacherous for those who relied on two legs to walk instead of four like her centaur children.

Goddess In Her Own Right

Nephele, when she is acknowledged as having a name in the Greek Myths, is mentioned as being a Cloud Nymph and like all Nymphs, they are minor goddesses. While being forces and personifications of nature, Nymphs were not as powerful as the other major Greek Deities. Given the story with how Nephele helped her centaur children and later two more children of hers, Phrixus and Helle, she has to have had some power and significance.

Disputing Goddess-hood

Because of her origins in the story of Ixion, Nephele is often seen as being a clone and copy of the goddess Hera.

It’s just possible, that like Chiron, as Greek culture and influence spread of the twelve major Olympian gods, that Nephele’s status and power as a goddess in her own right diminished to her being a Nymph and Clone of Hera.

The First Wife Of Athamas

After the incident involving her with Ixion, there becomes a problem over a matter of a lot of confusion not only with Nephele herself, but the other Olympian gods. In the stories where Nephele is a clone of Hera, there is a huge case of mistaken identity as she was constantly mistaken for Zeus’ wife. Adding to this, Nephele would hide in corners where she would constantly break out into tears. This didn’t work as any of the Gods passing by would keep asking her what the matter was, thinking she was Hera.

Fed up with this, Zeus eventually married Nephele off to the Boeotian King, Athamas in order to be rid of her. All went well until the birth of her two children, Phrixus and Helle when she falls into another state of depression and would turn into a raining cloud.

In turn, Athamas was fed up and started having an affair with Ino, the sister of Semele whom Zeus was also having a current affair with. Eventually Athamas divorced Nephele for Ino and the Cloud Nymph returned to Olympus.

Phrixus And Helle

With Athamas, Nephele is the mother of the twins, Phrixus and Helle. There is a third child, Makistos, though it is the twins who have more of a place in myth and legends.

Because Athamas had divorced and remarried, Phrixus and Helle found themselves with a stepmother who hated them and devised a plan in order to get rid of the two.

This plan of Ino’s involved roasting all of the town’s crop seeds so they wouldn’t grow. The resulting famine caused all of the farmers to go running scared, seeking out the help of a nearby oracle. Unknown to the Farmers and others, Ino had already bribed the men at the Oracle to tell the farmers that they needed to sacrifice Phrixus.

Before the farmers could follow through on the sacrifice, Phrixus and Helle were rescued by a flying golden ram sent by their mother Nephele.

The twins were told not to look down towards the Earth on their flight from Boeotia. Unfortunately, Helle did look down and fell off the ram into the Hellespont, a narrow strait near Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. Helespont incidentally is named after Helle for this is where she is to have drowned.

Phrixus survived the flight and made it to Colchis where King Aeetes took him in and treated him fondly, even so far as to give his daughter Chalciope in marriage to him. By way of thanks, Phrixus gave Aeetes the Golden Fleece off the ram. Aeetess hung the Golden Fleece from a tree in his kingdom. This is the same Golden Fleece that Jason, leader of the Argonauts would later come and take.

Krotos

Krotos
Etymology: Rattling-Sound, Clamor

Clapping has been mentioned as the literal meaning for Krotos’ name.

Alternate Spelling: Κροτος (Greek) or Crotus (Latin)

Krotos is the son of Pan and Eupheme. In his own right, he is a minor god or daimon and a satyr like his father Pan. Krotos is noted for being a great hunter, musician and lover of the arts. In Greek mythology, he is credited with inventing the hunting bow and rhythmic beats or clapping to accompany music. So impressed were the Muses, that they awarded Krotos a place up in the heavens as the constellation Sagittarius. A slight variation to this story is that Krotos pleaded with Zeus to place him up among the heavens at his death.

Krotos is best known for hanging out with the Mousai or Muses on Mount Helicon whom his mother was a nurse-maid to. The Muses were the goddesses of the arts and sciences of whom there are nine of them.

Crotus Or Krotos?

That will depend, both spellings are correct. Crotus is the Latin spelling used by the Romans and Krotos of course is the Greek spelling. When looking up information on Crotus after doing my post for Sagittarius, many of the links that came up on him are in connection to this zodiac sign and constellation.

When trying to find information separate from the constellation, it is the spelling of Krotos that yielded any results. And due to extreme similarities for spelling, I also got links for Kratos, God of War video game. So be careful not to confuse the two, Kratos will be a post for another day.

You Called Him A Daimon!

Yes, as in the Greek term and meaning for the word spirit. It is Christianity that takes and twists the word and meaning to Demon, for an evil spirit or being.

Among the ancient Greeks, the word daimon means spirit or “replete with knowledge.” They recognized both good (eudemons) and bad (cacodemons). The word or term daimon also means “divine power,” “fate,” or “god.” And in Greek mythology, daimons could also include deified heroes. This seems to be the case for Krotos, a defied hero according 1st century C.E. Roman Mythographer, Hyginus in his writings: Fabulae.

Daimons functioned as messengers or intermediary spirits between men and gods. The good daimons were viewed as guardian spirits who gave guidance and protection to those they watched over. The bad daimons, naturally, weren’t so nice and could mislead people, getting them into trouble.

Let’s Give A Round Of Applause!

Growing up with the Muses and hanging around with them meant that unlike other satyrs, who were a rough and wild bunch, Krotos was more cultured and refined, having an education beyond that of just hunting skills and physical prowess.

What’s significant to this, is that Krotos is the one who came up with clapping or the applause at the end of a performance as a way of showing audience appreciation instead of loud yelling or cheering. That is what won the adoration of the Muses more than anything with Krotos, his love and appreciation for the arts, sciences and general knowledge. Far more than strutting around and showing off his manly or satyrly prowess.

Sagittarius Constellation

As stated before, the Muses were so impressed with Krotos’ skills that they made a request of Zeus to place him up in the heavens as a constellation. This of course being Sagittarius. As Krotos wanted to show off all of his skills as a hunter, the horse body was to show that he rode a lot. The arrows then show Krotos’ keenness and swiftness. He also ends up with a satyr’s tail as the Muses loved Krotos as much as Dionysus loved his satyr retinue. Lastly, at Krotos’ feet are a few stars forming a circle which represents a wreath like ones that could be found thrown off at play.

Later mix ups in the story of Sagittarius Constellation that link Chiron instead of Krotos seem easily explained as both were known for being greatly skilled and peaceful by nature where the other centaurs and satyrs were known for being more wild, rowdy and uncivilized in their behaviors. It has been pointed out by Eratosthenes that centaurs like Chiron didn’t use bows, so he can’t be who is mentioned as Sagittarius but Krotos who invented and used the bow.

Lupercus

Lupercus - Wolf God

Etymology – “He who wards off the wolf”

The Wolf God, Lupercus is the god of agriculture and shepherds. The name Lupercus is said by some to be an epithet of the Roman god Faunus.

As Faunus, he is a god of the wild, untamed nature and fertility and the giver of oracles. The Romans came to identify Faunus with the Greek Pan due to the similarity of some of their characteristics such as horns and hooves. Faunus’ attributes are the wolfskin, wreath and goblet.

If I stick to just this, there really wouldn’t be much of a blog post. Lupercus comes into his own when looking at and focusing on the ancient Roman holiday known as Lupercalia.

Lupercalia – The Wolf Festival

The festival and holiday of Lupercalia was held every year from February 13th to 15th, often said to be the anniversary of the founding of Lupercus’ (properly Faunus’) temple. The Luperci, who were the priests of Lupercus and wore goat skins, would sacrifice two goats and a dog during a ritual at this time. Goats were sacrificed as Lupercus is the god of shepherds and the dog got sacrificed as they’re the protector of flocks and herds. The blood from these animals would then be wiped on two young men’s foreheads. This festival was held too, to avert evil spirits and purify the city, allowing for good health and fertility with the coming year.

The sacrifice of the goats and dog would take place at the Lupercale, a cave that according to tradition is where the twins Remus and Romulus were raised by the she-wolf Luperca. In 2007, National Geographic posted an article about how Archeologists found this cave beneath the ruins of Emperor Augustus’ palace on Palatine Hill, Rome.

Lupercalia replaced an earlier Spring Cleansing ritual of Februa once held on the same date and from where the month of February gets its name. Just as Lupercalia replaced Februa, it too has largely been replaced by the more modern Valentine’s Day where the Catholic church made efforts to tone down some of the more wilder pagan rituals or to get people to accept Christianity more easily with their converting from pagan religions.

Not too surprising given how riotous and risqué that Lupercalia could be with the use of whips in striking women to try and make them more fertile, men running naked chasing women, the blood sacrifice of goats and a dog. Even the familiar heart shape symbol of love has some controversial origins to what it really depicts and is. Unsubstantiated sources comment too how the use of Lupercalia’s lottery of young men drawing the names women from a box is the more modern tradition of giving Valentine Cards.

Lykaia

Also spelled or called Lycaea, this ancient, archaic Greek festival is said to be where the rituals of Lupercalia originated from. For those who want to link werewolves with the holiday of Lupercalia, Lykaia is the one you’re probably thinking of.

The festival of Lykaia had a secret festival held on Mount Lykaion (Wolf Mountain) in Arcadia. The myths that surround this ritual are believed to relate the story of Lycaon’s feast he held for the gods and involved having served up one of his sons Nyctimus as one of the main courses. Another version of this story given by an Eratosthenes, holds that Lycaon had served up his grandson Arcas at this feast. In either eventuality, an enraged Zeus turns Lycaon into a wolf and proceeds to kill by means of lightning; Lycaon’s other sons before restoring the dead child back to life.

Mmm…. Cannibalism. Not.

The festival of Lykaia were held annually at the beginning of May. It was a primitive ritual festival and rite of passage for young males known as epheboi among the Greeks into adulthood. With the ritual held at night, evidence taken by some with the name of Lycaon’s son Nyctimus, a lot of rumors about cannibalism and werewolf transformations circulated widely among the Greeks as to just what was going on up there. Even Plato wrote about one clan who would gather every nine years and sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios where a piece of human flesh would be mixed in among the pieces of animal meat.

The belief held that whoever ate the piece of human flesh would turn into a wolf and they could only return to human form after nine-years if they hadn’t eaten human flesh. The famous Olympic boxing champion, Damarchus is said to have turned into a wolf during the ritual sacrifice held for Zeus Lykaios. Games were also a big part of the Lykaios festival held every year after the secret ritual held at night.

Archaeological Discoveries

Archaeologists have found by looking at the ash heaps near the altars for Lykaia no human remains and suggest that the rituals and festival of Lykaia are far older than what even the ancient Greeks themselves knew. Excavations have generally shown nothing earlier than about 700 B.C.E. though one trench excavated at Mount Lykaion shows possible ritual evidence dating to the beginning of the third millennium B.C.E., a full thousand years before the worship of Zeus throughout Greece.

Lykaios – Wolf-Zeus

This is an epithet of Zeus in connection to the festival of Lykaia and seems to have been a formality in making him a patron of the rituals held. Zeus’ inclusion is possibly instrumental in ending any human sacrifices going on or trying to put to rest the rumors.

Apollo Lykaios

The Greek god Apollo is also known to have a wolf-form as Apollo Lycaeus. He was worshiped in Athens at the Lykeion or Lyceum. This site is most remembered as the place where the philosopher Aristotle taught.

Lykaian Pan

A sanctuary for the Greek god Pan was also found on Mount Lykaion. The traditional story goes that Euandros, the son of Hermes, led a colony of people from Pallantion, Arkadia to Italy where he built the town of Pallantion on Palatine Hill. Euandros introduced the cult of Pan Lýkaios and the Lykaia festival that later becomes the Roman festival of Lupercalia. Given how much the Romans would identify their gods with those of the Greeks and other cultures, that could make sense.

Modern Lykaia

Apparently there are modern Lykaia games that have been held every four years since 1973, at the beginning of August by the Ano Karyes Association in the same places where the games associated with the ancient festival of Lykaia were held. These are sort of a localized Greek Olympics.