Category Archives: Messenger
Eagle – Sacred Bird
The Golden Eagle specifically is Zeus’ sacred bird. A giant bird that had once been the seer Phineus, was always by Zeus’ side.
The Sky Tides
They are a group of four siblings: Bia (“Force”), Kratos (“Power“), Nike (“Victory”), and Zelus (“Zeal”). They are the winged enforcers or Sky Tides for Zeus. The four siblings received this honor from Zeus as their mother, Styx was the first to come show her support during the Titanomachy or War against the Titans.
Hounds Of Zeus
Not really hounds, they were just called that, and by they, I mean the Harpies, the winged half-bird half women creatures of Greek myth.
I can only imagine that Zeus claimed the famed winged horse to hold and carry his thunderbolts after Perseus’ adventures. At least the version where Perseus tames the winged horse and isn’t using Hermes’ winged sandals.
Zeus’ Cup Bearer
Zeus’ Herald Of The Gods
Hermes is often employed by Zeus to act as his personal herald and envoy for his decrees, sometimes acting as a diplomat.
Zeus’ Messenger Of The Gods
While more modern takes on Greek mythos place Hermes to this role, it belongs to Iris, goddess of the rainbow who relayed messages and commands to the other gods word for word.
Zeus’ High Council
This was slightly surprising to come across, that Zeus would have councilors.
On this council sat Themis, the goddess of law and order, along with their daughters the Moirai or Fates and the Horai or Seasons. These goddesses were tasked with maintaining the order of the cosmos and have it function.
Themis also had the additional job of summoning all of the gods to Zeus’ courtyard when he was ready to declare a new law or edict.
Of course, if we looked at them as the real power behind the throne… but that could just be inviting hubris…
Keeper Of Fate & Divine Destiny
Before the birth of the Moirai, it was Zeus who dispensed out fate, the good and the bad that he doled out from the jars of Fate that he kept near his feet. When a mortal’s time of death was carefully weighed on a set of golden scales.
Once the Moirai were born, the task of men’s fates and their time of deaths were given to them.
Xenia – Hospitality Laws
Xenia is the Greek word for the concept of hospitality and forms the ancient customs of Hospitality. Of all the attributes that Zeus is known for, he was originally the deity who presided over this custom of Xenia. For this, he was known as Zeus Xenios and was at one time, the god of travelers.
Xenia consists of three basic rules:
1) The respect from host to guest. The host must be hospitable to the guest and provide them with food and drink and a bath, if required. It was not polite to ask questions until the guest had stated his or her needs.
2) The respect from guest to host. The guest must be courteous to their host and not be a burden.
3) The parting gift (xenion) from host to guest. The parting gift was to show the host’s honor at receiving the guest.
The custom of Xenia was really important in ancient times as people believed that the gods mingled among them. If a person played a poor host to a stranger, there was the risk of inciting the wrath of a god disguised as the stranger.
This custom of Xenia extended to include the protection of traveling musicians, known as Rhapsode who could expect to receive hospitality in the form of a place to sleep, food and possible other gifts in return for a night of entertainment and news from other parts of the world. The protection and safety of these Rhapsode was believed to be enforced by the god Zeus and any harm to them or violation of Xenia was sure to place the offender at the mercy of Zeus or any god he deemed necessary to enforce this rule.
This is one of Zeus’ symbols, it was created from the skin of the goat Amaltheia that helped raise him as an infant. It was either a breastplate or shield.
This is the stone that Cronus had swallowed was apparently set down at Pytho in the glens of Parnassus as proof to mortal people that the event really happened.
The stone would be placed at the Delphi Oracle as Zeus had wanted to find the center of the earth. In his search, Zeus sent out two eagles from either ends of the earth and where they met at would mark the center.
This variation of Zeus was worshiped in Ancient Athens as the god of farmlands and crops. He had a festival held on the 10th of Maimakterion to commemorate the start of plowing the fields. Sacrifices were also made to Zeus Georgos at the time of harvesting.
In a story that won’t end well, Antiochus IV Epiphanes erected a statue of Zeus Olympios in the Judean Temple in Jerusalem. This figure was known as Baal Shamen or “Lord of Heaven” among the Hellenized Jews of the time.
There is a story that appears in the Apocrypha, namely 2 Maccabees where the Maccabees or The Hammerers come in to reclaim the temple, tear down the statue and we get the story of Channukah or the Miracle of Lights.
Zeus did not prove almighty in this one.
Other Biblical Mentions
In the New Testament, Zeus will be mentioned twice in Acts. First in Acts 14 where two of the Apostles: Paul and Barnabas are mistaken for the gods Hermes and Zeus in the city of Lystra. Where people get excited for archeological proof, in 1909, two inscriptions were found near Lystra testifying of the worship of Hermes and Zeus.
Well sure, the Greek gods were worshiped in a lot of places around the Mediterranean, so I imagine finding mention of them in a lot of places to be common. Zeus was the head of the pantheon and All-Father, he would have been everywhere.
The other mention will occur again in Acts 28, where the ship taking the prisoner Paul to the island of Malta; the figurehead is said to of the “sons of Zeus” Castor and Pollux.
In this school of thought and philosophy, Zeus’ relation to the other gods is that of the Demiurge or the Divine Mind. This idea is found in Plotinus’ work the Enneads and the Platonic Theology of Proclus.
Grecian Flood Myth
In a myth connected to the constellation and zodiac sign Aquarius, Zeus is the one who causes a great flooding of the earth. A man by the name of Deucalion and his wife, Pyrrha are who survive a great flood that washed over the earth. Deucalion had been told by his father, Prometheus in some versions of this story, to build a boat and to fill it with provisions. The two did and they floated in the boat over the sea for nine days and nights before coming to ground on Mount Parnassus.
Safe now, the two found that they were the only survivors and began to wander more as the flood waters receded. Deucalion and his wife couldn’t have been the only survivors of this flood if they were able to consult an oracle who told them to “throw over your shoulders the bones of your mother.”
The solution seemed pretty easy to Deucalion who guessed that the bones of Mother Earth must be stones and so he and Pyrrha began picking up stones to toss over their shoulders. After a bit of this, they looked back and saw that there were now people. The stones thrown by Deucalion had become men and the stones thrown by Pyrrha had become women.
In this myth, Aquarius is seen or becomes a taker as well as giver of life. This myth of a world flood and the rebirth of life on Earth is a very common myth that can be found in numerous cultures around the world.
Sometimes in an effort to have the Grecian Flood myth story parallel the Biblical Flood story of Noah and the Ark, it is Zeus himself who tells Deucalion to build a boat and not Prometheus.
Homer’s The Iliad is the main source for the gods involvement in the Trojan War. Zeus sided with the Trojans during this war while Hera took the side of the Greeks. Zeus took a rather significant part in the story of the Trojan War.
A lesser known work, The Cypria and attributed to Stasinus, reveals the whole Trojan War was planned on by Zeus and Themis. There’s only about 50 lines of text from the Cypria and its seen as a prequel to Homer’s The Iliad and explains how the events come about.
Zeus’ part of this epic starts off with sending Agamemnon a dream and through which, the god is able to influence on Agamemnon’s decisions. Next is Zeus telling Hera that he’s going to destroy the City of Troy come the end of the war. Together, both Zeus and Poseidon destroy the Achaeans fortress.
The war hits a point where Zeus tells all the other Olympian gods that they can’t fight each other as Zeus returns to Mount Ida where he thinks over his decision on having the Greeks lose this war.
Soon it is Hera’s time to shine as she seduces her husband Zeus, distracting him with her affections while helping out the Greeks.
When Zeus wakes up, he discovers that not only has Poseidon been helping the Greeks, but Hector and Apollo have been helping to fight the Trojans. Follow it up by Zeus getting upset that he can’t save Sarpedon’s life as that would contradict an earlier decree he made. Zeus is further upset by what happens to Hector.
Now Zeus decides that yeah, the other gods can join in and help out whichever side they owe it too. Towards the end, Zeus’ last part in the story, he demands that Achilles release Hector’s body so it can have an honorable burial.
The Theogony is an 8th to 7th century B.C.E. epic poem written by Hesiod. It is perhaps the most famous, if not familiar story that tells the origins of the Greek pantheon. The most interesting parts are the story of Zeus usurping the throne from his father Cronus after having swallowed all of his other children.
It’s interesting in hindsight, come 1876 when the Enuma Elish is translated and then, later in 1946 with the translation of the Hittite Kingship of Heaven text, that we are able to see a strong Middle Eastern influence on Greek myths.
Ammon – Egyptian God
Zeus is sometimes equated with this god.
Ba’al – Canaanite God
A sun god, Ba’al was Hellenized and worshiped as Zeus Helioupolites at Heliopolis, modern day Baalbek.
Baal Zephon – Canaanite God
A weather god of the ancient Canaanites. The Hellenized version of this god is known as Zeus Kasios where he was worshiped at a site along the Syrian-Turkish border.
Hadad – Canaanite God
Another Canaanite sun deity who was Hellenized as Zeus Adados. The Assyrian Adad also had the same Hellenized name.
Indra – Hindu God
Zeus is seen as similar to this deity in India.
Jupiter – Roman God
Where Zeus is the head of the Greek Pantheon, his Roman counterpart is Jupiter
Thanks greatly to the influence of the Romans, many people will identify and equate Zeus with Jupiter. The Romans were famous for subsuming many deities in their conquest across Europe, particularly the Mediterranean area, and identifying their gods with those of a conquered culture. The most famous being the Greeks, where many deities were renamed to those of Roman gods. Prominent examples like Zeus and Jupiter, Hera and Juno, Ares and Mars and so on down the line.
With the Hellenization of Latin literature, many Greek writers and even Roman writers rewrote and intertwined the myths of these two deities so that they would virtually become one and the same. And that’s the tradition passed down through the centuries and has become accepted. Just that there are still some differences that separate the two.
Odin & Thor – Norse Gods
Zeus is equated with each of these deities in Norse mythology. Odin as he is the All-Father and head of the Norse Pantheon, Thor as he is a god of Thunder & Lightning like Zeus.
Perun – Slavic God
Zeus is equated as a cognate of this god.
Sabazios – Phrygian God
As Greek culture spread throughout the Mediterranean region, absorbing the local beliefs and equating the local deities with those of the Greek pantheon, Sabazios is one deity whose attributes and role were absorbed by both Dionysus and Zeus, notably as a divine child and god of rebirth.
Teshub – Hurrian God
A storm and sky god of the Hurrians, as Zeus Labrandos, Zeus is equated with this deity, particularly in his worship at Caria. He held a sacred site at Labranda where Zeus would be shown wielding a double-edged axe known as a labrys.
Tinia – Etruscan God
A cognate for Zeus in the little-known Etruscan beliefs and mythology.
Vajrapāni – Buddhist
In Greco-Buddhist art, Zeus is depicted as Vajrapāni, the protector of the Buddha.
Velchanos – Minoan God
Zeus is equated with this deity in Crete or Minoan culture, such that the name Velchanos is used as another name or epitaph. As a separate deity, before getting Hellenized, Velchanos was very likely an Vegetation Deity or Spirit. Velchanos was likely associated with the rooster and bees, which is why the Boy-Zeus in Hellenized Crete will be shown with those animals.
Etymology: Queen of the East
Also known as: Ninshubar, Nincubura, Nincubur or Ninšubur
In Sumerian mythology, Ninshubur is a messenger of the gods. She is also known as Inanna’s sukkal or second-in-command; a position of great importance as a high-ranking government administrator. It has been pointed out, in an essay written by Diane Wolkstein, “Interpretations of Inanna¹s Stories and Hymns,” that a sukkal often has powers and abilities far superior then those of their Liege or Master. Not only does the sukkal have their own power and abilities, but they often have that power and authority combined with power and authority of whomever they serve.
Ninshubur is a goddess herself, whose name means: “’Queen of the East.” While she is often described as a virgin, Ninshubur is also mentioned as one of Inanna’s lovers. Ninshubur is associated with the element of Air and the planet Mercury.
In later Akkadian myths, Ninshubur’s gender is changed to male. The “nin” in Ninshubur’s name has been translated to mean “female ruler.” Though, that doesn’t seem to have prevented Ninshubur’s gender from getting altered from female to male depending on whose doing the retelling or translations.
Inanna & Enki
Ninshubur is best known for accompanying Inanna on many of her exploits and adventures. Together they have fought Enki’s demons after Inanna stole the sacred me. The sacred me are the decrees of the gods essential for establishing society and civilizations, even technology.
Inanna went to her grandfather Enki, a sky-god who held the sacred mes. While visiting with him, Enki gives Inanna the me, which she accepts and proceeds to basically “drink him under the table” before she and Ninshubur take off with the mes.
When Enki wakes up, he wonders why it was he gave Inanna the mes and decides he’s going to get them back. By this time, Inanna and Ninshubur have already loaded up all the mes, we’re never told what they look like, but it is assumed the mes have a physical representation of some sort.
Enki sends a legion of varying and different demons after Inanna and Ninshubur to stop them and each time, Ninshubur defeats them, protecting the boat both physically and magically that she and Inanna are on while they return to Uruk (Sumer).
Once the two made it to Uruk, Enki relented in his efforts and gave his blessings to Inanna on having the sacred mes.
Inanna’s Decent Into The Underworld
Later on, Inanna makes a trip into the Underworld, leaving instructions with Ninshubur on what to do if she doesn’t return in three days time. When this time comes and goes, Ninshubur seeks the help of the other gods and keeps at it until she gets it.
Ninshubar starts first dressed in sack cloth like a beggar with a great weeping and howling, tearing her hair and clothing until everyone knows that Inanna is missing. Then Ninshubur proceeds to each of the houses of the gods, Enlil, Nanna, and Enki
Enlil and Nanna each told Ninshubur how Inanna sought the powers of heaven and earth and got them. If Inanna decided to go to the Underworld, she will have to face the consequences of her actions. For there are rules there and no one who ever goes there, ever returns and that Inanna will just have to stay where she is.
When Ninshubur approached Enki, to tell him of Inanna’s plight, he was troubled and decides to help his daughter. From under his fingernails, Enki pulled some dirt and created genderless creatures known as the kurgarra and the galatur. To the kurgarra, Enki gave them the food of life and to the galatur, he gave them the water of life.
That done, Enki then instructed the kurgarra and galatur to enter the Underworld like flies. Once there, they would find Ereshkigal, the Queen of the Underworld moaning like a woman in labor. He instructed them that when she cried out, that they were to echo her cries in sympathy.
Enki was sure that Ereshkigal would be pleased by the sympathy cries and reward the kurgarra and galatur. That when did offer a reward; they were to ask for the corpse of Inanna hanging on the wall. Once they had Inanna’s corpse, they were to sprinkle it with the food and water of life to bring her back.
Having received their orders, the kurgarra and galatur took off for the Underworld. There, they slipped in as flies at the cracks to the gates and found their way to Ereshkigal’s throne room.
There, they found Ereshkigal moaning as if the throes of labor pains and with nothing covering her. When Ereshkigal would cry out in pain of various aches, the kurgarra and galatur would cry in sympathy with her.
Hearing the echoing cries, Ereshkigal stopped and looked at the kurgarra and galatur, asking who they were and why they were crying with her. She offered a blessing and offered them the water-gift and then the grain-gift that the kurgarra and galatur declined in turn.
Finally Ereshkigal asked what they wanted and the kurgarra and galatur said that they desired the corpse hanging by a hook on the wall. Ereshkigal responded that the corpse was that of Inanna. They still responded that it was their wish, so Ereshkigal gave the kurgarra and galatur the corpse.
Now that they had it, the kurgarra sprinkled the food of life on the corpse and the galatur sprinkled the water of life in turn. When the food and water had been sprinkled, Inanna arose back to life. However, the Annuna, the judges of the Underworld came and told Inanna that: “No one ascends from the Underworld unmarked.” Another person would have to take Inanna’s place.
As Inanna left the Underworld, demons known as the Galla clung to her side. The Galla are demons who know no food or drink and accept no gifts. When they came upon Ninshubur, dressed in a dirty sackcloth, waiting outside the palace gates, the Galla were willing to take her in Inanna’s place.
Inanna knew of Ninshubur’s part in her rescue from the Underworld and would not let the Galla take her. They continued on to Uruk where Inanna found her husband Dumuzi sitting on the throne. Of everyone they had passed on their way, Dumuzi was the only one who had not mourned for Inanna nor was he ready to give up the throne back to his wife. On seeing him, Inanna told the Galla to: “Take him! Take Dumuzi away!”
With Dumuzi gone, Inanna reclaimed her rightful throne.
A Hymn To Nergal
In a translation of this hymn, Ninshubur is mentioned as a minister of the Underworld who greets Nergal when he arrives.
Astronomy & Astrological connection
The goddess Inanna is frequently associated with the planet Venus. Ninshubur herself is associated with the planet Mercury. From this standpoint, it makes sense that the two goddesses are associated with each other as their planetary counterparts often appear together within the night sky.
The term Pangenic or Pangenesis comes from Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution with trying to explain the origins of life and species.
As it relates to the study of folklore and mythology, the term and idea of Pangenic or Pangenesis connections is problematic and still very pervasive as a lot of scholars and literature try to make connections with various stories and deities as there are often very similar motifs, concepts and ideas that are very universal.
The Romans of course, are famously known for equating many of their gods with the gods of other cultures, especially those they conquered. Nearly everyone knows of the Greek-Roman counterparts and connections such as Zeus and Jupiter or Ares and Mars. To a lesser known extant, the Romans connected their deities with those of the Egyptian, Norse and even Celtic deities.
The idea of Pangenic deities and myths still continue even today and is something of a disservice and in terms of mythology. When one ethnic group or religion moves into another area, the exiting myths will get overlapped and mixed together. Sometimes it’s easy to see where and when this blending of ideas occurs. Other times, the differences should be acknowledged without trying to force a connection.
In the case of the Mesopotamian mythologies, due to similarities, the Greek god Hermes is often said to be based off of Ninshubur.