Category Archives: LIght

Perchta

Etymology: “Bright One”, peraht (Old High German meaning “brilliant”). “Hidden” or “Covered,” pergan (Old High German)

Also Called: Behrta, Berchta, Berigl, Bertha (English), Bechtrababa, Berchtlmuada, Berchte, Butzen-Bercht, Frau Berchta, Frau Faste (the Lady of Ember Days), Frau Perchta, Fronfastenweiber, Kvaternica (Slovene), Lutzl, Pehta, Perchta, Perahta, Perhta-Baba, Posterli, Pudelfrau, Quatemberca, Rauweib. Sampa, Stampa, Spinnstubenfrau (“Spinning Room Lady”), Zamperin, Zampermuatta, Zlobna Pehta, The Lady of the Beasts, The Belly Slitter

Perchta has her beginnings and roots as an Alpine goddess worshiped in the Germanic countries where she protected the forests and animals. Later, as Christian influences increased, Perchta would take on a more sinister appearance and role, especially during the dark winter months where she would become a boogeyman type figure used to scare children into good behavior.

This is one of those confusing ones. Is Perchta a goddess, a witch, demon, or something else?

To answer that, we start at the beginning.

Attributes

Animal: Goose, Swan

Day of the Week: Friday

Element: Water

Month: January

Plant: Birch

Sphere of Influence: Nature, Forests, Wildlife, Spinning, Weaving

Symbols: Staff, Knife,

Time: Night

What’s In A Name?

The meaning for Perchta’s name is fairly easy to find, it comes the Old High Germanic words “beraht” and “bereht” meaning bright, light, flame and white. The word percht was meant as a warning for the sin of vanity. Another potential word in Old High German is the verb pergan, meaning “Hidden” or Covered” as the origin for Perchta’s name.

Given the many different eras and regions of Germany, Perchta is known by several different names. In southern Austria, there is a male form of Perchta known as Quantembermann (German), or Kvaternik (Slovene), meaning “The man of the Four Ember Days.” Jacob Grimm holds the idea that Perchta’s male counterpart is Berchtold.

Depictions

Perchta is notable for a dual nature where she will have one of two forms that people see her in. During the Spring and Summer months, Perchta takes on the form of a lovely, young maiden dressed in white, or during the colder, autumn and winter months, she is seen as an ugly old hag with a hooked nose and tattered, worn clothing as she carries either a knife or scissors to slit open people’s bellies. Some perchten masks showing the ugly crone aspect give Perchta an iron face and beak-like nose.

Jacob Grimm of the Grimm Brothers fame tries to say that Perchta is an ancient goddess. In some stories, Perchta will be described as having a goose or swan foot; this imagery connects her to having a higher nature and the ability to shape-shift. This same goose foot could also be the splay foot that a spinner develops with one foot pumping the pedal of a spinning wheel.

Swan Maiden – It has been noted that in several languages, that Perchta or Bertha is also referred to by her peculiar foot. Berhte mit dem fuoze in German, Bertha au grand pied in French and Berhta cum magno pede in Latin. The idea given by Jacob Grimm is that foot means that Perchta is a Swan Maiden.

Woodcut – There is a notable woodcut from 1750 that depicts Perchta as “Butzen-Bercht.” The word Butzen is noted to mean “bogeyman.” The woodcut shows Perchta as a crone with a wart on her nose as she carries a basket filled with screaming children, all of them girls. Perchta also holds a staff as she stands before a door to a house where there are more frightened young girls.

Middle Ages

The earliest depictions and mentions of Perchta, date her to during the Middle Ages, first in around 1200 and then later in the 1400’s when mention of Perchta becomes more prominent. Perchta served as an enforcer of communal taboos. One such taboo is weaving on sacred days or not joining in the feasts enthusiastically enough. Many of Perchta’s punishments stem out of punishing those who are lazy and haven’t done the proper work.

As to Perchta’s retinue that accompanies her, the first reference to them is in 1468, however, these are the souls of the dead. With the passage of time, this retinue would become demons, and then by the coming of the 15th century, they would become the familiar horned figures of the perchten and the first mentions of costumed processions and parades would appear.

In Hans Vintler’s Die Pluemen der Tugent (“The Flowers of Virtue”) written in 1411, we have the first illustration of Perchta and more accurately someone in a mask posing as “Percht with the iron nose.”

Counter-Reformations & Witchtrials – It has been noted that the era of history that Perchta first emerges also overlaps and coincides with the Reformations and Religious wars between Catholics and Protestants over how Christianity should be observed and practiced along with trying to stamp out other non-Christian religions and practices through Europe.

Among Wiccans and Pagans, the period between 1450 and 1700’s is called The Burning Times when thousands of men and women, upwards of around 100,000 were executed and burned at the stake for the crime of witchcraft. Germany had the worst of it with historians reporting that entire villages could see their population of women gone. There’s some sense to Perchta appearing as a dark figure who carried off girls who didn’t behave and the changes to her appearance during this era.

Alpine Goddess

In the southern parts of Germany and Austria, the name Frau Perchta is attributed to a witch who comes during the twelve days of Christmas, spanning from December 25th to January 6th for Epiphany. If a person is naughty or sinful, Frau Perchta is fierce and terrible with the punishment she will hand out. We are talking she will rip out a person’s intestines and other internal organs to replace with straw, rocks, and other garbage. In this terrible, punishing aspect, this image of Perchta looks very similar to that of Krampus, and figures dressed as her, called perchten are known to also appear in the annual Krampus parades held in several Alpine towns.

Dual Goddess

Before her darker imagery took hold, Perchta was held in a more benevolent light. Many of her positive attributes would be twisted under Christian influence causing many people to associate Perchta as a dark, Wintertime, Christmas entity to be feared. The influence of Christianity also creates a seeming, conflicting goddess with a dual identity.

Given when the change to her darker appearance happens, Winter when the nights are longer, when it is cold, and nature becomes that much more precarious if people haven’t properly prepared for the cold months. When evil spirits are thought to roam.

Protector Of Women & Children

In this role, Perchta is a goddess who protects women, children, and infants. For those children and infants who died, Perchta is a psychopomp who guided their souls to the Afterlife.

Goddess Of Nature

In this role, Perchta was mainly concerned with tending to her forests and taking care of nature. As a nature goddess or spirit, Perchta was known as “The Lady of the Beasts.” In this aspect, Perchta holds some similarities with Holda and Germany’s ancient hunting cultures.

It was only during wintertime and Christmas, the Winter Solstice that Perchta would concern herself with the affairs of humans. During Winter, Perchta will withdraw up into the mountains where she will create snow. In addition, Perchta will protect her followers by removing evil spirits as they travel.

Weaver Goddess

In this role and aspect, Perchta not only governs the mundane arts of weaving and spinning, but she also presides over fate, much like the Moirai or Fates of Greek mythology.

During the Summer months, Perchta is believed to live in the depths of various lakes, during which time she busies herself with spinning flax upon her golden spindle. During the night, Perchta can be encountered walking along the steep slopes of the alps carrying her spindle. Those who approach Perchta with their flocks can get her to bless them.

The Wild Hunt

The Wild Hunt is a phenomenon found in many different European countries and cultures. It is a nightmarish, supernatural force led by some dark spectral hunter on horseback and accompanied by a host of other riders and hounds as they chase down unlucky mortals, either until they drop dead of exhaustion, are caught, and forced to join the Wild Hunt or they can evade the Hunt until dawn.

Just exactly who it is that leads the Hunt does vary country by country in Europe. The Wild Hunt is known for making its ride during the Winter Solstice or New Year’s Eve. Jacob Grimm of Grimms Brothers fame makes a connection of Herne to the Wild Hunt due to the epitaph of “the Hunter.” That does seem to work, a Huntsman, connect him to the Wild Hunt and for Britain, the idea really jells of a local person who becomes a lost soul, doomed to forever ride with the Hunt.

According to Jacob Grimm, Perchta is one potential leader of the Wild Hunt. Given that during Midwinter, Perchta is known to wander around the countryside at this time with her entourage of perchten, it’s no surprise to see Perchta be suggested as a leader of the Wild Hunt.

Ultimately, just who leads the Wild Hunt will vary from country to country. In Welsh mythology, it is Gwyn ap Nudd or Annwn who lead the hunt with a pack of spectral hounds to collect unlucky souls. The Anglo-Saxons of Britain hold that it is Woden who leads the hunt at midwinter. Herne the Hunter has been given as the name for another leader of the Wild Hunt. Wotan is very similar to Odin (just another name for the same deity really), Herne has been linked to them as both have been hung from a tree.

Christian Influences

The arrival of Christianity is about when we see Perchta become a minor deity and then diminished to be some sort of magical creature or spirit. As more time passed, Perchta would then become an evil witch or sorceress. Later, Christian clergy would equate Perchta in official documents as being synonymous with other female spirits and goddesses such as Abundia, Diana, Herodias, Holda, and Richella.

Thesaurus Pauperum – This text and collection of recipes and natural cures was written by prominent Catholic officials for use by the poor. This text mentioned a Cult of Perchta who would leave out food and drink for Perchta on Epiphany for wealth and abundance. This same document would be used to Perchta’s cult in Bavaria in 1468. In 1439, Thomas Ebendorfer von Haselbach in De decem praeceptis also condemned this practice.

Frau Perchta – Christmas Witch & Bogeyman

During wintertime, especially during the month of December and Yule, as Frau Perchta, she becomes a fierce some looking hag or witch with two faces. Those children who are good and have behaved, have nothing to fear from Frau Perchta. However, for those who are deemed bad and have misbehaved, Frau Perchta is known for slitting open the stomachs of people and pulling out all of their organs to replace them with straw, stones, and garbage.

Perchten

These wild spirits are known to be active between the Winter Solstice and up to around January 6th, for the Twelfth Night. The percht are an offshoot of the older goddess, Perchta from the Alpine regions where she guarded the beasts of the forest. The percht would be depicted as humanoid goats with elongated necks and wearing animal furs. These same percht are believed to become the basis for Krampus. It is in the late 20th century that both Perchten and Krampus appear together in the same processions so that the two have become indistinguishable from one another. The wooden masks worn for these processions are called perchten.

Originally, the term perchten, (the plural for Perchta), referred to the female masks that represent the entourage of spirits accompanying Frau Perchta or Pehta Baba in Slovenia. The perchten are associated with midwinter where they personify fate and the souls of the dead. There are several regional names and variations for the perchten. Their names include: Bechtrababa, Berchta, Berchtlmuada, Berigl, Pehta, Lutzl, Perhta-Baba, Pudelfrau, Rauweib, Sampa, Stampa, Zamperin, Zampermuatta, and Zlobna Pehta.

Other Perchten names are:

Glöcklerlaufen – “bell-running” from the Salzkammergut region.

Schiachperchten – Or “ugly Perchten,” they come from the Pongau region of Austria. They have fangs, tusks and horse or otherwise ugly features. These perchten, despite their appearance, come to drive off evil spirits and demons as they go from house to house.

Schnabelpercht – Or “trunked Percht” from the Unterinntal region.

Schönperchten – Or “beautiful Perchten,” they come from the Pongau region of Austria. These perchten come during the Twelve Nights and festivals to bestow luck and wealth to the people.

Tresterer – From Pinzgau region of Austria.

Heimchen

Sometimes the spirits that accompany Perchta will be those of children, particularly unbaptized children in Christian beliefs. Food offerings left out for Perchta and her retinue are said to be consumed by these Heimchen.

For many women, before the arrival of modern medicine, there was a high infant and child mortality rate. Having a benevolent goddess who would come and take care of their children was likely very comforting for many women, to think of their child in a better place or in better hands.

Raunachte

This period is also known as the Twelve Days of Christmas. These nights are also known as Magic Nights when Perchta leading the Wild Hunt are known to ride.

Perchtenlauf

This is a seasonal play that is found throughout the Alpine regions during the last week of December and through the first week of January up to January 6th for Twelfth Night or Epiphany. It was known as Nikolausspiel or “Nicholas’ Play” at one time. These plays stem from the Medieval Morality Plays from Antiquity. The Nicholas plays feature Saint Nicholas rewarding children for their scholarly efforts instead of good behavior. People dress as perchten with masks made of wood with brown or white sheep’s wool.

For a while, the Roman Catholic Church tried to prohibit the practice of Perchtenlauf during the 17th and 18th centuries. Despite its best efforts, the parade and processions continued either in secret or as a result have made a resurgence in later centuries.

Krampuslauf

The great Krampus run is an annual parade held every year in many Alpine towns. For the first two weeks, especially on the eve of December 6th, young people will dress in Krampus costumes and parade through the town, ringing bells and scaring parade watchers. Some participants may dress up as perchten, a wild female spirit from Germanic folklore. Alcoholic beverages of Krampus schnapps and brandy are common during this celebration.

Twelfth Night

Also known as Little Christmas in Italy, Old Christmas in Ireland or Epiphany, this holiday is held on January 6th. The feast held on this day is called Berchtentag. In Salzburg, Austria, Perchta is believed to wander the halls of Hohensalzburg Castle during the night.

In Germany, this is when Perchta will go about collecting her offerings, where she will reward her followers, often with a silver coin or other small gifts, and punish those who haven’t observed certain practices and traditions. This is where Perchta, as Frau Perchta appears in her fearsome guise mentioned earlier to slit open the bellies of wrongdoers and those deemed naughty, only to stuff them full of straw, rocks, and garbage. Perchta would also be interested in making sure that women had spun the wool needed for the year.

In observance of this holiday, there would be a feast held with a ceremonial dance. Several people would dress up, pretending to be evil spirits that someone dressed as Perchta would then chase away, “slaying” the evil spirits in a pageant to invoke a ritual to protect the people of the village.

A special porridge consisting of gruel or dumplings and fish called Perchtenmilch would be eaten during this time. While the family ate, an additional bowl would be left out for Perchta and her entourage. If this traditional meal is forgotten, it is one of the taboos that angers Perchta so that she will cut open people’s stomachs and stuff them with straw.

Note: My earlier section for Frau Perchta gives the time for this celebration closer to Yule in December. Given multiple sources, this change of observances could easily be people conforming old traditions to those of the newer, incoming Christian religion and observance of Christmas along with a change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.

Berchtoldstag

Also known as: Bechtelistag, Bächtelistag, Berchtelistag, Bärzelistag, Bechtelstag, Bechtle. It is a celebration typically observed on January 2nd in Liechtenstein and Switzerland and has been happening since at least the 14th century. There are various theories about the origin of this holiday. There is a Blessed Bertchtold of the Engelberg abbey who died on November 2nd of 1197. Another theory holds that it commemorates the first animal killed during Duke Berchtold V of Zähringen’s hunt and the naming of his new city.

Like the English practice of mummery, another idea is that this holiday comes from the word: berchten” meaning to “walk around, begging for food.” Obviously, there is also Perchta given the similarity of the names and that when the celebrations of Epiphany were abolished by the various Protestant regions, those refusing to give up the Twelfth Night traditions, simply moved them to the day after New Year’s to gain another day off. There is a “nut feast” where children build hocks of four nuts with a fifth nut balanced on top. Masked parades are held, along with folk dances and families going out to the pubs to eat.

Fastnacht

Translating to mean “Fast Night” or “Almost Night,” this is a celebration that is held on the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday and Lent. It is a night where people eat the best foods possible, and yes, the preferred food is doughnuts. A procession of perchten is known for showing up in some modern celebrations.

Urglaawe

This is a dominion of Heathenry inspired by the Pennsylvania Dutch culture. In it, Perchta or rather, Berchta is a major goddess instead of a minor. The eleventh day (Elfder Daag) and twelfth night (Zwelfdi Nacht) are notable days for the Yuletide celebrations that fall on December 31st. In Urglaawe tradition, this feast day is known as Berchtaslaaf.

In this tradition, Berchta is held as either another name for the goddess Holle or is her sister. In this respect, Berchta becomes a goddess of order, notably for one’s own actions, thoughts, and behaviors. Owls are held sacred to her and are her messengers. In the Deitsch lunar zodiac, the Eil or Owl symbol occurs near Yuletide. Like many various cultures, the owl tends to be a symbol and warning of death and danger.

Syno-Deities & Figures

Freyja – Norse

Sometimes a connection of Perchta to this Norse goddess is made, however it’s noted to be rather dubious at best as Freyja and Frigg are often confused together as being the same goddess.

Frigg – Norse

The wife of Odin, placing he as the mother of the Gods, she is associated with marriage, prophesy, clairvoyance, and motherhood along with spinning. Frigg is more likely to be whom Perchta is associated with or stems from.

Holda – Germanic

The goddess Holda has been equated as the southern cousin or a syno-deity to Perchta as they both hold the same function as a guardian of the animals and come during the Twelve Days of Christmas to inspect the spinning.

La Befana – Italy

The Italian Christmas Witch is sometimes compared with Perchta during Winter celebrations. This is more the contrast of where La Befana is portrayed as an ugly, yet good witch and Perchta is in her more monstrous appearance.

Saint Lucy – Germany

A local Saint whose feast day fell near the Winter Solstice. She is primarily known and revered in Bavaria and German Bohemia. Saint Lucy is often equated with Perchta.

Weisse Frauen

A type of fairy or enchanted being, these white women are a variety of light elves. Jacob Grimm saw connection between the goddesses Holda and Perchta in their white forms with these beings.

Elegua

Pronunciation: uh·leh·goo·uh

Etymology: “Master of Force” or “Messenger of the Gods”

Other Spellings: Eleggua (Cuba), Elegu, Elegua, Elewa, Elegba

Other Names and Epithets: Legba, Club Bearer, Eshu-Eleggua

Elegua is a noted trickster and Orisha in Yoruba traditions from West Africa of Benin, Nigeria and Togo. It is an area known as Yorubaland that is a collection of some twenty plus groups with overlapping traditions and beliefs. Which means that trying to pin Elegua down is going to be rather tricky and I’d say precisely what Tricksters enjoy. These numerous groups mean that there will numerous variations to the stories and even spellings for Elegua’s name.

He is the first Orisha created by Olodumare and was present to witness the rest of creation. Elegua is a divine trickster who is seen as both young and old at once. The Orisha of the crossroads, he provides numerous opportunities and choices wherein he will enjoy sitting back to watch the chaos unfold.

Attributes

Colors: Black, Red

Day of the Week: Monday, Sunday

Element: Spirit

Feast Day: January 1st, June 13th, November 2nd

Number: 3, 21

Patron of: Doorways, Justice, Messengers, Tricksters

Sphere of Influence: Crossroads, Doors, Time, Trickster, Mischief, Mayhem

Symbols: Cement or Sandstone head with eyes and mouth formed of seashells, Hooked Staff (painted red & black), Keys, Whistle

Taboo: Pigeon (no food offerings of this please)

Depictions Of Elegua

Because he represents both the beginning and end of life, Elegua can often be shown as either a young child, an old man or both simultaneously. He is frequently shown wearing black and red clothing, either traditional or jester’s attire. Elegua often takes on the role of warrior and protector as noted when shown carrying a club. He represents the endless wanderer who often appears in the guises of a beggar or crazy person.

What’s In A Name?

Studying Elegua as a separate entity from Eshu can get a bit confusing. Some traditions hold the two as brothers, other traditions say they are one and the same. That the name Elegua is one title for Eshu representing the light half with Eshu being the dark or shadow half.

In Cuba, where the spelling is Eleggua, it is generally thought that this name is a mispronunciation of Elegbara, one of Eshu’s many caminos and manifestations in Africa. That the name Eleggua is probably the Hispanic form of Elewa for Eshu meaning: “Handsome One.”

With enough sources discussing the two, Elegua and Eshu as separate, Eshu will get a separate entry later on.

Modern Day Worship

Elegua is venerated throughout Latin America and Nigeria, especially in the Candomblé, Quimbanda, Santeria, Umbanda and Youran religions.

Statues of Elegua are kept behind the front entrance to a home. Elegua’s alter will be kept either behind the front door of the house or outside, directly to the left of the door. Additionally, Elegua’s alter is always kept on the ground and never at a human height.

Elegua has a beaded necklace or eleke that has a repeated red and black pattern. These colors of red and black represent the duality of life and death, war and peace, health and sickness and so. In Santeria, is well understood that you want to be on Elegua’s good side as he is the one to help things go smoothly or cause the mishaps that life can throw at a person. He is very much so at the crossroads and a part of every decision that a person can make in life for good or ill.

Offerings To Elegua

Elegua will extend his protection and help to those who give offerings of candy, cigars, coconuts and rum.

Like many Orishas, in the Santeria religion, it is important to properly propitiate Elegua; for as often as he will provide opportunities, he is just as likely to toss challenges and obstacles in one’s way.

For food offerings, Elegua will eat almost anything but pigeon. The young, child-like manifestations of Elegua often receive offerings of candy and toys. Older manifestations lean more towards the hard candy, popcorn, smoked fish, bush rat, goat, and rooster. Elegua is especially found of black & white hens and she-goats as offerings.

Orisha

Elegua is a member of the Orisha, the first one created by Olodumare. The Orisha are either a spirit or deity. In the Yoruban religion, a nature-based tradition, it is believed that the source of everything is called Olorun or Olodumare. The Orisha themselves are regarded as being different aspects of the main deity, Olorun-Olodumare. The Orisha act as messengers and go between for humans, answering the different prayers and requests as Olodumare is seen as being too busy to answer or do everything.

The Orisha are not perfect and like humans, will have many different good and bad traits. They also function as a family and the different relations and stories about how different Orisha relate to each other are known as Pataki, much like a fable or parable. The story doesn’t have to be true in that it actually happened in a historical sense but is made true in the telling.

With the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, the worship of Elegua was brought with the slaves and is now found throughout much of the southern U.S., Latin America and South America.

In places such as Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico, the various aspects of an Orisha are called caminos, meaning road or path.

In Nigeria, every city has a patron Orisha. Eleggua’s city is Ketu.

The First Orisha – Elegua is the first Orisha that Olodumare or Olofe created. As such, Elegua existed before the rest of creation and was present to witness everything else come into being.

However, there are other Yoruban traditions that state that Elegua is the youngest of the Orisha and the most powerful after Obatala. Elegua did come to be venerated and fed first in ceremonies after he successfully healed Olodumare. Like anyone could, getting to be first has gotten to Elegua’s head and he can cause a lot of mischief, mainly with ceremonies not going right if he isn’t appeased first. Just as Elegua must be called on first in ceremonies, he is also called upon last when closing them out.

Parentage & Family

There are a few different stories for the origins and parentage of Elegua.

Mother Oya is given as the mother of Elegua.

Father – This part isn’t clear as Oya herself has a couple of different consorts. Either Chango or Ogun.

Other sources and myths will list Elegua as the son of Obatala and Yemmu.

Siblings

Following where Obatala and Yemmu are his parents, Elegua’s siblings will be Ogun and Orunla.

As an Orisha, one could argue that ultimately, they are all brothers and sisters.

Messenger

Elegua is the messenger orisha for Olofi, one of the three manifestations of the Supreme god in Yoruban religion. As a messenger, Elegua has the power or Ashe (Ase) to make things happen or get things done.

Divine Judgment

As messenger, that also puts Elegua in the position to mete out justice to wrong doers. Anything from financial losses. To accidents and even jail. Naturally, Elegua can also bless those whom he favors too.

Trickster

Due to his nature, Elegua is seen as a trickster in Santeria as he is present everywhere. He was the first to witness creation, he is witness to all of humankind’s events and history. Elegua provides both opportunities and obstacles in a person’s life. If you’re particularly lucky, you might even get a second chance with him.

God Of The Crossroads

A trickster, Elegua is known for opening the crossroads in the Santeria religion. Elegua is also associated with doorways and will protect a home from any danger or ills entering. Especially for those who have made the right offerings.

Within the Santaria religion, before starting any ritual or ceremony, Elegua must be called upon first, getting his approval at the beginning of every ceremony and to ensure it will proceed in an orderly manner. By the same token, Elegua will be called on last to close out a ceremony too.

As an Orisha of Crossroads, Elegua rules over different “roads” or caminos. Elegua is believed to have 101 (some traditions say 21) different such caminos or aspects. Some traditions, these caminos are also called “Eshu.” There is Eshu Alawana, the one who wanders alone in the wilds, Eshu Larove, the talkative one and Eshu Olona, the owner of the road. These are just a few of the different aspects or caminos that Elegua can take on.

As a god of the crossroads, he is the guardian of not just the crossroads, but marketplaces, curved streets and thresholds to houses. With this aspect, also comes providing choices and options, for a person to decide which direction they will go or to make mistakes in the process as Elegua stands back and watches.

Divination

Elegua is not an Orisha of Divination. However, due to his nature of facilitating the flow of energy and crossroads, Elegua does hold close ties to Orunmila, who is the Orisha of Divination. It makes sense given that Elegua has the keys to time to see the past, present and potential futures.

For general readings, Elegua’s diloggun or cowrie shells are used as he is considered to speak for all the Orishas.

Keys Of Time

There is a Pakati or story within Santeria where Olodumare gives Elegua the keys to the past, present and future. It is from this story, that Elegua is sometimes shown holding keys.

In the traditions where Elegua is the youngest of the Orishas; Olodumare had fallen extremely ill and lay sick in bed. All the Orisha gathered around and in turn, each one tried their best to heal Olodumare to no avail. Finally, Elegua arrived and offered to try healing Olodumare. The other Orisha scoffed at this, for how could Elegua, a mere child accomplish what the others, adults couldn’t do? Undaunted by the others, Elegua tried his hand and successfully healed Olodumare. In gratitude, Elegua was made the first Orisha to be called upon in every ceremony.

Variation – Other versions will say that it is Obatala who fell sick that Elegua healed. In thanks, Olodumare or Olofi then gives him the keys to all doors.

An Argument Among Friends

This is one story involving Elegua that I came across in full.

Elegua heads out one day on a Monday wearing a hat that is red on one side and white on the other. As he’s heading to the crossroad, he passes between two friends. One only sees the side of the hat that’s red and the other, the side that’s white.

Later on, the two friends comment about the stranger that walked past them earlier in the day. One friend comments on the red hat while the other says he is wrong, it was white. They get into such an argument about who is right and who is wrong, that it comes to blows.

Elegua had been watching the two from a hidden spot. He laughed at the two as he strode over to separate the friends and chastise them for fighting over the color of a stranger’s hat. He points out how his hat is red on one side and white on the other. That the two should be ashamed as their clothing is now torn and that there are more important matters to argue about.

In some versions of this story, the two friends apologize, while in other versions that two are so furious with each other that they continue their fight to the point of destroying their village.

Eshu – Synodeity

Elegua is also associated with Eshu (Echu). In many traditions, the two are seen as brothers while in others, they are one and the same. In Santeria, Elegua’s energy is tamer and more constrained compared to Eshu whose energy is wilder and more unpredictable. Basically, light and shadow.

In Brazilian traditions, Elegua is known as Elegbara and is just one of the titles that Exu or Eschu is known by.

Among the Yoruban practitioners of Nigeria, Eshu is just another name for Elegba or Elegua. Here, Eshu is a protective spirit who serves the chief god Ifa as a messenger.

Legba – West Africa/Haitian

A trickster deity and Loa found among the Fon people and Voudon religion, he is often equated as being the same figure as Elegua, especially variations of Eshu-Eleggua.

Janus – Roman

Given that Janus is the Roman god of portals and crossroads, shown to protect doorways, symbolism with keys and was invoked first in Roman rites, I see a lot of similarities between Janus and Elegua.

Catholic Saints

There are a few different Saints that Elegua has been equated to and it varies by the religion. Often the connections are fairly superficial.

Anima Sola – Not exactly a saint, but this is the Lonely Soul in Purgatory that is popular in Latin America in Catholosism with the Saint Cults. The Santeria religion in Cuba makes this connection of Elegua, more specifically Eshu with this figure.

Holy Child of Atocha – As in the infant Jesus, he is a popular folk image among Hispanics and as a protector of travelers, has easily been syncretized with Elegua.

Saint Anthony of Padua – One of the beloved Saints in Catholism, Pictures of Saint Anthony often show him carrying the Child-Jesus and a lily. The connection to Elegua is made as he is sometimes shown as a child.