Category Archives: Journey/Travel
Etymology – The Sails (Latin)
Pronunciation: VEE-luh or VAY-luh
Also known as: Sails
Argo Navis – Obsolete Constellation
The name Argo Navis is the name of a now-obsolete constellation, it had long been known and observed by the ancient Greeks and other stargazers. For the Greeks and much of the Western World, the Argo Navis is associated with the story of Jason and the Argonauts
Early modern astronomers simply referred to this constellation as Navis. This constellation was rather large, taking up much of the southern sky. By the time we get to 1752, French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille decided to divide the Argo Navis into three smaller constellations of Carina, Puppis, and Vela. The final, breaking up Argo Navis into smaller constellations came in 1841 and 1844 by Sir John Herschel. In 1930, the IAU officially acknowledged this break up with the formalization of the 88 modern constellations used. Vela is the second largest of the three newish appointed constellations, it does represent the sails of the ship, The Argos.
The constellation Pyxis, the compass, locates an area of the night sky near the mast of the Argo Navis. Some scholars will include and say it was part of the Argo Navis, others will point out that magnetic compasses were not known or used by the ancient Greeks. Lacaille thought of Pyxis as separate from the Argo Navis. Herschel proposed Pyxis be formalized as part of a new constellation, Malus in 1844 to replace Lacaille’s Pyxis.
Had Argo Navis not been divided up, it would be the largest constellation in the night sky. Nowadays, Hydra claims that spot as the largest constellation.
The First Ship?
Going by Greek mythology and history, Eratosthenes said that Argo Navis represented the first-ever ocean ship built. Even the later Roman writer Manilius agreed with that idea. Those paying attention to the mythology are quick to point out that this distinction belongs to the myth or story of Danaus as building the first ship. Danaus is the father of the 50 Danaids and with the help of the goddess Athena, set sail to Argos from Libya.
The constellation known as Vela is one of three constellations that make up the Argo Navis and once one of 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy in his book, Almagest. Ptolemy describes the Argo Navis as sitting in the night sky between Canis Major and Centaurus. He goes on to describe asterisms for the “little shield,” the “steering-oar,” the “mast-holder,” and the “stern-ornament.” With the appearance of moving backward through the heavens, the Greek poet and historian Aratus calls the Argo Navis as “Argo by the Great Dog’s tail drawn,” referring to Canis Major. Today Vela is one of the 88 current or modern constellations. The Vela constellation is found in a region of the sky called “The Sea” with other water-based constellations of: Aquarius, Capricornus, Eridanus, Piscis Austrinus, and Pisces.
As Argo Navis, Vela would appear along the southern horizon in the Mediterranean during winter and spring when the ship appears to be sailing along the Milky Way. Due to the equinox precessions over the millennia, Carina, Puppis, and Vela are no longer easily seen from the northern hemisphere. It is the 32nd largest constellation found in the night sky and is best seen during the month of March. Bordering constellations to Vela are Antlia, Carina, Centaurus, Puppis, and Pyxis.
Nowadays, only the stern of the Argo can be seen in the night sky. Cartographers have tried explaining this by saying that’s because the prow has vanished into a bank of mist or the other half has passed through the Clashing Rocks. Mythographers like Robert Graves say the missing prow is due to when Jason returned to Corinth and while sitting beneath the rotting ship, the prow fell off, killing the hero. That’s when Poseidon is to have placed the ship up in the heavens.
Dong’ou – Two to three stars from this constellation in the northern part of Vela bordering Antlia. This constellation represents a place along the Chinese coast where barbarians are said to live.
Ji – Five stars form this constellation that represents a temple to Hou Ji, the god of cereals. The name Ji refers to millet, the main crop of ancient China. Which five stars formed this constellation are uncertain though.
Qifu – This constellation represents a storehouse for musical instruments and consists of 32 stars, most of which are found in Centaurus before overlapping into Vela.
Tianji – This star represents an assessor who would decide if an animal were old enough for sacrifice. This star has been identified as being either Lambda Velorum or 12 Hydrae. The star 12 Hydrae seems more likely with Waichu, the kitchen located in Hydra where animals would be slaughtered.
Tianshe – The celestial altar. There is a Chinese fable where Tianshe represents the altar used to make offerings to the Earth god Julong. One version of this fable identifies the six stars of Gamma, b, Omicrons, Delta, Kappa and N. Velorum forming this constellation. Another version states that Tianshe is found fully in the Puppis constellation. According to Sun and Kistemaker, Tianshe forms a zigzagging pattern from Chi Carinae to Gamma Velmorum and then spreads into Puppis.
Stars Of Vela
Delta Velorum – Also known as Alsephina, from the Arabic word for “the ship.” It is also known as Koo Shee from the Chinese phrase for “bow and arrows.” It is the second brightest star in the Vela constellation.
Gamma Velorum – Also known as Regor, it is the brightest star in the Vela constellation. The other name is Suhail or Suhail al Muhlif from the Arabic phrase suhayl al-muhlif meaning “the glorious star of the oath.”
Lambda Velorum – Also known as Suhail in Arabic or Pinyin in Chinese. In Chinese, the name Pinyin means “judge for estimating the age of animals. It is the third brightest star in the Vela constellation.
Kappa Velorum – Also known as Markeb from the Arabic word Markab meaning “something to ride.” There is a similarly named star Markab or Alpha Pegasi. The two stars have slightly different spellings to distinguish them. Kappa Velorum is a binary star.
Phi Velorum – Also known as Tseen Ke in Chinese meaning “record of heaven” or “star chart.”
This asterism is named as it is often mistaken for the Southern Cross constellation used in navigation. It comprises the stars Alsephina (Delta Velorum), Markeb (Kappa Velorum), Aspidiske (Iota Carinae), and Avior (Epsilon Carinae) from the Carina constellation.
Also NGC 3132, Caldwell 74 or Southern Ring Nebula, it is a bright planetary nebula that is only half a light year in diameter. It received the name Eight-Burst Nebula due to the figure 8 appearance seen in amateur telescopes.
The Gum Nebula
The Gum Nebula spans between the Puppis and Vela constellations. The nebula is named after the Australian astronomer, Colin Stanley Gum who discovered it in the 1950’s. The Gum Nebula is thought to be the remnants of a million-year-old supernova. Also within this nebula is the Vela Supernova Remnant, just as the name states, is the remains of a younger supernova that is thought to have gone nova about 11,000 to 12,300 years ago. This remnant overlaps with the Puppis Supernova Remnant found within the Puppis constellation. The Pencil Nebula is also part of the Vela Supernova Remnant. In 1998, another supernova was observed in the same area of the Vela remnant and called RX J0852.0-4622. Another object and point of interest are the Vela Pulsar where a series of radio waves have been detected.
Or NGC 2736 is a nebula located close to the Vela Pulsar within the Vela Supernova Remnant. This nebula was discovered by the English astronomer John Herschel in 1835.
Heavenly Waters Family
There are three meteor showers associated with the Vela constellation. These are the Delta Velids, the Gamma Velids, and the Puppid-Velids that occur between December 1st and December 15th.
Jason & The Argonauts – Part 3
The Dragon’s Teeth!
As the field was plowed, Jason sowed the dragon’s teeth from which an army of Spartoi rose up from the earth, fully armed and ready for battle. Jason took and threw a stone into the middle of the newly sprung up Spartoi. Just as expected, the Spartoi fought each other over who threw the stone. In some instances of this story’s retelling, Jason has the help of Medea, who uses salves, herbs, and charms to protect him from the spears and weapons of the Spartoi. As this new-sprung group of Spartoi rose and fought each other, the hero Jason slew and attacked many of them in order to fulfill his task
The Golden Promise Jason Was Fleeced
King Aeetes was furious that Jason had successfully completed the tasks. The next morning Jason asked for the Golden Fleece from Aeetes who responded that Jason and his men should stay awhile. After all, it wasn’t every day that such people of high esteem came to visit. Jason agreed to a longer stay and that night, Medea awoke him, warning Jason of her father’s wrath and to get his men ready to flee.
While the Argonauts ran to ready the ship for departure, Jason and Medea headed down to the grotto where the Golden Fleece was kept. There, a dragon, sacred to Ares guarded the fleece as it hung on a tree.
Knowing the dragon’s weakness and fondness for sweets, Medea had made some honeycakes that when dipped in a specific juice, put this dragon to sleep. Taking the honeycakes, Jason and Medea threw them towards the dragon who promptly ate them all and fell asleep shortly after. It was easy enough then for Jason to grab the golden fleece off the tree and for him and Medea to escape to the Argonaut.
Now the crew was home free to sail home to Pelias and present the Golden Fleece.
Not quite, while some accounts and retellings want to end the story here, there were still more obstacles for the Argonauts to overcome.
One such obstacle is that of the Sirens. These half-women, half-fish beings lived on the rocks and would sing beautiful, enchanting songs that any man who heard them would wreck their ships on the rocks trying to get to them if they didn’t jump overboard, drowning in the process.
It would be Orpheus’ time to shine as he pulls out his lyre and played his music much louder than the Sirens, drowning out their voices so that the crew could bypass the danger. One account has the Sirens changing into rocks.
However, one Argonaut, Boutes is mentioned as still being affected by the Sirens’ call and leaps overboard when the Argo started sailing further away. Lucky for Boutes, the goddess Aphrodite saves him and takes him to Cape Lilybaeum. Though other accounts will have the Argonauts hauling their companion back up to safety.
Scylla & Charybdis
There was still more trouble and danger to come when the Argo reached the Strait of Messina. Here, Scylla, a giant sea serpent with six long necks and heads would attack passing ships, seizing six sailors from them. Helping Scylla, was another sea monster, Charybdis who would suck in vast amounts of water, creating massive whirlpools.
Ships passing through this strait would frequently encounter one monster while trying to avoid the other one. Thanks to orders from Hera, the sea goddess Thetis and several sea nymphs or Nereids aided the Argonauts to lead them through these treacherous waters.
Homeward Bound, Marriage & A Storm
When the Argo arrived in Phaeacia, Jason and Medea were married. Continuing on, the Argo sailed past Peloponnesus. It is off the coast of Lybia that they were caught in a storm.
From out of the sea, a golden steer rose up, upon which rode three goddesses. Just who these goddesses were, isn’t mentioned, they told the Argonauts that if they wanted to escape the storm, they would need to listen to them. For a period of twelve days, the goddesses said, the Argonauts would need to carry their ship across Lybia.
Following those instructions, the heroes carried the ship. During this trek across the land, one of the crew was stung by a scorpion and died. Finally, they reached the sea and lowered the Argo back into the water. I would assume if Orpheus is still part of the crew, that his music made things easier.
Now the Argonauts could finally complete their return home. When they arrived, Jason discovered that his uncle, King Pelias had put Jason’s entire family to death. Okay, so not all, just his male cousins as Pelias had thought to prevent the oracle’s prediction from coming true. Pelias was surprised to see Jason again, thinking that they would die on the journey.
Reunion With Aeson & Sweet Revenge
In the account I found in Bulfinch’s Mythology, Jason’s father Aeson is still alive and the two do enjoy a joyous reunion. Medea goes and brews a rather gruesome potion in a large cauldron that requires all of these animals and the lifeblood of a man. That done, Medea bids Aeson drink from what she has brewed to restore his youth and vitality.
Seeing Jason’s anguish over the death of his cousins, Medea took matters into her own hands. Medea approached Pelias’ daughters, telling them that she could rejuvenate their father just as she had done for Aeson. To prove she could do such, she again brewed her potion in the cauldron and show how she could restore a goat back to life as a young kid after killing it.
Pelias’s daughters were excited, the idea of their father youthful again. Medea instructed the daughters they would need to kill their father in order for this potion to work. Unbeknownst to the girls, Medea tricked them all into killing Pelias or in some versions, cutting him up into pieces only to find when placed into the cauldron, nothing happened.
The End Of A Long Epic
As we finally near the end of this epic, Medea flees in a snake-drawn chariot to escape the wrath of Pelias’ daughters. It also didn’t help that Jason had decided he loved another and married the Princess Creusa of Corinth.
Hell, hath no fury like a woman scorned and Medea calls upon the gods for vengeance. Medea sends a poisoned robe as a wedding gift to Creusa, then kills her own children and sets fire to the palace.
After all that, Medea rides her chariot back home to Colchis.
As for the ship, the Argo, it was dedicated to the sea god Poseidon where it would be placed up in the heavens. Sometimes Athena is who places the Argo up in the heavens.
Argo Navis – Carina for Part 1
Argo Navis – Puppis for Part 2
Etymology – The Keel
Also known as: Ἀργώ (Greek for the Argo Navis)
Argo Navis – Obsolete Constellation
The name Argo Navis is the name of a now-obsolete constellation, it had long been known and observed by the ancient Greeks and other stargazers. For the Greeks and much of the Western World, the Argo Navis is associated with the story of Jason and the Argonauts
Early modern astronomers simply referred to this constellation as Navis. This constellation was rather large, taking up much of the southern sky. By the time we get to 1763, French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille decided to divide the Argo Navis into three smaller constellations of Carina, Puppis, and Vela. This final, breaking up Argo Navis into smaller constellations came in 1841 and 1844 by Sir John Herschel. In 1930, the IAU officially acknowledged this break up with the formalization of the 88 modern constellations used. While Carina is the smallest of the three newish appointed constellations, it does represent the bulk of the ship, The Argo.
The constellation Pyxis, the compass locates an area of the night sky near the mast of the Argo Navis. Some scholars will include and say it was part of the Argo Navis, others will point out that magnetic compasses were not known or used by the ancient Greeks. Lacaille thought of Pyxis as separate from the Argo Navis. Herschel proposed Pyxis be formalized as part of a new constellation, Malus in 1844 to replace Lacaille’s Pyxis.
Had Argo Navis not been divided up, it would be the largest constellation in the night sky. Nowadays, Hydra claims that spot as the largest constellation.
The First Ship?
Going by Greek mythology and history, Eratosthenes said that Argo Navis represented the first-ever ocean ship built. Even the later Roman writer Manilius agreed with that idea. Those paying attention to the mythology are quick to point out that this distinction belongs to the myth or story of Danaus as building the first ship. Danaus is the father of the 50 Danaids and with the help of the goddess Athena, set sail to Argos from Libya.
The constellation known as Carina is one of three constellations that make up the Argo Navis and once one of 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy in his book, Almagest. Ptolemy describes the Argo Navis as sitting in the night sky between Canis Major and Centaurus. He goes on to describe asterisms for the “little shield,” the “steering-oar,” the “mast-holder,” and the “stern-ornament.” With the appearance of moving backward through the heavens, the Greek poet and historian Aratus calls the Argo Navis “Argo by the Great Dog’s tail drawn,” referring to Canis Major. Today Carina is one of the 88 current or modern constellations. The Carina constellation is found in a region of the sky called “The Sea” with other water-based constellations of Aquarius, Capricornus, Eridanus, Piscis Austrinus, and Pisces.
As Argo Navis, Carina would appear along the southern horizon in the Mediterranean during winter and spring, where the ship appears to be sailing along the Milky Way. Due to the equinox precessions over the millennia, Carina, Puppis, and Vela are no longer easily seen from the northern hemisphere. Carina is the 34th largest constellation found in the night sky and best seen during the month of March. Bordering constellations to Carina are Centaurus, Chamaeleon, Musca, Pictor, Puppis, Vela, and Volans.
Nowadays, only the stern of the Argo can be seen in the night sky. Cartographers have tried explaining this by saying that’s because the prow has vanished into a bank of mist or the other half has passed through the Clashing Rocks. Mythographers like Robert Graves said the missing prow is due to when Jason returned to Corinth and while sitting beneath the rotting ship, the prow fell off, killing the hero. That’s when Poseidon is to have placed the ship up in the heavens.
In northern China, the constellation of Carina can barely be seen.
The star Canopus is identified as the south polar star and the Star of the Old Man. This Old Man of the South Pole is the deified version of the star in Taoism, the symbol of longevity and happiness. This star is also associated with the Vermilion Bird of the South or Nán Fāng Zhū Què. With access to Western star charts, the rest of the stars were classified by Xu Guanggi during the Ming Dynasty and placed with The Southern Asterisms or Jìnnánjíxīngōu.
The star Eta Carinae is sometimes called Tseen She or “Heaven’s Altar”
It is thought perhaps that the ancient Greeks got their constellation of Argo Navis from the Egyptians circa 1000 B.C.E. Plutarch makes mention of the “Boat of Osiris” that the god Osiris would travel in as he traveled the lands of the dead.
Other scholars had suggested that the Greeks got the myth of the Argo Navis from Sumerian myths, specifically the Epic of Gilgamesh. Due to the lack of evidence, this idea is discarded.
The Maori of New Zealand called this group of stars by several names. Te Waka-o-Tamarereti or “canoe of Tamarereti,” Te Kohi-a-Autahi, an expression meaning “cold of Autumn settling down on the land and water,” and Te Kohi.
The star Canopus is called Ariki or “High-Born” by the Maori and Ke Alii-o-kona-i-ka-lewa” or “The Chief of the Southern Expanse” by the Hawaiians. Due to Canopus’ seeming solitary nature and being the last star seen before sunrise, it is also known as Atutahi, “First Light” or “Single Light, the Tuamotu Te Tau-rari. Marere-te-tavahi or “He who stands alone” by the Maori. There are also the names Kapae-poto for “Short horizon” and Kauanga for “Solitary.”
In India, people saw this constellation as “the Boat.”
Stars of Carina
Alpha Carinae – Also known as Canopus, it is the second brightest star in the night sky behind Sirius. It is a white supergiant star located some 313 lightyears from the Earth. The name Canopus is the Latinized spelling for the Greek Kanobos who the pilot of King Menlaus’ fleet of ships. This star is seen as the rudder, steering the ship across the night sky. Canopus is also the namesake city for where he died along the northern coast of Egypt on their way home from Troy. Menelaus founded the city there in his pilot’s honor. It was known as the star of Osiris was worshipped by many ancient cultures. It is the star used by Posidonus in Alexandria, in 260 B.C.E. to plot out the degrees of the Earth’s surface. Additionally, Canopus is the star that modern spacecraft use for celestial navigation.
Beta Carinae – Also known as Miaplacidus is a blue-white star. It is the second brightest star in the Carina constellation. The name Miaplacidus means “placid waters” and comes from the Arabic word miyah for waters and the Latin word placidus for placid.
Epsilon Carinae – Also known as Avior, it gained this name in 1930. It is published in a navigational almanac that the British Royal Air Force uses for navigating.
Eta Carinae – Also known as Foramen and Tseen She (“Heaven’s Altar” in Chinese). A prominent variable star has approximately 100 solar masses and is 4 million times as bright as the Sun. It was discovered by Edmond Halley in 1677. Eta Carinae is located inside the Carina Nebula. Eta Carinae is also a binary star. Because of the activity or outbursts that this star has shown, it is expected to go supernova or hypernova in the next million years or so.
Iota Carinae – Also known as Aspidiske, Turais, and Scutulum, all meaning “shield” in Greek, Arabic and Latin. Iota Carinae is part of the False Cross asterism.
Theta Carinae – This star forms part of the Diamond Cross asterism. It is also part of a cluster of stars sometimes called the Southern Pleiades as they look very similar to the Pleiades asterism found in Taurus.
Upsilon Carinae – Also known as Vathorz Prior from the Old Norse-Latin words meaning “Preceding One of the Waterline.” It is part of the Diamond Cross asterism.
This is an asterism found within Carina, that while larger than the Southern Cross constellation, is fainter. The stars Beta, Theta, Upsilon, and Omega Carinae form this asterism.
This is an asterism often confused for the Southern Cross constellation. The stars Iota Carinae and Epsilon Carinae along with two stars each from Kappa, Vela, Velorum, and Delta Velorum make up this asterism.
The Southern Pleiades
Also known as the Theta Carinae Cluster. The brightest star within this cluster is Theta Carinae. This cluster is called the Southern Pleiades because it resembles the Pleides of the Taurus constellation. It was by Lacaille in 1751.
Also called NGC 3372, this is the nebula that Carina got its name from when French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered it in 1751. The Carina Nebula contains several nebulae within it. It covers a region of space that is some 8,000 light-years away and 300 light-years wide. The central region of the Carina Nebula is covered by another, smaller Nebula called the Keyhole Nebula.
Covering the central part of the Carina Nebula, the Keyhole Nebula or Keyhole appears as a dark cloud with bright filaments of fluorescent gas. The Keyhole Nebula is roughly seven light-years wide. It was described in 1847 by John Herschel and it got its name from Emma Converse who named it the Keyhole in 1873.
This is a planetary nebula that can be seen by the naked eye and has the erratic Eta Carinae star within it. The word Homunculus means “little man” in Latin.
Wishing Well Cluster
Also known as NGC 3532, this open cluster of stars gets it name as when seen through a telescope, the stars appear like coins tossed into a Wishing Well. Speaking of telescopes, the Wishing Well Cluster was the first object observed by Hubble Space Telescope. This cluster can be found between the Crux constellation and the False Cross asterism.
Heavenly Waters Family
There are two meteor showers associated with the Carina constellation, they are the Alpha Carinids and the Eta Carinids which occur between January 14th and 27th each year. The Eta Carinids was first discovered in 1961 in Australia.
Jason & The Argonauts – Part 1
This is the myth that is identified with the Argo Navis by the ancient Greeks. The constellation represents the 50-oared galley that Jason and his crew sailed when heading off to Colchis to retrieve the Golden Fleece. The kingdom of Colchis was located somewhere near the eastern shores of the Black Sea in modern-day Georgia. This Golden Fleece is the fleece from the Golden Ram forming the constellation of Aries. The same Golden Ram that flew Nephele’s children, Helle (who fell off on the way) and Phryxus to safety in Colchis.
Apollonius Rhodius is the ancient Greek poet and scholar who wrote the Argonautica chronicling the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts that we know this epic from. Apollonius describes the Argo as the finest ship that ever sailed, she would ride before the wind when her crew pulled at the oars.
Now, to start the story proper, it begins with Jason’s grandfather, King Athamas of Boeotia. When Athamas died, his eldest son Aeson was to inherit the throne. The younger son, Pelias held other plans. Aeson was a pacifist and abdicated the throne to Pelias’ ambitions on the condition that when his son, Jason reached his majority, the throne was to be returned to him.
Shortly after ascending to the throne, an oracle approached Pelias and warned him that Aeson’s son would retake the throne by force. This same oracle also told Pelias to beware of the man with one sandal.
Pelias couldn’t do anything about the later prophecy, but he could do something about the former. He sent his soldiers to go kill his nephew. Before the soldiers ever arrived, Athamas had already sent his son, Jason on to learn from the centaur Chiron. So, when the soldiers did come, Athamas informed them that Jason was dead and the soldiers returned to Pelias to relay the news.
Years later, Chiron told Jason of what happened between his father and uncle. Angry, Jason headed home to right some wrongs. Aeson was more than happy to see his son again and after that bit of family reunion, Jason set off to confront his uncle.
While on his way to Boeotia, Jason needed to cross a river. An old woman greeted Jason, asking him to help her across. Jason agreed and as he carried the old woman, he lost one of his sandals. In some accounts, this old woman is the goddess Hera in disguise, aiding Jason on his quest and forcing a prophecy to be self-fulling.
Thus, Jason entered Boeotia with only one sandal. Seeing the youth with only one sandal, reminded Pelias of the prophecy given to him years ago and he became worried. Jason requests an audience with Pelias, demanding that the throne be given back to him.
Seeking to postpone the inevitable, a worried Pelias says that he will give up the throne only if Jason can prove himself by bringing back the Golden Fleece in Colchis. Pelias tells Jason that this golden fleece is rightly theirs. Secretly, Pelias hoped this quest would prove futile. Either Jason would die along the way on the 2,000-mile journey or get lost.
Building The Ship
Such a voyage would require a ship to undertake it. Jason enlisted the services of Argus to construct this vessel. The gods had a vested interest in this journey as well and the goddess Athena supervised Argus as he built the ship with timber from nearby Mount Pelion brought down to the port of Pagasae.
For the prow of the ship, Athena used an oak beam from the oracle of Zeus at Dodona. By the time Argus finished the ship, this oak beam allowed the Argo to speak, calling out for action. Jason would take with him, 50 of the greatest Greek heroes.
These are some of the more notable crew. Sometimes the names can vary slightly, notably if Atlanta will be listed as part of the crew.
Argus – The shipwright and name’s sake of the Argos
Atlanta – An archer and the only woman on the crew
Castor & Polydeuces – Twins
Calais & Zetes – The sons of the North Wind
Glaucus – The Argo’s helmsman
Orpheus – One of the greatest musicians of the Greek era.
Heracles – The strongest man alive in ancient Greece, taking a break from his Twelve Labors.
Theseus – Slayer of the Minotaur
Launching The Argo
If there was one flaw to Argus’ ability as a shipwright, it is that the Argo was too heavy that they could move the ship into the water. Enter stage right, Orpheus who played his lyre as he sang, that the oak beam of the Argo’s bow began to move, taking the whole ship into the water.
Visiting The Mentor
As the Argonauts sailed, the ship passed near Mount Pelion, where Chiron lived. Jason decided to visit his old mentor and the crew spent a night resting there. To help Jason and the Argonauts on their quest, Chiron placed a likeness of himself up in the heavens. One version of the story says that this constellation is Sagittarius, though scholars will disagree and say that it is the constellation Centaurus that represents Chiron. Either way, throughout his journey, Jason would speak with Chiron through the stars of this constellation.
As the Argo sailed, they reached a point where they needed to resupply their stores of freshwater. Hercules and Hylas were the two who volunteered to go ashore and get more water. After a bit of searching, the two found a well and as they were pulling water up, Hylas was suddenly pulled down by the naiads living there. It is here that Hercules parted ways with the Argonauts as he decided to try and find a way to rescue Hylas.
Side Note: An old 1963 Ray Harryhaussen movie for Jason and the Argonauts sees Hercules and Hylas encountering a giant statue named Talos that attacks everyone when they take some treasure.
To Be Continued…
Argo Navis – Puppis for Part 2
Argo Navis – Vela for Part 3
Etymology: “Bright One”, peraht (Old High German meaning “brilliant”). “Hidden” or “Covered,” pergan (Old High German)
Also Called: Behrta, Berchta, Berigl, Bertha (English), Bechtrababa, Berchtlmuada, Berchte, Butzen-Bercht, Frau Berchta, Frau Faste (the Lady of Ember Days), Frau Perchta, Fronfastenweiber, Kvaternica (Slovene), Lutzl, Pehta, Perchta, Perahta, Perhta-Baba, Posterli, Pudelfrau, Quatemberca, Rauweib. Sampa, Stampa, Spinnstubenfrau (“Spinning Room Lady”), Zamperin, Zampermuatta, Zlobna Pehta, The Lady of the Beasts, The Belly Slitter
Perchta has her beginnings and roots as an Alpine goddess worshiped in the Germanic countries where she protected the forests and animals. Later, as Christian influences increased, Perchta would take on a more sinister appearance and role, especially during the dark winter months where she would become a boogeyman type figure used to scare children into good behavior.
This is one of those confusing ones. Is Perchta a goddess, a witch, demon, or something else?
To answer that, we start at the beginning.
Animal: Goose, Swan
Day of the Week: Friday
Sphere of Influence: Nature, Forests, Wildlife, Spinning, Weaving
Symbols: Staff, Knife,
What’s In A Name?
The meaning for Perchta’s name is fairly easy to find, it comes the Old High Germanic words “beraht” and “bereht” meaning bright, light, flame and white. The word percht was meant as a warning for the sin of vanity. Another potential word in Old High German is the verb pergan, meaning “Hidden” or Covered” as the origin for Perchta’s name.
Given the many different eras and regions of Germany, Perchta is known by several different names. In southern Austria, there is a male form of Perchta known as Quantembermann (German), or Kvaternik (Slovene), meaning “The man of the Four Ember Days.” Jacob Grimm holds the idea that Perchta’s male counterpart is Berchtold.
Perchta is notable for a dual nature where she will have one of two forms that people see her in. During the Spring and Summer months, Perchta takes on the form of a lovely, young maiden dressed in white, or during the colder, autumn and winter months, she is seen as an ugly old hag with a hooked nose and tattered, worn clothing as she carries either a knife or scissors to slit open people’s bellies. Some perchten masks showing the ugly crone aspect give Perchta an iron face and beak-like nose.
Jacob Grimm of the Grimm Brothers fame tries to say that Perchta is an ancient goddess. In some stories, Perchta will be described as having a goose or swan foot; this imagery connects her to having a higher nature and the ability to shape-shift. This same goose foot could also be the splay foot that a spinner develops with one foot pumping the pedal of a spinning wheel.
Swan Maiden – It has been noted that in several languages, that Perchta or Bertha is also referred to by her peculiar foot. Berhte mit dem fuoze in German, Bertha au grand pied in French and Berhta cum magno pede in Latin. The idea given by Jacob Grimm is that foot means that Perchta is a Swan Maiden.
Woodcut – There is a notable woodcut from 1750 that depicts Perchta as “Butzen-Bercht.” The word Butzen is noted to mean “bogeyman.” The woodcut shows Perchta as a crone with a wart on her nose as she carries a basket filled with screaming children, all of them girls. Perchta also holds a staff as she stands before a door to a house where there are more frightened young girls.
The earliest depictions and mentions of Perchta, date her to during the Middle Ages, first in around 1200 and then later in the 1400’s when mention of Perchta becomes more prominent. Perchta served as an enforcer of communal taboos. One such taboo is weaving on sacred days or not joining in the feasts enthusiastically enough. Many of Perchta’s punishments stem out of punishing those who are lazy and haven’t done the proper work.
As to Perchta’s retinue that accompanies her, the first reference to them is in 1468, however, these are the souls of the dead. With the passage of time, this retinue would become demons, and then by the coming of the 15th century, they would become the familiar horned figures of the perchten and the first mentions of costumed processions and parades would appear.
In Hans Vintler’s Die Pluemen der Tugent (“The Flowers of Virtue”) written in 1411, we have the first illustration of Perchta and more accurately someone in a mask posing as “Percht with the iron nose.”
Counter-Reformations & Witchtrials – It has been noted that the era of history that Perchta first emerges also overlaps and coincides with the Reformations and Religious wars between Catholics and Protestants over how Christianity should be observed and practiced along with trying to stamp out other non-Christian religions and practices through Europe.
Among Wiccans and Pagans, the period between 1450 and 1700’s is called The Burning Times when thousands of men and women, upwards of around 100,000 were executed and burned at the stake for the crime of witchcraft. Germany had the worst of it with historians reporting that entire villages could see their population of women gone. There’s some sense to Perchta appearing as a dark figure who carried off girls who didn’t behave and the changes to her appearance during this era.
In the southern parts of Germany and Austria, the name Frau Perchta is attributed to a witch who comes during the twelve days of Christmas, spanning from December 25th to January 6th for Epiphany. If a person is naughty or sinful, Frau Perchta is fierce and terrible with the punishment she will hand out. We are talking she will rip out a person’s intestines and other internal organs to replace with straw, rocks, and other garbage. In this terrible, punishing aspect, this image of Perchta looks very similar to that of Krampus, and figures dressed as her, called perchten are known to also appear in the annual Krampus parades held in several Alpine towns.
Before her darker imagery took hold, Perchta was held in a more benevolent light. Many of her positive attributes would be twisted under Christian influence causing many people to associate Perchta as a dark, Wintertime, Christmas entity to be feared. The influence of Christianity also creates a seeming, conflicting goddess with a dual identity.
Given when the change to her darker appearance happens, Winter when the nights are longer, when it is cold, and nature becomes that much more precarious if people haven’t properly prepared for the cold months. When evil spirits are thought to roam.
Protector Of Women & Children
In this role, Perchta is a goddess who protects women, children, and infants. For those children and infants who died, Perchta is a psychopomp who guided their souls to the Afterlife.
Goddess Of Nature
In this role, Perchta was mainly concerned with tending to her forests and taking care of nature. As a nature goddess or spirit, Perchta was known as “The Lady of the Beasts.” In this aspect, Perchta holds some similarities with Holda and Germany’s ancient hunting cultures.
It was only during wintertime and Christmas, the Winter Solstice that Perchta would concern herself with the affairs of humans. During Winter, Perchta will withdraw up into the mountains where she will create snow. In addition, Perchta will protect her followers by removing evil spirits as they travel.
In this role and aspect, Perchta not only governs the mundane arts of weaving and spinning, but she also presides over fate, much like the Moirai or Fates of Greek mythology.
During the Summer months, Perchta is believed to live in the depths of various lakes, during which time she busies herself with spinning flax upon her golden spindle. During the night, Perchta can be encountered walking along the steep slopes of the alps carrying her spindle. Those who approach Perchta with their flocks can get her to bless them.
The Wild Hunt
The Wild Hunt is a phenomenon found in many different European countries and cultures. It is a nightmarish, supernatural force led by some dark spectral hunter on horseback and accompanied by a host of other riders and hounds as they chase down unlucky mortals, either until they drop dead of exhaustion, are caught, and forced to join the Wild Hunt or they can evade the Hunt until dawn.
Just exactly who it is that leads the Hunt does vary country by country in Europe. The Wild Hunt is known for making its ride during the Winter Solstice or New Year’s Eve. Jacob Grimm of Grimms Brothers fame makes a connection of Herne to the Wild Hunt due to the epitaph of “the Hunter.” That does seem to work, a Huntsman, connect him to the Wild Hunt and for Britain, the idea really jells of a local person who becomes a lost soul, doomed to forever ride with the Hunt.
According to Jacob Grimm, Perchta is one potential leader of the Wild Hunt. Given that during Midwinter, Perchta is known to wander around the countryside at this time with her entourage of perchten, it’s no surprise to see Perchta be suggested as a leader of the Wild Hunt.
Ultimately, just who leads the Wild Hunt will vary from country to country. In Welsh mythology, it is Gwyn ap Nudd or Annwn who lead the hunt with a pack of spectral hounds to collect unlucky souls. The Anglo-Saxons of Britain hold that it is Woden who leads the hunt at midwinter. Herne the Hunter has been given as the name for another leader of the Wild Hunt. Wotan is very similar to Odin (just another name for the same deity really), Herne has been linked to them as both have been hung from a tree.
The arrival of Christianity is about when we see Perchta become a minor deity and then diminished to be some sort of magical creature or spirit. As more time passed, Perchta would then become an evil witch or sorceress. Later, Christian clergy would equate Perchta in official documents as being synonymous with other female spirits and goddesses such as Abundia, Diana, Herodias, Holda, and Richella.
Thesaurus Pauperum – This text and collection of recipes and natural cures was written by prominent Catholic officials for use by the poor. This text mentioned a Cult of Perchta who would leave out food and drink for Perchta on Epiphany for wealth and abundance. This same document would be used to Perchta’s cult in Bavaria in 1468. In 1439, Thomas Ebendorfer von Haselbach in De decem praeceptis also condemned this practice.
Frau Perchta – Christmas Witch & Bogeyman
During wintertime, especially during the month of December and Yule, as Frau Perchta, she becomes a fierce some looking hag or witch with two faces. Those children who are good and have behaved, have nothing to fear from Frau Perchta. However, for those who are deemed bad and have misbehaved, Frau Perchta is known for slitting open the stomachs of people and pulling out all of their organs to replace them with straw, stones, and garbage.
These wild spirits are known to be active between the Winter Solstice and up to around January 6th, for the Twelfth Night. The percht are an offshoot of the older goddess, Perchta from the Alpine regions where she guarded the beasts of the forest. The percht would be depicted as humanoid goats with elongated necks and wearing animal furs. These same percht are believed to become the basis for Krampus. It is in the late 20th century that both Perchten and Krampus appear together in the same processions so that the two have become indistinguishable from one another. The wooden masks worn for these processions are called perchten.
Originally, the term perchten, (the plural for Perchta), referred to the female masks that represent the entourage of spirits accompanying Frau Perchta or Pehta Baba in Slovenia. The perchten are associated with midwinter where they personify fate and the souls of the dead. There are several regional names and variations for the perchten. Their names include: Bechtrababa, Berchta, Berchtlmuada, Berigl, Pehta, Lutzl, Perhta-Baba, Pudelfrau, Rauweib, Sampa, Stampa, Zamperin, Zampermuatta, and Zlobna Pehta.
Other Perchten names are:
Glöcklerlaufen – “bell-running” from the Salzkammergut region.
Schiachperchten – Or “ugly Perchten,” they come from the Pongau region of Austria. They have fangs, tusks and horse or otherwise ugly features. These perchten, despite their appearance, come to drive off evil spirits and demons as they go from house to house.
Schnabelpercht – Or “trunked Percht” from the Unterinntal region.
Schönperchten – Or “beautiful Perchten,” they come from the Pongau region of Austria. These perchten come during the Twelve Nights and festivals to bestow luck and wealth to the people.
Tresterer – From Pinzgau region of Austria.
Sometimes the spirits that accompany Perchta will be those of children, particularly unbaptized children in Christian beliefs. Food offerings left out for Perchta and her retinue are said to be consumed by these Heimchen.
For many women, before the arrival of modern medicine, there was a high infant and child mortality rate. Having a benevolent goddess who would come and take care of their children was likely very comforting for many women, to think of their child in a better place or in better hands.
This period is also known as the Twelve Days of Christmas. These nights are also known as Magic Nights when Perchta leading the Wild Hunt are known to ride.
This is a seasonal play that is found throughout the Alpine regions during the last week of December and through the first week of January up to January 6th for Twelfth Night or Epiphany. It was known as Nikolausspiel or “Nicholas’ Play” at one time. These plays stem from the Medieval Morality Plays from Antiquity. The Nicholas plays feature Saint Nicholas rewarding children for their scholarly efforts instead of good behavior. People dress as perchten with masks made of wood with brown or white sheep’s wool.
For a while, the Roman Catholic Church tried to prohibit the practice of Perchtenlauf during the 17th and 18th centuries. Despite its best efforts, the parade and processions continued either in secret or as a result have made a resurgence in later centuries.
The great Krampus run is an annual parade held every year in many Alpine towns. For the first two weeks, especially on the eve of December 6th, young people will dress in Krampus costumes and parade through the town, ringing bells and scaring parade watchers. Some participants may dress up as perchten, a wild female spirit from Germanic folklore. Alcoholic beverages of Krampus schnapps and brandy are common during this celebration.
Also known as Little Christmas in Italy, Old Christmas in Ireland or Epiphany, this holiday is held on January 6th. The feast held on this day is called Berchtentag. In Salzburg, Austria, Perchta is believed to wander the halls of Hohensalzburg Castle during the night.
In Germany, this is when Perchta will go about collecting her offerings, where she will reward her followers, often with a silver coin or other small gifts, and punish those who haven’t observed certain practices and traditions. This is where Perchta, as Frau Perchta appears in her fearsome guise mentioned earlier to slit open the bellies of wrongdoers and those deemed naughty, only to stuff them full of straw, rocks, and garbage. Perchta would also be interested in making sure that women had spun the wool needed for the year.
In observance of this holiday, there would be a feast held with a ceremonial dance. Several people would dress up, pretending to be evil spirits that someone dressed as Perchta would then chase away, “slaying” the evil spirits in a pageant to invoke a ritual to protect the people of the village.
A special porridge consisting of gruel or dumplings and fish called Perchtenmilch would be eaten during this time. While the family ate, an additional bowl would be left out for Perchta and her entourage. If this traditional meal is forgotten, it is one of the taboos that angers Perchta so that she will cut open people’s stomachs and stuff them with straw.
Note: My earlier section for Frau Perchta gives the time for this celebration closer to Yule in December. Given multiple sources, this change of observances could easily be people conforming old traditions to those of the newer, incoming Christian religion and observance of Christmas along with a change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.
Also known as: Bechtelistag, Bächtelistag, Berchtelistag, Bärzelistag, Bechtelstag, Bechtle. It is a celebration typically observed on January 2nd in Liechtenstein and Switzerland and has been happening since at least the 14th century. There are various theories about the origin of this holiday. There is a Blessed Bertchtold of the Engelberg abbey who died on November 2nd of 1197. Another theory holds that it commemorates the first animal killed during Duke Berchtold V of Zähringen’s hunt and the naming of his new city.
Like the English practice of mummery, another idea is that this holiday comes from the word: berchten” meaning to “walk around, begging for food.” Obviously, there is also Perchta given the similarity of the names and that when the celebrations of Epiphany were abolished by the various Protestant regions, those refusing to give up the Twelfth Night traditions, simply moved them to the day after New Year’s to gain another day off. There is a “nut feast” where children build hocks of four nuts with a fifth nut balanced on top. Masked parades are held, along with folk dances and families going out to the pubs to eat.
Translating to mean “Fast Night” or “Almost Night,” this is a celebration that is held on the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday and Lent. It is a night where people eat the best foods possible, and yes, the preferred food is doughnuts. A procession of perchten is known for showing up in some modern celebrations.
This is a dominion of Heathenry inspired by the Pennsylvania Dutch culture. In it, Perchta or rather, Berchta is a major goddess instead of a minor. The eleventh day (Elfder Daag) and twelfth night (Zwelfdi Nacht) are notable days for the Yuletide celebrations that fall on December 31st. In Urglaawe tradition, this feast day is known as Berchtaslaaf.
In this tradition, Berchta is held as either another name for the goddess Holle or is her sister. In this respect, Berchta becomes a goddess of order, notably for one’s own actions, thoughts, and behaviors. Owls are held sacred to her and are her messengers. In the Deitsch lunar zodiac, the Eil or Owl symbol occurs near Yuletide. Like many various cultures, the owl tends to be a symbol and warning of death and danger.
Syno-Deities & Figures
Freyja – Norse
Sometimes a connection of Perchta to this Norse goddess is made, however it’s noted to be rather dubious at best as Freyja and Frigg are often confused together as being the same goddess.
Frigg – Norse
The wife of Odin, placing he as the mother of the Gods, she is associated with marriage, prophesy, clairvoyance, and motherhood along with spinning. Frigg is more likely to be whom Perchta is associated with or stems from.
Holda – Germanic
The goddess Holda has been equated as the southern cousin or a syno-deity to Perchta as they both hold the same function as a guardian of the animals and come during the Twelve Days of Christmas to inspect the spinning.
La Befana – Italy
The Italian Christmas Witch is sometimes compared with Perchta during Winter celebrations. This is more the contrast of where La Befana is portrayed as an ugly, yet good witch and Perchta is in her more monstrous appearance.
Saint Lucy – Germany
A local Saint whose feast day fell near the Winter Solstice. She is primarily known and revered in Bavaria and German Bohemia. Saint Lucy is often equated with Perchta.
A type of fairy or enchanted being, these white women are a variety of light elves. Jacob Grimm saw connection between the goddesses Holda and Perchta in their white forms with these beings.
Alternate Spelling: Mictlantecihuatl
Other names: Chicunauhmictlan (“King of Mictlan”)
Etymology: “Lord of Mictlan”
Mictlantecutli is the Aztec deity who is the Lord of the Dead and ruler of the Aztec Underworld known as Mictlan. Which is exactly what Mictlantecutli’s name translates to, “Lord of Mictlan.”
Just to get it out of the way, Mictlantecuhtli’s wife is Mictecacihuatl, who is also the ruler of the dead.
Animal: Bat, Dog, Owl, Spider
Month: Tititl (Aztec)
Patron of: Death, the Dead
Sphere of Influence: Death
Symbols: Bones, Skeletons, Paper
Time: 11th Hour
Mictlantecutli is often represented as either a skeleton or a human figure wearing a skull. His headdress will often have owl feathers on it. When shown as a skeleton, Michlantechutli’s headdress will have knives in it to represent the wind of knives that the souls of the dead must pass through on their way to Mictlan. Michlantechutli when shown as a skeleton may be shown covered or splattered in blood and wearing a necklace of eyeballs or wearing paper clothing. Paper being a common offering for the dead. As human, Michlantechutli would have human bones serving as ear plugs that he wears.
Additional depictions of Michlantechutli show him wearing sandals to symbolize his high rank as the Lord of Mictlan. Michlantechutli could also be shown with his arm held out in an aggressive pose, showing he was ready to tear apart the dead as they came into his presence and realm. There is also an Aztec Codice that shows Michlantechutli as having his skeletal jaw wide open to take in the stars into him during the day.
What’s In A Name
Mictlantecutli’s name translates to “Lord of Mictlan” in the Nahuatl language.
Parents – Not really, Mictlantecuhtli was created by Xipe Totec, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, and Huitzilopochtli when they were busy creating the universe and world.
Spouse – Mictecacihuatl, the Queen and Ruler of the Dead. Another spelling I have for her is Mictlantecihuatl.
Suns – This is a big one in Aztec Cosmology, the Aztecs believed in a cycle of suns or periods of creation. The fourth sun ended with a great deluge or flood that drowned everyone and that the current age is the fifth sun.
There were a number of different paradises or afterlives in Aztec belief. The manner of a person’s death would determine which of these paradises they got to enter. Any person who failed to get into these paradises would find themselves destined for Mictlan.
Fairly common in many world beliefs, the Aztecs divided the cosmos into three parts. The Heavens or Ilhuicac at the top with the Earth or Tlalticpac, being the land of the living found in the middle. Mictlan, the Underworld would be found below.
Depending on the manner of one’s death, would depend on which after life a person to. Mictlan was pretty much seen as the place for all souls who couldn’t get into one of the paradises.
In the Aztec Creation story, there were Ometecuhtli and his wife Omecihuatl who bore four children Xipe Totec, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, and Huitzilopochtli.
And…. Nothing really happens for about 600 years, so the four children decide that they will set about creating the universe. That of course includes creating the Sun, the first man and woman, maize, and calendar. Mictlantecuhtli and Mictecacihuatl, the Lord and Lady of Death would be created last.
Lord Of The Underworld – Mictlan
With the Christian mindset, the Underworld, any Underworld does not sound like a happy fun place to be or go.
Not quite in Aztec beliefs, most everyone who died, went to Mictlan. When a person died, they would be buried with grave goods that they would carry with them on their travels to Mictlan. These goods would be offered up to Mictlantecutli and Mictecacihuatl.
As the newly dead started their journey to Mictlan, they would be accompanied by a small dog who guided them. Mictlan was known to be located somewhere far to the North. Much like in other world myths and beliefs, the Realm of the Dead is pretty much just neutral, not necessarily evil. Mictlan is divided into nine different levels or layers that the dead must travel through and a series of tests they must do on a four-year journey down to Mictlan. We are talking having to run from various monsters, icy blasts known as the “winds of obsidian,” traverse a mountain range where the mountains crash into each other, and to cross the nine rivers of blood guarded by jaguars. Once the soul arrived, they would dissolve, vanishing forever.
Home Sweet Home – While Mictlan is divided into nine different levels, Mictlantecutli and Mictecacihuatl live in the last few levels. One legend holds that there is a place of white flowers that was forever dark and served as home to the gods of death.
The actual house or dwelling place that Mictlantecutli and Mictecacihuatl live at in the Mictlan is reputed to have no windows.
Vaticanus Codex – In this Colonial codex, Mictlantecutli is identified and labelled by the Spanish as “the Lord of the Underworld, Tzitzimitl” and equated with the Christian Lucifer.
This is the name the Aztecs used for the northern direction associated with Mictlanteculhtli. The northern direction is where the Aztecs believed the land of the dead to be. This would be a region of the earth that was a dark, barren and cold place that was eternally still and quiet. Which makes sense for the Artic. Sometimes, Mictlanteculhtli could be associated with the south, just as equally likely if one were to make it to Antarctica, that’s pretty cold and lifeless the further inland you get.
Souls Of The Dead
The Aztecs recognized three types of souls and Mictlantecutli governed over all of them.
- People who died of normal deaths as in old age and disease
- People who died heroic deaths such as in battle, sacrifices and childbirth
- People who died non-heroic deaths, accidents and suicides
While this sounds like every soul ends up in Mictlan, a soul could end up in another place. For example, if someone died violently drowning or lighting, they would end up in Tlalocan (a realm in the Heavens), for the Tlaloc, the water god.
In the Aztec Calendar, Mictlanteculhtli is associated with the tenth day sign Itzcuintli, a dog. There were twenty such signs in the Aztec calendar. On the day that a particular deity is associated with, that deity was were responsible for providing the souls born on that day.
In addition, Mictlanteculhtli was the source of all souls born on the sixth day of a 13-day week. That is an exceedingly long weekend to work towards.
Mictlanteculhtli presided as the second Week Deity for the tenth week of a twenty-week calendar cycle.
Of the Aztec Gods as a whole, Mictlanteculhtli is the fifth out of nine Night Deities.
As a Night God, Mictlanteculhtli would be paired up with the Sun god Tonatiuh to symbolize the duality and dichotomy of light and darkness.
He was also the secondary Week God for the tenth week of the twenty-week cycle of the calendar, joining the sun god Tonatiuh to symbolize the dichotomy of light and darkness.
Dualities – Light & Dark
While we are on this subject, where Mictlantecutli and Mictecacihuatl represented Death; they are the complements and opposites to Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl who represented Life.
Fertility – Life & Death
By modern, Western aesthetics, Mictlanteculhtli is not the only Aztec deity to be shown with skeletal imagery or bones. For the Aztecs, skeletons and bones were symbols of abundance, fertility, and health. You couldn’t have one without the other.
As they only come out at night and often from caves, bats have been associated with Mictlanteculhtli and the Underworld.
Due to the tenth day sign Itzcuintli, a dog, they are also associated with Mictlanteculhtli. It also seems fairly coincidental enough too as even in Europe, dogs as in Black Dogs are often associated with death and being psychopomps to lead the souls of the dead to the afterlife.
In Aztec beliefs, the owl is associated with death and thus one of Michlantechutli’s animals. Michlantechutli is often shown wearing owl feathers on his headdress.
Another animal associated with death and darkness; they too have been associated with Mictlanteculhtli.
A good portion of the Aztec belief system involved a lot of ritual blood sacrifices. Mictlantecuhtli was no different. Sacrifices made to Mictlantecuhtli were performed at night with a person being a stand-in or avatar, a representative of the god of death. They would be sacrificed at the Tlalxicco temple, whose name means “navel of the world.”
The flayed skins of humans would be offered up to Mictlantecuhtli and it is said that ritual cannibalism was done at the temple too.
Fun Fact – When Hernan Cortes landed on the shore of Central America, the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II thought that this was the deity Quetzalcoatl who had arrived. Thinking that this was the end of the world, Moctezuma II increased the number of human sacrifices believing that this would allow him to appease Mictlantecuhtli and avoid the torments of Mictlan.
Aztec Creation Story
In Aztec myths and beliefs, the world has been created and destroyed a few times.
In this case, the gods Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl had just finished restoring the sky and earth when they decide that they need to create people to populate this new fifth world. Since Michlantechutli has all the bones, Quetzalcoatl travels to him to inquire about getting some bones. Michlantechutli agrees to the condition that Quetzalcoatl travels around the Underworld four times while sounding a conch shell horn. The catch is that Michlantechutli gives Quetzalcoatl a shell that doesn’t have any holes drilled into it.
Quetzalcoatl fixes this problem by summoning some worms who drill holes into the conch shell and then having bees fly into the shell. When Michlantechutli hears Quetzalcoatl blowing the conch horn, he is obligated to fulfill his end of the agreement. However, Michlantechutli decides to go back on his word to keep the bones. Quetzalcoatl is forced to flee, taking the bones with him and Michlantechutli sends his minions, the Micteca after the other god. The Micteca dig a deep pit and as Quetzalcoatl is running, a quail jumps out, startling Quetzalcoatl so that he falls into the pit and dies with the bones all shattering. This is why people will be of different sizes.
One retelling has the quail tormenting Quetzalcoatl before he seemingly dies and then gnaws on all the bones, making that the reason why humans will be in different sizes.
Quetzalcoatl does eventually revive, being a god, and takes the bones to the goddess Cihuacoatl who grinds up the bones and puts them into a special container. The other gods now gather around this container and cut themselves to shed blood into it. From this mixture, the humans of today came forth to populate the earth.
Variation – One version of the myths I came across is that it is both Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl who come to claim bones from Mictlantecuhtli and that these were the bones of previous deities who had lived and died.
An Aztec holiday, the “Great Feast of the Dead” was celebrated for the recently deceased and to help them on their journey to Mictlan. Hueymiccaylhuitl would be celebrated in the Aztec month of Tititl where an impersonator or stand-in for the god Mictlantecuhtli would be sacrificed.
When someone died, the Aztecs would cremate the remains. It was believed that the soul would then undertake a four-year journey to Mictlan through the various levels of the Underworld and need to pass a series of trials. Those who succeeded would make it to the lowest levels of Mictlan.
Hueymiccaylhuitl was also celebrated as an annual celebration as it was believed the dead could return to the lands of the living and visit. Plus, it was a way for the living to help those on their journey as the living could communicate with the deceased souls.
When the Spanish Conquistadors arrived, bringing Catholicism with them, the traditions of Hueymiccaylhuitl transformed, becoming known as Día de los Muertos, the Day of the Dead. Families still leave offerings of food and goods for the dead to take with them on their journey.
Under more modern and current celebrations and influence from the Catholic church, Día de los Muertos coincides with All Saints’ Day or Feast of All Saints on November 1st. It is a celebration that combines imagery from Aztec beliefs with an air of carnival and festivities with families gathering at cemeteries to share a picnic meal with deceased loved ones and sugar skulls in the image of Mictlantecuhtli.
Santa Muerte – Mexico
A female deity, early images of her started off as male. Santa Muerte is a folk saint whose worship and popularity has been increasing since the start of the 21st century in Mexico and has been spreading. Devotees of Santa Muerte may or may not be disenfranchised with the Catholic Religion and many turn to her for healing, protection and a safe passage to the afterlife.
Ah Puch – Mayan
Also known as Yum Cimil, the Mayan god of Death, seen as similar to Mictlantecuhtli.
Coqui Bezelao – Zapotec
Another god of Death similar to Mictlantecuhtli in Central to South America.
Kedo – Zapotec
Another god of Death that Mictlantecuhtli has been equated with.
Tihuime – Tarascan
Another god of Death similar to Mictlantecuhtli in Central America.
Pronunciation: ˈjaːnʊs or jayn’-uhs
Alternate Spelling: Iānus (Latin)
Other names: Bifrons,Ianuspater (“Janus Father”), Ianus Quadrifrons (“Janus Four-faced”), Ianus Bifrons (“Two-faced Janus”), Dianus, Dionus
Other Names and Epithets: Ianitos (Keeping Track of Time), Iunonius, Consuvius (‘”The Guardian of the Beginning of Human Life”), Cozeuios, Conseuius the Sower, Patultius (the Opener), Iancus or Ianeus (the Gatekeeper), Duonus Cerus (the Good Creator), Geminus (Double), Rex King, Father of the Gods (or part of the Gods), God of Gods, Pater, Patulcius, Clusivius or Clusius (Closer of Gate), Κήνουλος (Coenulus), Κιβουλλιος (Cibullius), Curiatius
Etymology: “Arched Passage, Doorway” (Latin)
Janus is quite simply, the Roman god of Beginnings, Gates, Transitions, Time, Duality, Doorways, Frames, Portals, Passages and Endings. To the ancient Romans, Janus is one of their primordial deities who was there at the beginning of time and all existence. While Janus has an important and prominent role in the Roman Pantheon, he is not the Sovereign Deity of it.
It should be noted that there is no Greek equivalent to Janus. However, I should note, that some later Greek authors would place Janus as having been a mortal from Greece. Plutarch specifically, says that Janus was from Perrhebia.
Day of the Week: The first day of every month
Number: 300 & 65
Patron of: Transitions, Travelers
Planet: Sun, Moon
Plant: White Hawthorne, Olive Tree
Sphere of Influence: Transitions, Giving form to Chaos
Symbols: Keys, Staff, Two-Faces, Doors, Archways, Gateways, Portals
Given the many aspects that Janus presided over, many of which are abstract ideas and concepts for duality, Janus is often shown as having two faces. One looking forward to the future and the other looking back towards the past. Additionally, one face is bearded while the other is not. Later, both faces would be bearded. In Janus’ right hand, he holds a key and a staff in the other.
The double-faced head is found on many early Roman coins. In the 2nd century C.E., Janus is sometimes depicted with four faces.
During the Renaissance, the two-faces of Janus not only represented the past and future, but wisdom as well.
Janus had no flamen or specialized priests dedicated to him. However, the King of the Sacred Rites, the Rex Sanctorum, would carry out Janus’ ceremonies.
There are several rites for Janus. All prayers, regardless of which deity was to be invoked, didn’t start without Janus first being mentioned, regardless of which deity was being invoked. For that matter, every day, every week, every month began with invoking and calling on Janus. Incidentally, every prayer and rite ended with invoking the goddess Vesta.
Military Season – For the Romans, the start of their military season began with March 1st with the Rite of Arma Movere and ended on October 1st with the Right of Arma Condere. The first rite is also known as the Rites of the Salii. The aspect of Janus as Janus Quirinus would be invoked on the anniversary of the dedication to Mars on June 1st that corresponds with the festival of Carna. Another festival was held on June 29th which had been the end of the month under the Julian calendar for Quirinus.
The Military Season also marks something of a seemingly paradoxical connection between Janus and the war god Mars. The peace-loving King Numa sends out the army to ensure peace while later, it’s the warmongering King Tullus in his battle with the Sabines who sees Roman Soldiers coming home to peace.
It’s a connection that makes sense that for the Romans, having been attacked once, vowed that peace would come when everyone else around them was subdued. This creates a couple other epitaphs for Janus of belliger and pacificus, depending on which role he is in. As Janus Quirinus, the deity brings the closing of the Rites of March at the end of the month and then later in October as soldiers return victorious.
Janus doesn’t seem to have many prominent temples for worship. We do see that the covered portaculis and areas over gates to a building are called iani. There is an altar, that later becomes a temple for Janus near the Porta Carmentalis that leads to where the Veii road ended.
The gates of the Argiletum were called Ianus Geminus. This gate yard was built by Numa around 260 B.C.E. after the Battle of Mylae. Other names for this passageway are Janus Bifrons, Janus Quirinus, and Porta Belli. These gates would be open during times of war and closed during peace, something that didn’t happen often with Roman history. A statue here dedicated to Janus shows him with the symbol for 300 in the right hand and on the other hand, the number 65 for the days in the solar year. There were also twelve altars, one for each month. In the Christian religion, early Christian clerics claimed that these gates were closed when Jesus was born.
There is also the Porta Ianualis that protected the city of Rome from the Sabine that were all thought to be places where Janus was present. Janus was also seen as having a presence at the Janiculum leading out of Rome towards Etruria and the Sororium Tigillum that lead to Latium.
What’s In A Name?
In Latin, Janus’ name is spelt as Ianus as their alphabet has no letter “j.”
Jansus’ name translates from Latin to English as “Arched Passage” or Doorway.” In turn, there’s a root word from Proto-Italic language of “iānu” for “door” and another from Proto-Indo-European of “iehnu” for “passage.” There is also a cognate word found in Sanskrit of “yāti” meaning “to go” or “travel.” Another cognate in Lithuanian of “jóti” meaning “to go” or “ride.” And lastly found in Serbo-Croatian is the word “jàhati” meaning “to go.”
Some modern scholars reject the Indo-European etymology though others see in the word “Iānus,” an action name that expresses movement. My favorite though is how the word “Janitor” derives from “ianua” and Janus.
Among the ancients, there are a few different interpretations that all tie into the nature of Janus as a deity. The first is Paul the Deacon’s definition that connects Ianus to chaos. As seen in the phrase: “hiantem hiare” to “be open,” indicating the transitional state of this deity.
The second definition comes from Nigidius Figulus where Ianus would be Apollo and Diana. That the “D” in Diana’s name has been added as it has a better sound. It would be related to Diana’s name to the word “Dianus” with the Indo-European root of “dia” or “dey” for day. This idea is somewhat flimsy and not usually, widely accepted as being accurate. It seems to be what happens when you’re stretching and trying to connect everything back as all originating from one deity.
The last proposed etymology comes from Cicero, Ovid and Macrobius, where they explain that the Latin form of Janus for “to go” refers to Janus as the god of beginnings and transitions. That one feels a little more on the money with how many people view and interpret Janus’ name.
Parentage and Family
As a primordial deity, Janus isn’t given any parentage. If any are mentioned, it is:
Caelus (The primal god of the Sky) & Terra (The Earth)
The gods Camese, Ops and Saturn are given as Janus’ siblings.
Camese – Depending on the version of the myth (Greek in this case,) they become Janus’ sister and wife.
Jana – A Moon Goddess
Juturna – Goddess of Wells & Springs
Venilia – Goddess of the Winds & Seas
Canens – A nymph and personification of song.
Fontus – Son of Janus and Juturna
In a Greek version of the myths, where Janus is mortal and marries his sister Camese, they have the following children: Aithex, Olistene, Tiberinus
Primordial Gate Keeper
You could say that Janus is the Ultimate Gate Keeper, even possibly the Custodian of the Universe and probably the only one we should have. This connection makes Janus a Liminal Deity, guarding boundaries and passages.
Janus guarded the gates of Heaven. Doorways, Gates, any passageways, Janus presides over these as well. As a Doorway is the literal transitioning, moving from one area to another. Nothing changed, transitioned, moves, or altered it’s/their states without Janus’ presence and influence. Even the abstract ideas of going from war to peace and back, from birth to death and rebirth, to journeys, exchanges, barbarism and civilization, the start of and any ending of conflicts, their resolutions. Janus presided over all transitions.
Key – Janus is often shown holding a key that symbolized his protection over doors, gates and thresholds of many kinds. Both physical and spatial boundaries. The key symbolized that a traveler would be able to find a safe place or harbor to trade their goods in peace.
Staff – This symbolized Janus’ guiding travelers on their paths.
Order Out Of Chaos
If, in the beginning, everything is a primordial ooze and chaos, Janus is the being who brings order from it all, as everything transitions from one state to another. Modern science will have fancy technical terms and jargon for everything and how everything forms and comes into being. For the ancient Romans, this is all explained as Janus being responsible for the formation of the elements and harmony from Chaos and getting the whole shebang going.
Janus’ functions denote that he is a liminal deity who watches the borders. As rivers are frequently natural borders and boundaries, Janus presided over these along with the bridges that cross over them. Four of Janus’ altars and temples were built along rivers.
Janus is a god of dualities, representing numerous abstract and literal concepts for beginnings and endings. The very transitioning from one state to another. Janus was present at the very beginning and start of the universe before any of the gods existed.
With Janus being depicted as having two faces. One face facing towards the future and the other towards the past, Janus is said to have held the gift of prophecy. Omens and portents were very much so the domain of Janus as he could see all.
A Solar Deity & Divine Twins?
This idea comes from Macrobius who in turns cites Nigidius Figulus and Cicero. The idea is that Janus and Jana (a variation of Diana) are a pair of deities worshiped together as Apollo & Diana; the sun and the moon.
Adding to this is one A. Audin who connects the solar motif back to the Sumerian cultures. They mention two solar pillars that are located on the eastern side of temples and denote the direction of the rising and setting sun and the solstices. These two solstices would connect to the idea of the Divine Twins often seen in mythology, particularly the myth where one twin is mortal and the other is immortal.
Morning Time – The start of the day or morning is thought to be Janus’ time, when men awoke and began their daily routines and activities. Janus is called Matutine Pater, meaning “Morning Father by Horace. It is thought this association with this time of the day is what links Janus with being a solar deity.
Winter Solstice – In keeping with the solar connection, under the Roman calendar, the Winter Solstice was held to be on December 25th, a remarkably familiar date that carries over to Christianity for when Christmas is celebrated. Where solar deities are revered, the Winter Solstice is often when these deities are said to be reborn and their power grows again.
Month – January
It is generally accepted that the month of January is named for Janus (Ianuarius) and why, with the Gregorian calendar, it is the first month and beginning of the calendar year. Under the ancient Roman calendar, their year began with March as the first month, incidentally when Rome would begin its war and campaign season.
For further, in-depth history, we can credit Numa Pompilius, the second of seven kings who ruled Rome before it became a Republic. In the 6th century B.C.E., Numa added the months of Inauarius and Februarius to ten month “Romulus” religious calendar. Under this new calendar, Inauarius would become the first month starting in 200 B.C.E. of the Roman Republican Calendar. Inauarius, pronounced as Januarius means the “Month of Janus.”
One interesting thing to note, when looking at the translations of old Roman Farmer’s Almanacs, the goddess Juno is who presided over the month of January initially, not Janus.
Since we’re on the subject of time and dates… as a god of beginnings, the very concept of time even starts with Janus. In one of the few temples dedicated to Janus there is a statue of him where the position of the hands signifies the number 355 for the number of days in a lunar year. Later, this number becomes 365 to symbolize Janus’ mastery over time.
New Year’s Day
Another calendar date that carries over from the Romans to modern day in much of Western culture, January 1st marks the start of the New Year. For the omens, the beginning of anything was an omen and would set the tone for the rest to follow. It was customary to greet people with well wishes. People would exchange gifts of dates, figs and honey. Gifts of money or coins called strenae were also exchanged.
Additionally, cakes made of spelled and salt were offered up to Janus on his altars. These offerings or libums were known as ianual. There is likely a corresponding connection to another offering of summanal on the Summer solstice for the god Summanus. However, these offerings would be made with flour, honey, and milk, making them sweeter.
This is another festival held on January 9th for Janus. A ram would be sacrificed at this time.
This is a bit of an oddball festival for me. It was held on October 1st, during the month that Rome’s War Season is ending, and soldiers are returning home.
It’s a purification rite that commemorates Marcus Horatius making atonement for the murder of his sister. The representative for Marcus has their head covered as they pass beneath an archway. The ritual seems to be used as a purification rite for soldiers returning from war to cleanse them from the taint of war as they return to civilized society.
This rite has also been connected to a pairing of Janus and Juno through the epitaphs of Janus Curiatus and Juno Sororia. Janus in his role as a god of transitions and Juno in her role as a protectress of young soldiers.
Several early Roman coins depict Janus on them. With one face being clean shaven while the other is bearded.
This connects Janus as the founder of financial commerce and trade systems as humans transitioned from an age of barbarism to civilization. Roman myth holds that Janus was the first to mint the first coins.
There is a rite or custom where a bride would oil the posts to the door of her new home with wolf fat when she arrived. While this rite does not specifically mention Janus, it is a rite of passage connected to the ianua.
King Of Latium
As old as Janus is, predating the Roman Pantheon, it is very likely that he was a real person at one time.
In a story told by Macrobius, Janus had been exiled from Thessaly and sailed to a place known as Latium with his wife Camise and their children. They settled in a place along the Tiber river that would be named after his son Tiberinus.
Where Janus and his family settled, they built a city called Janiculum. After his wife died, Janus ruled in Latium for many years. After his death, Janus became deified.
Janus’ rule in Latium is part of the Golden Age in Roman mythology that saw a lot of wealth and agriculture come to the region. This era would be what caused Janus to be associated with trade, streams, springs and a sky god.
Variations: Hyginus in his retellings, Camese is male and Janus succeeded him as ruler of the kingdom.
Greek authors place Camese as Janus’ sister and spouse and that they have a son by the name of Aithex and a daughter by the name of Olistene.
Janus & Saturn
In Ovid’s Fasti, the god Saturn welcomes Janus as a guest and eventually shares his kingdom with them in return for teaching the art of agriculture.
Another slight variation to this, is the custom of Roman to depict their gods as having been mortal and ruling the city of Latium during a Golden Age of Peace. Janus as the ruler of his own Kingdom, welcomed Saturn in after he had been expelled from the heavens by Jupiter.
Janus & Romulus
In this myth, Romulus, as in one of the legendary founders of Rome; with the help of his men, kidnapped the Sabine women. In response, the Sabine men retaliated, trying to get their daughters back. Luck was with the Sabine men as a daughter of the city guard betrayed her fellow Romans and let the Sabine men slip within the city.
When the Sabine men tried to make their way up the Capitoline Hill, Janus is credited with causing a hot spring to erupt, causing a mixture of boiling water and volcanic ash that forced the Sabine men to turn back.
It’s from this myth, that the Romans and Sabines would later form a new community and the gates being open during war and closed during peace to keep in would come from.
Janus & Canens
A story found in Ovid’s Metamorphosis; Janus is the father of Canens with the nymph Venilia. Canens was the personification of song and married to Picus. When Picus spurred the love of Circe, she turned him into a woodpecker.Canens searched for six days for her husband before throwing herself into the Tiber river where she sang one final song before dying.
Janus & Carna
Also known by the name of Crane.
Carna was a nymph of the sacred grove in Helernus. Whenever Carna found herself being pursued by the unwanted advances of a young man, she would call out to the young man only to slip away to hide in various crags and other places. Janus saw her hiding and of course, what ancient Roman wouldn’t, Janus rapes Carna.
By way of apology, Janus gives Carna a whitethorn branch so that she may guard all thresholds and doorways, making her a goddess of hinges and then becomes known by the name of Cardea. As a goddess, Cardea would be responsible for protecting and purifying thresholds and doorposts. Incidentally, she also protects newborn infants from stirges. That… is really interesting given the connection between Vampires and not being able to cross thresholds.
That, however, is a post for another day…
I think it is also possible, given how old this myth is, that Janus and Carna had consensual sex and not rape. It would explain giving the hawthorne as a gift between two lovers and Janus elevating Carna from a nymph to a goddess with close to the same powers and abilities as he does with guardianship over thresholds.
Janus & Juturna
A minor myth is that Janus and Juturna, a goddess of wells give birth to Fontus, the god of wells and springs. Comment has been made that Fontus or Fons is another name for Janus. This myth is more likely used to explain why two festivals, Juturna on January 11th and Agonium of Janus on January 9th were so close together. Plus, further explaining why there is an alter for Fontus or Fons near the Janiculum and the connection to spring and beginnings.
Janus & Vesta
Janus presides over the beginnings and guards the doors and entries. Janus would be invoked first in rites and Vesta would be invoked last. It has brought some curious observations. The presence of Vesta shows that there was importance for the hearth, its life-giving fire and thus the home. A community couldn’t survive or thrive without the safety of the household. To be able to exit the untamed and unknown wilds to the safety of the community and civilization.
As has been the case with many deities, Janus was made a martyr and then later the Saint Januarius by the Roman Catholic Church.
Janus was also made a martyr by the Roman Catholic Church and later became known Saint Januarius.
During the Medieval or Middle Ages, the Italian city of Genoa used the symbol of Janus or Ianua. Many other European communes also used the symbol of Ianua.
For those interested in tracing an Indo-European religion and pantheon of gods that links the European deities with those of Vedic origins. There’s been a lot of study into it. As a god of beginnings and transitions, a primordial deity, Janus has been connected to the Vedic Vâyu. Most notably in the works of G. Dumézil. There certainly was a cross-pollination of ideas and religion when you see how much further east Greek culture was at one point and trade routes.
Portunus – Syno-Deity
Portunus is a similar deity to Janus. The difference is that Portunus presided over harbors and gateways in regard to traveling, commerce, trade and shipping. Like Janus, the key and staff are also one of Portunus’ symbols. Portunus’s festival day was held on August 17th.
Janus the Sailor – Because of how similar Janus and Portunus are, there is a hypothesis put forward that Janus may have originated as a god of winds and sailing, brought to the communities by the Tiber river. The connection has more to do with when Saturn sailed to ancient Latium and was welcomed by Janus.
Aditi – Hindu Goddess
The Vedic goddess of Infinity, Aditi is depicted as having two faces. She is seen as the feminine form of Brahma. Like Janus, Aditi is invoked at the beginning of ceremonies and she concludes them as well.
Ani – Etruscan God
In the little-known Etruscan mythology, Ani is the god of the sky and sometimes shown as having two faces. This has led some to conclude a possible connection between Ani and Janus.
Belinus – Chaldean God
Also called Baal-Ianus, a William Betham has made arguments that Janus’ cult would originate from the Middle East with the Chaldean culture.
Brahma – Hindu God
The imagery of double or four-faced deities in Hinduism is common. Brahma is the god who created the universe.
Culśanś – Etruscan God
In the little-known Etruscan mythology, Culśanś has been identified as being the counterpart to the Roman Janus. This connection seems more likely given Culśanś’ role as a god and protector of doorways and his depiction of having two faces.
Heimdallr – Nordic God
As guardian of the Bifrost bridge, the functions that Heimdallr has for standing in a place between time and space have been noted to be similar to Janus.
Isimud – Sumerian God
Also known as Usimu in Babylonian. A deity featuring two faces appears several times in Babylonian art. Isimud is the messenger of Enki.
Greek Connection – Which brings us to another point. However much the ancient Greeks and Romans tried to claim that Janus had no Middle Eastern connection, and that Janus is solely a Roman deity, there are some much later writers who would equate Hermes with Janus, especially so during the Hellenistic era of Greek culture.
Svetovid – Slavic God
Depicted as having four heads or faces, Svetovid is the Slavic god of war, fertility, and abundance.
Janus In Astronomy
On December 15th of 1966, the astronomer Audouin Dollfus discovered and identified, orbiting around Saturn, a moon that would later be called Janus. This moon is also known as Saturn X. It would take a little over a decade before it was recognized that Janus was one of two satellites or moons occupying close to the same orbit. The other is called Epimetheus. These names would become official in 1983. Janus also has two craters on it named for the characters of Castor and Pollux in mythology.
Alternate Spelling: Κάδμος Kadmos
Etymology: “From the East” or “He Who Excels”
In Greek mythology, Cadmus is the name of the legendary founder and first king of Thebes. He is distinguished by being one of Greece’s first heroes who slew monsters long before the birth of the mighty Heracles.
Parentage and Family
Father – King Agenor of Tyre
Mother – Queen Telephassa of Tyre
Alternatively, Phoenix and Perimede are given as Cadmus’ parents.
Phoenix – No, not the legendary fire bird that resurrects itself in flames, but his brother who returns to Tyre to rule where the region is renamed to Phoenicia.
Cilix – Brother, the city of Cilicia is named after him.
Europa – Sister, abducted by Zeus
Agave – Daughter, with her sisters Autonoe and Ino, she unknowingly killed her son Pentheus. She marries first the Spartoi Echion and then later King Lycotherses of Illyria whom she also murders in order to hand over the kingdom to her father.
Autonoe – Daughter, her son, Actaeon was killed by his hounds.
Illyrius – Youngest son and child born, from whom the Illyrians are descended.
Ino – Daughter, was driven mad by Hera leapt to her death to the sea with her only surviving son. Instead of dying, Ino becomes a sea goddess.
Polydorus – Eldest son, inherits the throne in Thebes, carrying on the family dynasty.
Semele – Daughter, she is killed later by Hera after a liaison with Zeus. In some stories, she is the mother of Dionysus. The controversy will say that Semele was raped from an unknown assailant and the blame is placed on Zeus in an effort to try keeping some dignity
Thasus – The son of Cilix. In some accounts, he is also Cadmus’ brother. The island of Thassos is named after him.
Pentheus – the son of Agave and the Spartoi Echion, he becomes king of Thebes after Polydorus.
Cadmus’ Lineage – Divine Heritage
I feel it’s worth mentioning that through Telephassa’s line, Cadmus and all of his siblings are the grandchildren of Nilus, the god of the Nile River and Nephele, a cloud nymph. Through their father Agenor, again, Cadmus and his siblings are the grandchildren of the sea god Poseidon and Libya, the goddess or personification of ancient Libya in North Africa.
During Mycenaean Greek, Poseidon is the head of the Greek pantheon, it is later during what most think of as ancient Greece when we have more concrete records and writing, that Zeus is the head of the pantheon. I feel that Cadmus’ myth does show where some of these changes to try giving Zeus more prominence start getting put in.
Fifth generation divinity! That’s gotta count for something though!
As early culture heroes, Cadmus and a few others some of the founding members are who get the ball rolling for Greek culture.
First King Of Thebes
Part of Cadmus’ claim to fame is that he’s the first king and founder of Thebes. A Grecian dynasty that stayed in power for quite some time. By Greek myths, this dynasty ruled Thebes for many generations, even during the time of the Trojan War.
His history goes back far enough to when oral history was getting passed on from one generation to the next before getting written down.
Antique Powerhouse – As far as Greek antiquity goes; Thebes did rival the ancient cities of Athens and Sparta. Come the time of Alexander the Great, when he set his sights on Thebes in 335 B.C.E., the city fell and never reclaimed its ancient glory.
Historical Conflicts – The Grecian historian, Herodotus (who lived between 484 B.C.E. and 425 B.C.E.) wrote about Cadmus, chronically him down. Herodotus writes down that he believes Cadmus to have lived some 1600 years before him, placing the timeline for Cadmus in 2000 B.C.E. With so much myth and legend interwoven into Cadmus’ story, how much is history and how much is a tall tale turned to legend that we aren’t sure if there really was a Cadmus.
Once again, Herodotus is to have seen and described the Cadmean writing inscribed on some tripods within the temple of Apollo at Thebes. Tripods that are to date back to when Laius, Cadmus’ great-grandson lived. The inscriptions effectively read as: “Ἀμφιτρύων μ᾽ ἀνέθηκ᾽ ἐνάρων ἀπὸ Τηλεβοάων in English “Amphitryon dedicated me don’t forget the spoils of the battle of Teleboae.”
Further confusion for how much myth and legend there is versus actual history comes from a later Roman writer, Ovid in his Metamorphosis. There are certainly a lot of additions and his versions of the myths are what many are familiar with when thinking of Greco-Roman mythology.
Hittite Connection – More like a controversy. There is a letter from the King of Ahhivawa to the Hittite King where a Cadmus is mentioned as the father of the Ahhivawa people. It is known that this is the term for the Achaeans in the Mycenaean Greek era and mentioned in Homer’s works. It’s not accepted by scholars that this is evidence of the actual Cadmus of mythology.
Cadmeia – This is the acropolis in Thebes named so in honor of Cadmus.
Fun Fact – Cadmeia is supposed to be the original name of the city before becoming Thebes. The name change came about a couple generations later during the reign of Amphion and Zethus who wanted to change the city’s name to honor his wife Thebe.
Al-Qadmus – The name of a Syrian city that is named after Cadmus.
Thebes – There is a city called Thebes in Egypt, no they are not the same city, they just happen to share the same name.
What’s In A Name?
There’s not a clear consensus on what Cadmus’ name means. Some scholars have put forward the idea that it might have a Semitic root of QDM meaning “East.” In Arabic, QDM is a verb meaning: “to come.” Then, in Hebrew, qedem means: “east,” “front” and “ancient.” Then there is the ver qadam meaning: “to be in front.” The Greek word kekasmai means: “to shine.” All this conjecture means that Cadmus translates as either “He who excels” or “From the east.”
I’d say we’re really close, there is a clue with Cadmus being from Tyre and his brother returning to rule there and the region becoming Phoenicia. Scholars studying the region and languages note that there are cognates between the Phoenician and Hebraic language.
The Alphabet – It’s Greek To Me!
Speaking of writing, Cadmus is who gets the credit by the ancient Greek historians for introducing the Phoenician alphabet where it would get adapted to become the Greek alphabet.
Herodotus goes as far as to say that Cadmus founded Thebes long before the events of the Trojan War, placing it during the Aegean Bronze Age. It’s a chronology that’s dubious as it conflicts with when both the Phoenician and Greek alphabets are to have originated.
The earliest known Greek inscriptions that involve Phoenician letters don’t appear until the late 9th and 8th century B.C.E. The belief is that the Phoenician alphabet didn’t develop until 1050 B.C.E., after the Bronze Age.
The Homeric depictions of the Mycenaean Greek (think really ancient Greek) doesn’t mention much about writing. The only reference to any Homeric writing is the phrase “grammata lygra” meaning: “baneful drawings.” This is a connection to the Bellerophontic letter, in which Proteus sent a sealed message with the hero Bellerophon to King Iobates who one reading the missive had instructions to kill the hero.
At any rate, there are several examples of Greek writing known as Linear B found in Thebes that seems to give credence to Cadmus as the inventor and bringer of writing to the Greeks. In Modern-Day Lebanon, Cadmus is still revered and accepted as the originator.
Once again, it’s just Cadmus’ legend that goes so far back that there are doubts and questions about the existing records for just how accurate any of it is.
Going To Find His Sister
All legends have their beginning.
Cadmus’ story begins when he and his brothers are sent by their parents, the King Agenor and Queen Telephassa to go find his sister Europa and bring her back to Tyre after she had been abducted by the god Zeus. Further, Cadmus and his brothers are told not to return without their sister.
Unable to find their sister, Cadmus’ brothers Phoenix and Cilix gave up in their quests. The region of Phoenicia is named after Phoenix and the city of Cilicia is named after Cilix. Here, it can go either way, either Cadmus was unsuccessful in finding his sister or Cadmus very wisely chose not to go up against Zeus.
He very likely decided not to press his luck and instead went to Samothrace, an island known to be sacred to the “Great Gods” or Kabeiroi.
On his journey to Samothrace, Cadmus was not alone. For his mother, Telephassa and his nephew Thasus were also present. Thasus is noted for naming the nearby island of Thasos after himself. It is at Samothrace, that Cadmus meets and marries Harmonia, the daughter of Electra and Zeus. Though, some accounts will say that Cadmus abducted Harmonia away the same way that Zeus did with Europa.
I can’t see that ending well though…
It will get confusing, as some accounts have Cadmus and Harmonia marrying on Samothrace or meeting later after the founding of Thebes and marrying then.
Bridal Gifts With A Curse
I mentioned things not ending well right? I did.
Some of Harmonia’ bridal gifts were a peplos (a type of dress) gifted by Athena and a necklace made by Hephaestus. This necklace will become known as the Necklace of Harmonia and it would bring misfortune to anyone who had it. Sure, the necklace will make any woman who wears it eternally young and beautiful. Eventually, the curse takes hold and Harmonia’s home city of Thebes faces civil unrest and misfortunes.
At first glance, that seems unusual, I’ll cover this further down.
The Founding Of Thebes
This is perhaps the story that Cadmus is best known for in his saga. As Cadmus and his mother continued their journey and search for Europa, the two settled in a place called Thrace. It is here, that Telephassa died of grief for her missing daughter. After performing the funeral rites for his mother, Cadmus sought out the Oracle of Delphi for help.
It is here, that Cadmus is told to stop his quest and search for Europa (thanks to the gods), and instead, Cadmus is to now follow a cow.
Not just any cow, this one has a half-moon on her flank and Cadmus is to follow her until she finally comes to a rest, exhausted. The spot where the cow rests is where Cadmus is to build a town in a land known as Boeotia along the banks of the river Cephisus.
With the exhausted cow, Cadmus decided to sacrifice it to Athena as thanks for the cow guiding him. While making his preparations, Cadmus sent off his companions, Deileon and Seriphus to get some water from the Ismenian spring. While the two were there, the guardian of the spring, a water-dragon belonging to Ares rose up and slew both Deileon and Seriphus.
Chaoskampf & Spartoi
On discovering what had happened, Cadmus then slew the dragon. It has been noted that this is a notable trait of culture heroes to slay a dragon and the whole order triumphing over chaos.
The dragon-slaying story usually ends here. However, a couple of different things will happen here. First, Athena appears to Cadmus and gives him half of the dragon’s teeth, instructing our stalwart hero to plant them. (The other half of the teeth will appear later in the story of Jason and the Argonauts). As Cadmus plants each tooth on the Aonian plain; from each tooth springs up a fully armed warrior. Fearing for his life, Cadmus threw a stone in amongst the warriors and they began to fight each other. Each thinking the stone had been thrown by another warrior. These warriors fought until there were only five of them left standing. Sometimes, depending on who’s telling the story, Athena instructed Cadmus to leave only five Spartoi living. These five remaining warriors’ names were: Chthonius, Echion, Hyperenor, Pelorus and Udeus who would become the founders of Thebes’ noble families. At Cadmus’ instructions, these five helped him to found and build the city of Thebes.
The first building that would-be built-in Thebes was a shrine dedicated to the Moon goddess Selene. The acropolis of Thebes would be called Cadmeia.
In his writings, when Cadmus planted the dragon’s teeth, only five warriors sprang up from the ground. There was no fighting it out among them. In addition, Hellanicus has Zeus step in to save Cadmus from the Ares’ wrath as the war god wanted to kill the mortal. And the Spartoi, Echion marries Cadmus’ daughter Agave and their son, Pentheus succeeds Cadmus to become king.
In this version of the myths with the Roman names for the gods in it, a voice (presumably Mars) speaks out to Cadmus, after he slays the giant serpent, that he too shall become one.
Ares’ Dragon & Eight Years Servitude
Slaying the dragon also held another problem to it. This dragon or drakon was a servant to the god of war, Ares; add, in some versions, the drakon is a son of Ares. Either way, Ares’ isn’t too pleased.
As restitution for this deed, Cadmus meets Ares’ demands by serving the war god for an “everlasting year” or eight years. At the end of this period, Cadmus marries Harmonia, the daughter of Aphrodite and Ares.
Sidenote: Yeah, I know, the marriage has been mentioned up above. It is a conflict of the narrative and it really depends on who’s telling the story.
The narrative that places Harmonia’s marriage to Cadmus here, as the daughter of Ares is meant to symbolize the coming of harmony and an end to war.
Harmonia would bear Cadmus several children, Agave who married Echion, one of the Spartoi, they would have a son named Pentheus. Cadmus and Harmonia’s other children are three daughters, Autonoe, Ino and Semele who would be the mother of Dionysus. There two sons are Polydorus and Illyrius from whom the Illyrians descend.
Something Rotten In Thebes
Married and the City of Thebes founded, no matter how divinely ordained this was, peace and harmony wouldn’t last.
Due to the cursed necklace that Harmonia received, she and Cadmus’ family would soon see misfortune befall them and a series of civil unrest. Eventually, Cadmus would abdicate his throne to his grandson, Pentheus.
Cadmus would go with Harmonia to Illyria to fight a war brewing over there as they took the side of the Enchelii. From there, Cadmus would go on and found the city of Lychnidus and Bouthoe.
Despite leaving Thebes and establishing other cities, misfortune continued to plague and follow Cadmus. It got so bad that Cadmus cried out that all this had to because of his slaying Ares’ dragon, if the gods were so obsessed with its death, why not turn him into one.
At that pronouncement, Cadmus begins to grow scales and to change into a serpent. Horrified by this transition of her husband, Harmonia begged the gods to change her too so she could share in Cadmus’ fate.
Variations to this ending are that both Cadmus and Harmonia are changed into snakes when they died. Both snakes watched over their tombs while their souls were sent by Zeus to the Elysian Fields.
Famous Grecian playwright Euripides’ in his The Bacchae, has Cadmus given a prophecy from Dionysus that both he and his wife will be turned into snakes before getting to enjoy an eternity of bliss in the Elysian Fields.
The First Earthly Marriage
If you were paying attention to the above narrative and Cadmus’ story, I noted that there are two different timelines to when he marries Harmonia and each one has a side not for who her parentage is.
I think it’s worth noting and remembering Cadmus’ Divine Lineage connecting him to Poseidon and thus a demigod. The story of Cadmus and the ruling, royal family of Thebes is likely a very old story, dating back to Mycenaean Greece and it is during Mycenaean Greece that Poseidon is the head of the Pantheon, not Zeus.
Zeus will become head of the Greek Pantheon during the era thought of as Ancient Greece when we have written records being kept that chronicle historical accounts.
It’s an important distinction and one seen in the conflicting timeline of when Cadmus is to have married Harmonia and who her parentage is to be.
Where Cadmus marries Harmonia on the island of Samothrace with Zeus and Electra given as her parents seems more like the later changes to the story to have Zeus hold a more prominent role within it.
Following a timeline for after Cadmus’ eight years of servitude to Ares and then marrying Harmonia with both Ares and Aphrodite as her parents seems far more likely the correct lineage. It would explain too so much better why Hephaestus would gift Harmonia a cursed necklace.
Knowing the backstory between Hephaestus, Aphrodite and Ares, the cursed necklace that is given to Harmonia makes more sense. Hephaestus was angry at Aphrodite for her affair with Ares and yes, he makes the necklace a means to punish Aphrodite’s infidelity by placing a curse on the child that resulted from hers and Ares’ affair.
Thus, all the misfortunes that Cadmus and Harmonia suffer are from the necklace, not slaying the dragon. Afterall, Cadmus had already paid penance to Ares and then is rewarded his daughter for marriage. It’s even in Harmonia’s name, harmony, there was to be an end to the strife and conflicts.
I do find it curious that there are versions of Cadmus’ story where the Necklace of Harmonia is not mentioned at all or having been made by Hephaestus. The misfortunes that befall Cadmus are attributed to the dragon that was slain. It makes no sense to have Ares forgive Cadmus after several years of servitude and giving his daughter to marry.
Of course, it’s easy to assume the Greek gods are perpetuating their pettiness. We have lots of stories of mortals being punished by the gods. If Hephaestus is keeping mums about the curse he placed on the necklace, of course, no one knows why bad things keep happening to Cadmus and Harmonia.
By Diodorus’ account of this story, Cadmus’ marriage to Harmonia is significant in that it was the first one celebrated on Earth and one wherein the gods are to have come, bringing gifts. There was supposed to be an end to conflicts and war, alas it could not last.
East Meets West – Another idea for Cadmus and Harmonia’s wedding is that it may be symbolic of the Eastern, Phoenician learning combining with the Western, Grecian love of beauty.
Fertility God – The Samothracian Connection!
The island of Samothrace is one of the places that Cadmus, his mother, and nephew are said to have stopped at in their search for a missing Europa.
There is a small Pantheon of the Great Gods whose members have been equated or identified with several of the Greek deities. One such god, is Kadmilus, a fertility god identified with the god Hermes. There are also a pair of Underworld deities, Axiokersos (Hades) and Axiokersa (Persephone) whose marriage gets equated to Cadmus and Harmonia courtesy of Diodorus Siculus’ trying to connect the island’s local myths to the overall Greek myths.
I can see it too, the similar-sounding names of Kadmilus and Cadmus.
Zeus Versus Typhon
In Nonnus’ Dionysiaca where he recounts the story of Zeus battling the monstrous serpentine monster known as Typhon, Zeus asks the hero Cadmus to help him by recovering his lightning bolts with playing his pipes, to play a tune. Zeus promises Cadmus that if he helps, that he will receive the hand of Harmonia in marriage.
The Dionysiaca is written in the 5th century C.E. and reflects plenty of time to have rewritten the myths. This is the only myth to involve Cadmus with Pan, playing the pipes to distract Typhon so this fearsome monster can be defeated.
Earlier versions of this story have where it’s Hermes and Aeigipan (Pan) stealing back Zeus’ tendons, no mention of the thunderbolts.
Once again, if we are confusing Cadmus with Kadmilus, the Samothracian deity identified with Hermes. I can see the confusion.
However, yes Nonnus is equating Hermes with Kadmilus and thus Cadmus in the episode where Hermes comes in disguise as a mortal to announce that Zeus has decreed a marriage of Harmonia with Cadmus.
That’s just confusing if you can’t keep it straight.
The story of Cadmus slaying the dragon is sometimes cited as being one of many myths associated with this constellation.
Etymology: “Jealously” or “Passion”
Also known as: Adaon, Aedín, Aideen, Echraidhe (“Horse Rider”), Éadaoin (modern Irish), Edain, Etaoin, Éadaoin
Epithets: Bé Find (“Fair Woman”), Shining-One
Etain is a figure from Irish mythology, her story involves a lot of unwanted transformations from a jealous Fuamnach and different suitors trying to win her. Etain is noted for her extreme beauty among the fae or sidhe. She is best known as the heroine found in the “Tochmarc Étaíne” or “The Wooing of Etain.”
Animal: Butterfly, Dragonfly, Fly, Horse, Swan, Worm
Sphere of Influence: Beauty, Healing, Irish Sovereignty, Music, Rebirth, Transformation, Transmigration of Souls
Parentage and Family
The lineage for Etain can get confusing. When seeing that Etain and the name’s many variant spellings could be the names of other characters, then it could be a matter of which Etain are we talking about?
Ailill – In the Tochmarc Étaine, Ailil, king of Ulaid is Etain’s father.
Etar – In the Togail Bruidne Dá Derga (“The Destruction of Da Derga’s Hostel), Etar is Etain’s father.
Eochaid Feidlech – In the Tochmarc Étaine, Eochaid is the High King, he is Etain’s mortal husband whom she marries after being reincarnated. In the Dindsenchas poem, Rath Eas, Eochaid’s last name is given as Airem.
Midir – In the Wooing of Etain, this is Etain’s husband when she was in Tir na Nog.
Ailill Angubae – By some accounts of Etain’s story, she was really in love with Ailill, Eochaid’s brother. Not to be confused with the Ailill, King of Ulaid, who is her father.
Dian Ceacht – Etain’s daughter when she is married to Oghma.
Étaín Óg – Etain the Younger, she is Etain’s daughter when married to Eochaid Feidlech. Etain Og will go on to marry Cormac, the King of Ulster and have a daughter by the name of Mess Buachalla. Mess Buachalla will go on to marry High King Eterscel and be the mother of Conaire Mor.
Oghma – The Irish god of Writing, in some version, he is Etain’s husband.
Tochmarc Étaíne – The Wooing Of Etain
This is one of the oldest stories found in Irish mythology. There is another story that mentions Etain, the “Togail Bruidne Dá Derga” or “The Destruction of Da Derga’s Hostel.”
For now, we’re going to cover: “The Wooing of Etain.” It begins not with Etain, but with Midir and his first wife, Fuamnach. They were happily married and raised among their own children, Oengus or Aengus Óg (a Love god, some sources try to say he’s a sun god too) as a foster son.
For a little further context and background, Oengus is the son of Dagda, Midir’s brother. So really, Midir and Fuamnach are raising their nephew.
Like all children, Oengus grew up and moved out on his own. Midir decided one day that he would go visit his nephew. While visiting, an incident happened, involving some holly and Midir was blinded in one eye.
Even though Oengus heal’s Midir’s eye, Midir still seeks compensation for the injury that occured while visiting as a guest. As Oengus is the God of Love, he gets his Uncle the most beautiful woman in all of Ireland and Fairy, Etain. On seeing her, Midir is instantly in love and he takes her home with him.
It should come as no surprise, that once the two are home, that Midir’s wife, Fuamnach is angry, jealous even. How dare her husband bring home another woman, even if said woman is either a mistress or second bride and this is allowable, it’s the jealously and anger of a far more beautiful woman getting her husband’s attention.
Rather than take out her ire on Midir for this insult, Fuamnach takes it out on Etain. Fuamnach is a powerful sorceress in her own right. An enraged, Fuamnach conspired to cast a series of dark spells on Etain. The first one turns Etain into a pool of water. Another spell turns Etain into a worm or snake. Then finally into either a butterfly or dragonfly.
Changed to this new form, Etain’s wings hold the power that water that dropped from her wings would cure disease and the humming of her wings was soothing to those who heard it. Even in this strange new form,
Depending on the story told, Midir either does or doesn’t recognizes Etain. Regardless of which way the story goes, Midir spends all of his time with his butterfly companion and eschews the company of other women.
This only further enrages Fuamnach who sees that the two lovers are still together. This time, she conjured up a great gale of wind that drove Etain out of Midir’s house and to be lost at sea.
Etain is lost for seven years being buffeted about by the sea winds before at long last finding her way back to shore where she lands on Óengus’ clothing. Óengus does recognize that the butterfly is Etain. As he and Midir are currently feuding with each other, Instead of returning Etain, Óengus makes a small portable butterfly house that he carries around with him.
Eventually Fuamnach learns that Etain is with Óengus and she sends another wind that once more blows Etain out to sea to be lost for another seven years.
That is a long time to be lost at sea, not just once, but twice. Exhausted by her ordeal, Etain finds herself coming to rest on the roof of a house where people were gathered, enjoying a feast.
Drawn by the warmth from within, Etain flew closer to the sounds of merriment. However, in her state of exhaustion, she flew into goblet of wine and was promptly drunk up by Etar, the wife of a wealthy Ulster chieftain.
This is how Etar becomes pregnant with a reborn or reincarnated Etain. The catch being, that as with all reincarnations, a person doesn’t remember who they had been in a previous life. So, a newly reborn Etain grows up as the daughter of a wealthy chieftain.
The Tochmarc Étaine notes that some one thousand and twelve years have passed since Etain’s first birth back in Tir Na Nog, Fairy Land. Just as she had been before, Etain was once again the most lovely and beautiful woman in all of Ireland. The gifts of love, generosity and kindness were all held to be hers.
One day, Etain is out with her handmaidens at a well when they spot a man on horseback coming their way. This man is Eochaid, the king of Ireland. As soon as Eochaid lays eyes on Etain, he is immediately taken with her and asks Etain to be his Queen.
Naturally Etain is flattered and this is an opportunity. Love or not. Power or not. Etain agrees to marry Eochaid and a wedding follows soon after.
Complicating matters, Eochaid’s brother, Ailill Angubae has also in love with Etain and he pins away for her. As he is dying, Ailill confesses his love to Etain. To save him, Etain agrees to sleep with Ailill.
Enter Midir back into the story, who casts a spell on Ailill so that he falls asleep and misses his tryst with Etain. When Etain does go to meet up with Ailill, she does find a man who looks like Ailill, but it’s not, it’s Midir in disguise. Thrice Etain tries to meet up with Ailill and keeps meeting up with the imposter, Midir who finally reveals himself to her on the last time.
Midir tells Etain of her previous life in Fairy as his wife, trying to get Etain to return with him. For Etain, this is a problem, she’s been reborn as a mortal and is married to Eochaid. She won’t leave her current husband unless Eochaid allows her to.
The good thing that comes out of this encounter is that Ailill is no longer pinning away and dying for lack of love over Etain.
A goal and mission in mind, Midir sets out to meet Eochaid. Coming as himself, Midir offers to play a boardgame called fidchell. As other versions of this story say that it’s chess that the two play.
For the first game, Midir makes an offer of fifty horses as the stakes. Eochaid accepts and wins with Midir graciously offered prize. Midir now challenges Eochaid to another game, with higher stakes and wins again.
At some point in the game playing, Eochaid’s foster-father warns him that Midir is a being of great power and to be careful. As Midir is letting Eochaid win, the two keep on playing and with each win, Eochaid has Midir perform another task, ranging from clearing forests, reclaiming land from bogs, building causeways over said bogs.
These series of tasks are said to fit with the idea of the Tuatha De Danann that Midir belongs to as earth deities. Eventually, Midir grows tired of letting Eochaid win and challenges him to a last game of fidchell with the stakes to be named by the winner. This time, Midir wins and he claims an embrace and kiss from Etain.
This is more than what Eochaid is willing to allow. Eochaid agrees to Midir’s claim, that in a month’s time he can come claim Etain. As these stories go, Eochaid didn’t have any intention of letting Etain return to her former husband. Etain was his. On the day that Eochaid was to honor the agreement, he had all of his warriors waiting at his castle. These warriors formed circles around the castle with the intent to keep Midir from reclaiming his wife.
As if he were air or invisible, Midir passed through all the encircling warriors without slaying a one or shedding blood. Soon, Midir comes to the room where Eochaid and Etain await within. Midir proclaims that he is there for that which is his.
Seeing that he can’t renege on the deal after all and must agree, Eochaid says that Midir may have a kiss from Etain’s lips. Eochaid reluctantly allows Etain to go to Midir and the two kiss, transforming into a pair of swans and they fly out, away from the castle and back towards their fairy home of Tir na Nog.
Not wanting to lose Etain, Eochaid and his men set off for the fairy mound of Bri Leith where Midir is said to dwell. The men begin digging and Midir appears before Eochaid, telling him that his wife will be returned to him the next day.
On the morrow, Eochaid returns and there are fifty women, all appearing as Etain. An old hag tells Eochaid to pick out his wife. Eochaid does so and Midir later reveals that Etain had been pregnant when he took her. That the woman he took was in fact their daughter. Eochaid is horrified by the fact that he’s slept with his daughter who is no pregnant. This baby, who is also a girl is laid out in the woods to be exposed. Before death can claim the infant, a herdsman finds the baby and raises her to become the mother of the High King Conaire Mor.
Variations – There are a few different versions to Etain’s story. Some that focus solely on just Etain and what happened to her exclusively. Other versions will explain the whole set up of what led up Midir marrying Etain and thus, better explain why Fuamnach is jealous and maybe not so much jealous, but angry.
Version 1 – This story focuses on Etain being the second wife to Midir with Fuamnach being jealous. Here, Fuamnach enlists the aid of her friends to turn Etain into a pool of water. This causes Midir to becomes worried and he goes searching for his missing wife. To stay one step ahead of him, Fuamnach then turns Etain into a worm and then a fly.
As a fly, Etain flies down Fuamnach’s throat, causing her to become pregnant. Etain is reborn, this time, she’s mortal and doesn’t remember her previous life. Once she grows up, Etain marries the king Eochaid. Only it’s not Eochaid that Etain loves, it’s his brother Ailill, as if that wouldn’t cause more than a few problems.
To make it more complicated, Etain eventually meets Midir again and suddenly remembers who she had been. Just like before Midir wins Etain in a game of chess with Eodaid.
I rather find this version extremely problematic as it’s suggesting Etain wouldn’t know her own father? Assuming Midir still remained married to Fuamnach. Further, if Midir and Fuamnach are fairies and Etain is reborn as their daughter, shouldn’t she be a fairy too? Not mortal? Not to mention the extreme ewww with Midir now wanting someone who’s his daughter.
Just no. No.
It’s this version of the story with Fuamnach becoming Etain’s mother and seeing that Etain’s name means jealously; it makes me think that there may be an allegory or symbolism for the stages of jealousy or passion that Fuamnach is working through with her husband Midir.
Other Versions: There’s numerous versions to Etain’s story, some have her remembering her life in fairy when she meets Midir. Others have her not remembering her life at all and agreeing to leave with Midir if her mortal husband agrees as she thinks this is something that won’t happen.
A lot of these other versions for Etain’s story often simplify their retellings in that they often leave out how Midir and Etain meet, just that they do, the who episode of Alill pinning away for Etain is left off and the final episode where Eochaid tries to get Etain back and unknowingly, is given his daughter.
A couple episodes from the Tochmarc Etaine are repeated in this poem. Eochaid Airenn’s winning Etain back from Midir is in the Rath Esa poem. Midir’s abduction of Etain is referenced in the Rath Cruachan.
Togail Bruidne Dá Derga – The Destruction of Da Derga’s Hostel
In the main story for the Wooing of Etain, the Tochmarc Etaine, she is described as being very beautiful. However, no description is given anywhere of her. That changes in the Togail Bruidne Dá Derga where Etain encounters King Echu in Bri Leith.
In this text, she is described in a lot of lengthy detail from the comb she’s using to her clothing in lot of green, silver and golds. Her hair is described as being a red gold, skin white as snow, rosy cheeks, unnaturally blue eyes and curved body like the waves of sea foam. The narrator goes to great lengths to try describing what Etain looks like as the fairest of them all, there is a final quote that goes: “Lovely anyone until Étain. Beautiful anyone until Étain.” That such beauty could only mean that Etain was clearly of the sidhe.
Grecian Comparison – Hellen of Troy
The first story of Etain, the Wooing of Etain says that she’s very beautiful, comparable even to Helen of Troy. Where whole cities of Greece go to war with each other her. Etain has a jealous first wife takes out their wrath on her, a former spouse waiting for over a thousand years to reclaim her, and when she’s reborn, her mortal husband trying to keep her from the fairy husband to take her back.
The entire story for Etain reflects an older time when these older stories were likely passed on orally before getting written. So Etain’s story has had plenty of time to be altered and change and the role of the Goddess or Queen who gets to choose is altered and she is no longer in control of her destiny and is just a prize to be won.
An important note brought up about this story, while it doesn’t feature Etain in the first part of it, is to bear in mind that this story is an allegory for Ireland’s history. Etain’s role in the narrative becomes clearer when seeing her as the Goddess of the Land who gets to choose her consort to ensure the prosperity of the land.
A similar motif for this Celtic belief that the Goddess gets to choose her consort is seen in Arthurian Legend for the story of Guinevere, Lancelot and King Arthur with the whole love triangle happening there. Granted that story is a much later addition to Arthurian Legend, it’s an inserted story to narrative to explain the Goddess or Woman’s right to choose whom she loves and marries.
All the figures featured in the story likely represent different clans and geographical localities. Seeing Etain as a Sovereign Goddess of the Land, who she chooses to couple with are whom she deemed as the best ruling clans for the welfare of Ireland.
Lack Of Agency – At a knee-jerk first glance response, I don’t like the story of the Wooing of Etain. Why is Etain punished by Fuamnach for marrying Midir? For that matter, why does Midir get to be the one rewarded for cheating on his wife and marrying a younger woman, loose her and then get her back after waiting patiently for Etain to be reborn?
That here, we have Etain a woman who is just passed around as a prize to be won with barely any say in the matter of what happens to her. If the focus is given soley to Midir as the hero, of course, the entire story makes sense for his journey of loss and recovering his love and wife. Then poor Eochaid who gets to pick his wife and loses her to Midir, who takes back the woman who is rightfully his.
Without the Historical Allegory angle, the entire story feels maddening. No wonder there are later rewritings of the story that want give an image of two lovers who loose and find each other again. To give more agency to Etain’s actions and the series of unfortunate circumstances that befall her.
Etain is forced to a series of unwanted transformations by a jealous lover, ranging from worm to butterfly, to swan and even a pool of water. Including the worm and then changing to a fly, sounds like the larval state of an insect, either as a nymph, meaning the larval form of a dragonfly or caterpillar to a butterfly.
Looking at these stories symbolically, Etain’s transformations from a worm to a fly, only to be swallowed later by a woman and reborn as a child can all be seen as the different stages of life.
Soul or Spirit – In a lot of Celtic folklore, flies or butterflies are often seen as being the souls of the deceased, even if it’s just a metaphor. It makes sense if Etain’s changing to a worm, than a fly or butterfly is merely a symbolic way of describing the spirit’s transformation and more easily explaining the transition from one life to another. Or maybe Fuamnach actually killed Etain, tossing her body into a pool of water?
Celtic Numerology – More of a minor note, the number seven is used for the number of years that Etain is lost at sea a mystical number. In this case, it is a number meaning a spiritual awakening.
That’s undeniable with all the transformations that Etain undergoes once she falls afoul of Fuamnach’s magic, going from a pool of water, to a worm, to a fly or butterfly, swallowed and reborn as a mortal woman.
What’s In A Name
Given the nature of Etain’s story and the meaning of her name: “Jealousy” or “Passion.” I think it sheds an important light to the significance of Etain’s story and the proper framework to look at it in.
Bé Find – Meaning “Fair Woman,” this is a name that Midir gives to Etain in Tochmarc Etaine. It comes from a poem found within the larger saga called: “A Bé Find In Ragha Lium” is likely from a much older, unrelated source and was just stuck in the saga at a later time.
Eadaoin – As Eadaoin, she is noted as being a sidhe and one of the Tuatha De Dannan who is associated with poetry and inspiration. With this spelling, Etain is noted as having a different husband, either Midir or Oghma depending on the source used. This could just merely mean Etain or Eadaoin was a common enough name that there is more than one person in the Irish Mythological Cycles who has this name. As they’re all sidhe, that makes it even more difficult to keep them all straight.
Echraide – Meaning “Horse Rider,” this is a name that has been attached to Etain and is meant to link her with horse deities such as the Welsh Rhiannon and the Gaulish Epona.
Shining-One – An epitaph of “Shining-One” or claiming that’s what Etain’s name means, tend to come from more modern sources that want to connect her to be a Sun Goddess or a fairy. As far as a strong, scholarly bent goes, it doesn’t really work.
Some sources, often the more modern Pagan paths will place Etain as a goddess. Depending on the lineage you follow, if Oghma for example, she is a goddess of poetry and inspiration. Yet another source will list her as a Love or War goddess?
Some of the sources that link Etain to different deific roles seem tentative.
Horse Goddess – One of Etain’s epitaphs is Echraide, meaning “Horse Rider,” which would mean she’s a Horse Goddess, much like the Welsh Rhiannon and the Gaulish Epona.
Sun Goddess – T. F. O’Rahilly is who identified Etain as a Sun Goddess. Several New Age and modern Pagan groups have adopted her as such. When Oengus is identified as a Sun God, this connection makes sense if Etain is seen as his daughter.
Goddess of the Land – This I would readily accept given the nature of Etain’s story as an allegory for Ireland’s history and a Goddess marrying whom she wants that will bring prosperity to the land.
Love Goddess – This really works best for more modern interpretations of Etain’s story; especially when keeping in mind her story as an allegory and for those seeking to reclaim her role as a deity with her own agency who chooses her lovers. Plus, the connection seems to come more strongly with Midir’s fostering of Aengus Óg who is a Love God.
Sovereign Goddess – This is an important aspect of Etain, especially if you want her story to make sense as a deity who choose her consort for the prosperity and welfare of the land.
Triple Goddess – In New Age and Wiccan practices, Etain is often seen as a Triple Goddess
Other Aspects – Furthering this, due to the forced transformations, some will claim Etain as a Goddess of Transformation and Rebirth, a Moon Goddess.
Well yes, most versions of Etain’s story acknowledge her as a fairy, specially one of the Sidhe and certainly of the Tuatha de Danann. An imagery not at all unlike the Tolkien Elves in his Middle Earth series.
The account that has some men coming across an extremely beautiful woman beside a spring see them agreeing that such beauty was only possible of the sidhe.
That seems to be the sentiment of some authors, scholars and modern Pagans.
Wiccan, New Age & Modern Paganism
I think it’s important to note, that myths and stories do change with time. Much of the story that so many know with Etain has been colored through the lens of Christianity and with some regards, a patriarchy, resulting in a story about a woman who appears to have little agency and control over her own fate and destiny.
In the pursuit of adjusting Etain back to her perceived mythological roots and giving her significance and relevance, to better be the actor in her own story, some modern Pagan traditions will claim that Etain’s name means “Shining One” and place her as a Triple Goddess who represents the Sun, Water and Horses.
Understanding Etain’s story will certainly make it easier to interpret her as needed. I think sticking to what’s known and concrete from her legends is the most useful.
Etymology: Old Norse logi “flame”, possibly “tangler” Possibly the Old Norse word luka meaning “close,” Indo-European -leug meaning “to break”, Indo-European -luk meaning: “to close,” “lock,” “lid,” “end,” to light,” and “lightning.”
Alternate Spellings: Loge, Lokki (Faroese), Lokkemand (Danish), Loke, Lokke (Norwegian), Luki, Luku (Swedish), Lukki (Finnish), Loder, Lokkju, Lopti, Loki-Laufeyjarson
Other Names and Epithets: Hveðrungr “Roarer” (Old Norse), Loptr (Air), Loftur, “Father of Lies,” “the Sly God,” “the Sly One,” “Sky-Traveler”
Loki is best known in Norse mythology as a trickster deity. Like any trickster figure, Loki often questions and more accurately, challenges the status quo among the gods with the trouble and chaos he often causes. At the same time, for all the trouble and mischief that Loki creates, he will also help the other gods with fixing the mess. Just even studying and looking up the mythology for Loki has been fairly difficult to pin down this figure and try to say just who he is has been somewhat difficult. I could lay it down to Loki’s trickster nature and the fluid mythological change of the times as scholars try to figure out scraps of ancient sagas and runes.
Animal: Spider, Salmon, Mare, Seal, Flies
Day of the Week: Saturday
Element: Air, Fire
Sphere of Influence: Magic, Mischief, Lies, Deceit, Chaos, Thievery
Symbols: knots, loops, fishing nets
Some sagas describe Loki as being male with a slim build with red hair. He has a curly mustache and possibly a pointed beard. Other descriptions of Loki will mention that he has a twisted smile, owing to his misadventure and encounter with some dwarves who sowed his mouth shut and tied him to a tree.
In his Gylfaginning, Snorri Sturlson describes Loki as being “beautiful and comely to look upon, evil in spirit, very fickle in habit.” Well if that’s not an apt descriptor of Tom Hiddleston’s portrayl of Loki in the Marvel Cinema Movies.
When looking at the main sources of Norse Mythology that mention Loki, the main source is the Icelandic Scholar and Historian Snorri Sturluson’s Prose Edda from the 13th century. Loki shows up in some earlier Viking Sagas from the 9th to 11th century. However, tracking back to the earlier Nordic Sagas of Vafþrúðnismál and Grímnismál, Loki is absent from these tales.
A contemporary of Snorri Sturlson is Saxo Grammaticus, who in his Gesta Danorum (“Deeds of the Danes,”) largely leaves out mention of Loki. This absence has been noted by scholars to point out that Loki may have only been a regional deity known among the most northern Germanic lands. Many of the other Norse deities like Odin and Thor can be found to have regional variant names and very similar corresponding myths.
What’s In A Name? Lock & Key
Just what Loki’s name means and which etymology to use for it has been debated for quite a while by various scholars.
Often it is suggested that the Old Norse word: logi, meaning “flame” is the source for Loki’s name. The Icelandic use of Loki’s name has it meaning: “knot” or “tangle.”
Other Scandinavian names have put forth ranging from the Faroese Lokki, the Danish Lokkemand, the Norwegian Loke and Lokke, the Swedish Luki and Luku to the Finnish Lukki. All of these names have a commonality in the Germanic root word of luk- which corresponds with loops, especially for knots, hooks, closed-off rooms and even locks. Further etymological evidence is pointed out in the Swedish word: “lokkanät” and the Faroese word: “Lokkanet” that translate to mean “cobweb” or “Lokke’s web.” Even the Faroese word for Daddy-Long Leg spiders is: “lokki~grindalokki~grindalokkur.” That could make sense and certainly adds a new understanding to just what Loki’s name might really mean.
Another take is some of the Scandinavian dialects where the root word luk- corresponds to words like nokke and nøkkel that mean “key.” Some of the Western Scandinavian words that translate to key are: loki~lokke and lykil.
What a tangled web we weave….
These etymological connections in mind, has led some to conclude that this is how Loki fits into the narrative for the events of Ragnarök. After-all, Loki creates all these problems and entanglements. So much so, that people believed Loki to cause knots, tangles and looks to occur or to be one, at least symbolically.
Germanic Origins & Worship
Loki is not a deity who was exactly worshiped among the ancient Germanic, Norse, Scandinavian tribes or others.
There is a lot of debate on just how to interpret Loki’s place in Norse Mythology. Jacob Grimm introduced the idea of Loki as a god of fire in 1835. Next, Sophus Bugge in 1889 put forward the idea of Loki being a variation of Lucifer in Christianity. That aspect makes sense if you’re trying to equate every trickster figure and outright evil figure in the black & white box of Christian theology.
Shortly after World War II there are four theories regarding Loki that have prevailed. The first of these is in 1956, Folke Ström who suggests that Loki is as an aspect of Odin, much like the godhead in Christianity. The second, in 1959 is from Jan de Vries that says Loki represents a trickster figure. At current, I think everyone who knows about Norse mythology pretty much agrees with that idea. Third, in 1961, Anna Birgitta Rooth made a conclusion of Loki being a spider, which seeing the etymology of the name, makes sense too. Than, in 1962, an Anne Holtsmark said that no conclusions about Loki can be made. Maybe so, if we’re agreeing to the idea of a trickster figure, they can be pretty hard to pin down.
Christianity & Norse Religion
When Christianity was being introduced to Europe, many of the Nordic or Scandinavian countries, including Denmark and Sweden continued to practice their Heathenism or Paganism up until the 13th century when there was a mass forced conversion as the then King decided to convert. The process began about 900 C.E. as the Vikings began interacting with Christians and of course, while all similar, different regions and countries would have different oral or written traditions for the Norse gods.
Divine Trinity – In Christianity, many are familiar with the Godhead of God, Jesus and the Holy Ghost. Where Norse paganism and religion is concerned, those who’ve studied the myths and then tried to equate with Christianity seem to have come up with a Triad that’s Odin, Hœnir and Loki. An idea supported in the sagas and ballads: Haustlöng, a prologue to Reginsmál and Loka Táttur. This idea works if you accept the scholar Ursula Dronke’s theory that Lóðurr, the Norse deity who created the first humans is another name for Loki and that Lóðurr is a third name for Loki along with Loptr.
You’re not alone if you reject this idea of Loki and Lóðurr being the same being. After all, Lóðurr is only really mentioned twice in the Völuspá and only in a couple other places where they describe Odin as “Lóðurr’ friend.” Still enough people have glommed on to the idea and argue that much of the Poetic Edda was forgotten around 1400 C.E. when it began to be written down and possibly poor etymology studies of trying to make similar sounding words and name mean and be the same thing.
Since a lot of the mythology has been lost, it’s likely the 14th & 15th century poets, namely Snorri and Saxo were doing the best they could to preserve an oral history. Snorri followed mostly the Icelandic traditions of myths he wrote down and Saxo followed the Danish traditions of myths. A difference seen in the Death of Baldr where Snorri includes Loki’s involvement and Saxo leave it out of the myth.
Many scholars who have looked at Loki’s place in Norse mythology haven’t found any evidence of any cult for Loki.
Followers and Worshipers of Loki seem to be more of a modern phenomenon with modern Wicca and Pagan religions. As he is considered a Trickster deity and God of Fire, this shouldn’t be done lightly or on a lark.
Parentage and Family
Father – Fárbauti (“Crue-Striker,”) a frost giant or jotunn.
Mother – Laufey, a frost giant or jotunn.
In the Prose Edda, an alternate for Laufey’s name is Nál, meaning: “Needle.”
Angrboða – “Anguish-Boding,” a jotunn, by her, Loki is the father of Hel, Fenrir the wolf and Jormungandr, the world serpent.
Sigyn – Loki’s wife, with her, he is the father of Narfi or Nari.
Svaðilfari – Keeping things interesting for the time Loki turned into a mare, he is the mother of Odin’s eight-legged horse Slepnir.
Býleistr (“Bee-Lightning”) and Helblindi (“All Blind” or “Hel-Blinder”) are brothers of Loki as given in the Prose Edda.
Fenrir – A monstrous wolf.
Hel – The goddess of the Underworld. Given the similarity of the name Hel with the Christian name Hell for the Underworld, it has been suggested that Hel is a Christian addition to the Norse myths.
Jormungand – The great world serpent.
Nari – Also spelled Narfi, meaning “corpse.”
Slepnir – The famous eight-legged horse of Odin.
Váli – In the Prose Edda, Loki is mentioned as the father. This Edda also mentions Odin as the father, twice to Loki’s one reference.
Hati and Skol – a pair of monstrous wolves who kill Odin and begin the events of Ragnarök.
Well, sort of… Loki, being the son of frost giants or jotunns isn’t really a member of the Aesir tribe of gods in Norse mythology.
Blood Brother – Loki does, however, gain membership with the Aesir and is counted among their number when Odin makes him a blood brother. Also, by Loki being a blood brother, it would fit some theological views where Loki is seen as Odin’s opposite or his darker half.
Outsider – Even getting accepted as an Aesir, for all the trouble and mischief that Loki causes, he is still seen as an outsider to the Norse pantheon. Mischief, problems, fights and often times he’s the one who goes right in and fixes the mess he created in the first place.
God Of Air & Fire
Being a trickster deity, many people tend towards associating Loki with the element of fire as many trickster figures often are.
In Scandinavian folklore, there are a number of phrases and folk sayings such as: “Loki is reaping his oats” or “Loki is herding his goats: that refer to during springtime, when mist is raising off the ground. The mist rising in places like Jutland create a shimmering effect, especially over flat ground. The same shimmering is observed with hot steam over a kettle or fire.
Logi The Fire Giant – Thanks to Wagner’s Opera and etymological confusion, many people will confuse Loki with the Fire Giant Logi. Which adds to further identifying Loki as a fire god.
They’re two separate beings.
Still those who equate Loki and Logi together, will then try to add Glut to the list of spouses for Loki and add on Esia & Einmyria as two additional children and daughters of Loki’s.
God Of Mischief & Trickster
Loki is most prominently known as a trickster figure in Norse mythology. Like any trickster, Loki sometimes is the cause of rather callous and malicious pranks. For as often as he causes trouble, Loki also ends up helping to resolve the messes he’s created.
Hero Or Villain – Looking at the oldest known poems and sagas to mention Loki from the 9th to 11th centuries, Loki is portrayed more as a friend to the gods and helping them out on many occasions. These notable works are the Ynglingatal, Haustlǫng, Húsdrápa and Þórsdrápa.
When we get to later sagas and Snorri’s Prose Edda, Loki has taken on a more malicious or evil bend who will have a leading role and part in Ragnarök.
Maybe his pranks were getting more and more out of hand to the point the gods weren’t taking any more or it’s a clear influence of Christianity upon the myths. Either way, Loki’s tricks and cunning do go from helpful to outright malicious and evil.
Not helping of course is when numerous articles continue to glom on to the idea that a Trickster figure must be counted as evil. Or some scholars like Georges Dumézil in their studies of folklore equate Loki with a demonic figure like Syrdon from Caucasian Legends.
Fishnets & Spider Webs
As mentioned earlier, there are etymological connections of Loki’s name to knots and loops. This connection makes sense that Loki is also credited as being the inventor of fishnets as these contain many knots and loops.
Spiders also get associated with the name loki, lokke, lokki, loke, luki as they spin and make spider or cobwebs.
Cunning – As a god of cunning, Loki’s connection to fishnets and spider webs works very well on the metaphorical and spiritual sense for the complex, intricate, even elaborate schemes that catch everyone up in his well, mischief. He’s the source in many causes of tying all the gods together and brings about their end with Ragnarok.
This aspect seems to be a staple of many trickster figures within myth. Loki is noted for having changed into a salmon, a mare, a falcon, a fly and likely an old woman by the name of Þökk (whose name in Old Norse means: “thanks.”)
When Loki’s children with Angrboða were born, it was foretold to the Aesir how they would cause a great evil in the world. Odin decreed that Loki’s children should be retrieved from Jötunheim and brought to Asgard.
Odin threw Jormungand, the Midgard Serpent into the where it would wrap itself around the whole of the earth. Jormungand would grow so big he could bit his own tail. As to Hel, Odin sent her down to the Underworld, Niflheim. Hel would create her own realm here called Helheim. The third child, Fenrir, a monstrous wolf was kept in Asgard and chained up, bound to a rock.
The Treasures of the Gods
In yet another of Loki’s many pranks, he goes and cuts off all of Sif’s hair while she’s sleeping and leaves it in a pile on the floor. Needless to say, Sif was not amused, and neither was her husband, Thor. Promising to make up for it, Loki went to replace it with the help of the dwarves. Best not to be on Thor’s bad side.
Loki sought out the dwarves, particularly the sons of Ivaldi. After Loki persuaded the dwarves to spin gold so fine to replace Sif’s lost hair, the dwarves decided they didn’t want to waste the fire and went on to create more treasure. They crafted the ship Skidbladnir that could be dismantled and folded down to the size of a piece of cloth for Freyr. Then they went on to craft the spear Gungnir that would never miss it’s mark for Odin.
As Loki began to return towards Asgard, he decided to pay the dwarves Brokk and Eitri a visit. Loki showed off the treasures that Ivaldi and his sons had crafted and challenged the two to craft something better.
A wager this time, one that Loki staked his head on. The dwarves agreed and now the magical gold boar Gullinbursti for Freyr was created. Next came the magical gold arm ring known as Draupnir that could create 8 gold rings every ninth night. Finally, the two crafted Thor’s famous hammer, Mjolnir that couldn’t be broken and always returned when thrown.
Returning at last to Asgard, Brokk accompanied Loki to have the gifts judged by the gods. Odin, Thor and Freyr were all quick to agree to Mjolnir’s fine craftsmanship. With that pronouncement, Brokk tried to claim Loki’s head.
Not so fast Loki retorted, he had only promised his head, not any other part of his neck. Damaging his neck was not part of the deal. Fine then, Brokk responds that he can at least sew Loki’s lips shut and left him tied to a tree.
At least it shut Loki for a while, probably not long enough for other’s liking.
The Theft Of Idunn’s Apples
Due to his penchant for mischief, Loki ends up in the hands of the jotunn, Thiaz who threatens to kill the trickster unless Loki brings him the goddess Idunn and her golden apples. Very much so looking to save his own skin, Loki agrees to the deal and brings her and the apples to Thiaz.
Needless to say, this caused an uproar among the gods who are the ones now threatening to kill Loki unless he rescues and brings back Idunn. Once more, looking to preserve his own hide, Loki agrees and transforms into a falcon to carry the goddess safely back to Asgard.
Wanting back what he deems rightfully his, Thiaz changes into an eagle and pursues the pair. As Loki and Idunn are getting closer to Asgard, Thiaz in eagle form has nearly caught up with them. The gods light a fire around the perimeter to their hall and the flames catch Thiaz, burning him up.
With Idunn safely within the halls of Asgard, Loki runs back out to help the other gods with the remains of Thiaz and rectifying the very problem he created in the first place.
Loki & Skadi
Not long after Thiazi’s death, his daughter, Skadi shows up demanding restitution for her father’s slaying at the hands of the Aesir. One of Skadi’s demands is that the gods make her laugh. Loki accomplishes this by taking a rope and tying it to the beard of a goat and the other end to his own testicles. Both the goat and Loki bleat and cry out in terror and more pain as they try to pull away from each other. Eventually, Loki falls into Skadi’s lap and she busts out laughing at the absurdity of the scene.
The Death Of Balder
This is one of the bigger, more well-known Norse stories. Balder’s mother Frigg had received a prophesy concerning Balder’s death. Wishing to try and avoid this fate, Frigg gets an oath from all living things that they won’t harm her son. In her haste to do so, Frigg overlooked the mistletoe, believing it to be too small in consequential.
Leave it to Loki to learn of this and to test the validity of the prophesy. Depending on the source, Loki either makes an arrow or a spear out of mistletoe and hands it off to the blind god Hod, instructing him to aim it at Balder. This act doesn’t seem so unusual when taken into account that many of the other gods were taking aim at Balder to test his invulnerability.
Hod then, unknowingly of Loki’s true intent, fires the mistletoe weapon at Balder and impales the god who soon dies. Frigg is grief stricken and Hermod rides off on Sleipnir down to the Underworld to plead for Balder’s release from Hel, how everyone loves him. The Underworld goddess replies that if this is so, then every being in the living world will weep for the slain god. If everyone does weep, then Hel will release her hold on Balder and allow him to return.
Hermod returns with the news and every creature on the earth cries for Balder. All, that is except for an old giantess by the name of Tokk (or Þökk, meaning “Thanks,”) she was most certainly and likely Loki in disguise.
With this failure to have everyone weep, Balder remained in Hel’s domain.
The Bjarkan Rune – Loki is mentioned in the 13th stanza of a Norwegian rune poem utilizing the Younger Futhark Bjarkan rune.
In Old Norse, the poem reads:
Bjarkan er laufgrønster líma;
Loki bar flærða tíma
In Modern English, the translation:
Birch has the greenest leaves of any shrub;
Loki was fortunate in his deceit
It has been suggested that “Loki’ deceit” refers to his part in the death of Balder.
Did Loki Get Too Out Of Hand This Time?
There is an interesting view given regarding Balder’s death. For one, we know that Saxo’s version written from the Danish myths, doesn’t include Loki’s involvement in Balder, the Sun God’s death.
The version that everyone is familiar with in Snorri’s Prose Eddas, where Loki is seen as getting progressively more and more out of hand with his trickery and becoming more and more outright evil.
What if… that weren’t the case? The gods know the prophesy of Ragnarök, the end of the Norse gods. Of course, they want to prevent and prolong the inevitable. What if, Loki’s killing Balder is for the greater good? A sacrifice? Odin knows the only way to really protect Balder is if he dies and goes to the Underworld, Niflheim. The only place that won’t be destroyed of all the nine realms. So it is at Odin’s request, that Loki sees to it that Balder is killed and to prevent his return, turns into an old woman who refuses to weep for his loss.
That way, now, when Ragnarök comes, Baldur is able to be in place to remake the world.
It’s an interesting take on this myth.
The Binding Of Loki
Eventually with all of his mischief and havoc and likely with the death of Baldur, the Aesir have finally had it with Loki and decide to bind him to a massive rock deep beneath the earth in a cave. As punishment for all these misdeeds, Loki is tied by the gods using the entrails of his son Nari after turning another son, Vali into a wolf to rip apart his brother. Both the Poetic and Prose Edda mention the goddess Skaði being the one who places a serpent above Loki while he’s bound. This serpent then drips venom down on Loki. Before it can hit him, Sigyn collects the venom in a bowl, the caveat is that whenever Sigyn has to empty the bowl, that is when the venom does hit Loki, causing him much pain. This pain causes Loki to writhe in such agony, it causes earthquakes.
Loki & Útgarðaloki – Many are familiar with Snorri Sturluson’s take on Loki & Thor’s encounter with Utgard-Loki from the Prose Edda’s Gylfaginning. The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus has a different take on the story of Utgard-Loki or Útgarðaloki.
In Saxo’s take, Thor does indeed travel to Jotunheim, the realm of the giants. There, Thor finds a jotun by the name of Útgarðaloki, meaning “Loki of the Utgard,” who is bound fast much like the other versions for the binding of Loki. Otherwise, Loki is largely absent of Saxo’s collection of Norse mythology.
It has been pointed out, that the Scandinavians may have held conflicting views on deciding if Loki were a god, a jotun or another entity altogether.
Greek Connection – Loki’s being bound to a rock has been compared to other, mythological figures in Greek, namely those of Prometheus and Tantalus.
In the Prose Edda, Loki is described as a: “contriver of fraud.” Loki isn’t mentioned very often in the Eddas, he is generally mentioned as being a member of Odin’s family.
The Poetic Edda & Other Sagas
Much of what we know about Loki and the other Norse deities comes from the surviving Poetic Edda that was compiled in the 13th century C.E. It is a collection of various poems as follows: Völuspá, Grímnismál, Skírnismál, Hárbarðsljóð, Hymiskviða, Lokasenna, Þrymskviða, Alvíssmál, and Hyndluljóð. Loki only appears or is referenced in a few of these.
It should be noted that Loki, in many of these poems is often referred to as Loptr, coming from the Old Norse word lopt for “air.”
Baldrs Draumar – In this poem, Odin awakens a dead völva in Hel. He questions her about the meanings of Baldr’s dreams. It is in the final stanza of the poem, that the völva tells Odin to go home and be proud of himself, that no one else is coming until Loki escapes his bounds and brings about the onset of Ragnarök.
Fjölsvinnsmál – In this poem, Fjölsviðr is describing to the hero Svipdagr where Sinmara keeps the weapon Lævateinn. Loki as Lopt, is mentioned as using runes to lock Lægjarn’s chest nine times, holding within it the weapon Lævateinn. There are two different translations of this poem depending on how the runes are translated.
The first translation reads:
“Lævatein is there, that Lopt with runes
Once made by the doors of death;
In Lægjarn’s chest by Sinmora lies it,
And nine locks fasten it firm.”
The second translation reads:
“Hævatein the twig is named, and Lopt plucked it,
down by the gate of Death.
In an iron chest it lies with Sinmœra,
and is with nine strong locks secured.”
Hyndluljóð – Loki is referenced twice in this poem. Here, Loki is mentioned as the father of the wolf with the jötunn Angrboða, to have given birth to the horse Sleipnir by the stallion Svadilfari and to be the brother of Byleistr. The last child that Loki gives birth to is “the worst of all marvels.” This is due to his eating the heart, the “thought-stone” of a woman and having eaten it half-cooked, Loki became pregnant by this woman and it is from this union, that all ogress on earth are descended from.
Lokasenna – Loki’s Quarrel in English, in this poem, Loki enters a flyting match with the gods in Ægir’s hall. Ægir is a god of the sea and he is currently holding a feast for the other gods and elves. The other gods begin to praise Ægir’s servants: Fimafeng and Eldir. Hearing this, puts Loki into a right foul mood and he kills Fimafeng. In response, the other gods grab up their shields and weapons as they chase Loki out into the woods. With Loki gone, the gods then return to the hall to resume their feasting.
The poem begins properly when Loki returns from the woods and meets Eldir outside whom he entreats to tell him what the other gods are talking about. Eldir tells Loki how the other gods are discussing their weapons and prowess and how no one has anything good to say about Loki.
Loki says he will return to the feast, this time intending to incite the other gods to arguing and to put malice into their drinks. Eldir warns Loki that this isn’t a good idea if all he is going to do is sow anger and resentment towards him, that it won’t end well.
Undaunted, Loki heads back into the hall anyways and sure enough, all the gods fall silent on noticing the trickster enter. I can just imagine Loki smirking as he breaks the silence, saying he’s thirsty and has only come for a drink.
When no one answers him, Loki calls the gods arrogant and demands they either give a seat at the table or tell him to leave. The god, Bragi is who finally addresses Loki, saying that he will not have a seat among the gods for they know whom to invite and who not to.
Turning his attention to Odin, Loki address the god, reminding him of the time when Odin and he had mixed their blood together and that Odin said he would never drink ale unless it were brought to the two of them.
Odin than asks his son, Víðarr to sit up so that the “wolf’s father” (referring to Loki) can have a seat at the table and not speak of the gods. As Víðarr stands to pour Loki a drink. Before drinking, the trickster makes a toast to the gods with the exception of Bragi.
Bragi, trying to make amends and smooth things over, says he would give a horse, sword and ring for his own possessions so that Loki won’t speak ill. It’s really clear now that Loki is going out of his way to single out Bragi, by saying he’ll always be short these things and implies that the skald deity is a coward.
Temper beginning to flair, Bragi says that if they were outside, he would have Loki’s head for a trophy given all his lies. Loki taunts Bragi, calling him a “bench-ornament.” At this point, Iðunn interrupts, trying to calm Bragi.
All that does is get Loki to direct his ire towards Iðunn now, calling her “man-crazy” of all of the goddess’s present. Iðunn does her best not to be baited by Loki’s words. Now Gefjun speaks up, asking why the two have to fight. Doesn’t everyone know that Loki is jesting. Not quitting now, Loki comments that Gefjun is one to talk, having been seduced by a boy and proven to be an easy lay.
Essentially, it carries on for a quiet a bit with Odin, then Freya and most of the other gods refuting Loki, saying he has to be mad to get someone like Gefjun angry as Loki in turns just calls out the flaws and failings of each of the gods. He just keeps it up, getting them all angry with him one after the other.
Towards the end of the poem, as things get more heated, the attention is turned towards Sif, Thor’s wife and Loki makes a bold claim to have slept with her. Beyla, a servant of Freyr’s, interrupt and announces that since the mountains are shaking, it must mean that Thor is on his way home. Beyla continues with how Thor will bring an end to the argument. Loki responds with more insults.
Thor does arrive and tell Loki to keep quiet or else he’ll rip off Loki’s head using his hammer. Loki taunts Thor, asking why he is so angry, he won’t be in any mood to fight the wolf, Fenrir after it eats Odin. All this is about the events of Ragnarök that have been foretold. Thor again tells Loki to keep quiet with a threat to throw the trickster god so far into the sky he would never come back down.
Not daunted in the least, Loki tells Thor how he shouldn’t be bragging about his time in the east as the mighty Thor had once cowered in fear inside the thumb of a glove. Once more Thor tells Loki to keep silent with threats to break every bone in his body. Loki continues the taunts, saying he still intends to live, throwing in references to when Thor had met Útgarða-Loki.
Thor gives a fourth and final demand to Loki for silence or else he would send Loki to Hel. At this, Loki ceases his taunts saying that he will leave the hall, knowing that Thor does indeed strike.
Loki leaves at this point, going to hide behind the Franangrsfors waterfall in the form of a salmon. The gods do eventually capture Loki and bind him in his son, Nari’s entrails. His other son, Narfi turns into a wolf. Skaði places a venomous snake above Loki’s head that drips venom. Loki’s wife, Sigyn sits nearby with a bowl to catch the venom. Every time she goes to empty the vessel, Loki writhes in such agony that it causes earthquakes.
Reginsmál – In this poem, the dwarf Regin, who is the son of the sorcerer Hreidmar and foster father to the hero Sigurd, tells of how the gods Odin, Hœnir and Loki had gone down to the Andvara-falls to fish. Now Regin had two brothers, Andvari who would swim about in the form of a pike and Otr, who would change into an otter to swim and fish.
On this particular occasion, Otr, in otter form had caught a salmon and was eating it on the river banks when the god Loki killed him with a stone, thinking it’s just a normal otter. Later that evening, the gods go to stay with Hreidmar and show off the otter pelt. There’s a catch of course, Hreidmar and Regin both recognize the pelt as being a dead Otr. Regin and Hreidmar seize hold of the gods and demand a weregeld for Otr’s death.
The gods agreed and made a sack out of Otr’s pelt that they filled with gold and covered the outside with red gold. Now just where the gods got this gold from? Loki was sent out to get and he borrowed a net from the goddess Rán. Going back to the Andvara-falls, Loki spreads out the net and captures Andvari in his pike form. Loki forces Andvari to reveal where his gold is at before releasing him.
Andvari tells Loki a little bit about himself, namely having been cursed by a “norn of misfortune” during his early days. Loki replies back, asking what does mankind get if they “wound each other with words.” Andvari’s response is that they get a terrible fate, being forced to wade in the river Vadgelmir.
Eventually, Andvari hands over his gold to Loki, including the ring, Andvarinaut. Back in his dwarf form, Andvari tells Loki that this gold will cause the death of two brother, conflict between eight princes and be of no use to anyone.
Taking the gold back, the gods fill the otter skin with it, with the ring Andvarinaut covering a whisker to Hreidmar’s satisfaction. Loki chimes in how the gold is as cursed as Andvari and that it will be the death of Hreidmar and Regin
Hreidmar doesn’t believe Loki, believing instead the curse is for those not yet born. Plus, with the gold, he’s plenty wealthy now and he tells the gods to leave.
The poem does continue, and most are familiar with how it continues and connects to Sigurd in the Völsunga saga where Regin is the foster father to Sigurd. This version of Regin’s story lists Fafnir and Otr being his brothers, not Andvari. Which makes far more sense to have the gold belonging to someone else that Loki steals the gold from. Not this Loki stealing Andvari, who in the Reginsmál is Regin’s brother. That connection makes no sense to have Loki steal Andvari’s gold and then seem to give it right back, granted to the father.
Skáldskaparmál – An episode in this saga sees Loki rather maliciously cut off all of Sif’s hair. Thor threatens to break Loki’s bones if doesn’t put this to rights. Looking to save his own skin for the problems he often creates, Loki gets the dark elves or dwarves to craft some golden hair to replace Sif’s shorn hair with.
Þrymskviða – Also known as the Lay of Trym, this comedic poem features Thor as a central figure. Thor awakens one morning to discover that his hammer, Mjöllnir is missing. Thor confides in Loki about the missing hammer and that no one knows it’s missing. The two then head to Freyja’s hall to find the missing Mjöllnir. Thor asks Freyja if he can borrow her feathered cloak to which she agrees. At this, Loki takes off with the feathered cloak.
Loki heads to Jötunheimr where the jotunn, Þrymr is making collars for his dogs and trimming the manes of his horses. When Þrymr sees Loki, he asks what is happening among the Æsir and elves and why it is that Loki is alone in Jötunheimr. Loki replies by telling Þrymr how Thor’s hammer, Mjöllnir is missing. Þrymr admits to having taken Mjöllnir and hiding it some eight leagues beneath the earth where Thor will never get it back unless the goddess Freyja is brought to him to be his wife. Loki takes off again, flying back to the Æsir court with Freyja’s cloak.
Thor enquires with Loki if he was successful. Loki tells of what he has found out, that Þrymr took Thor’s hammer and will only give it back if Freyja is brought to Þrymr to be his wife. At this news, Thor and Loki return to Freyja to tell her of the news that she is to be a bride to Þrymr. Angry, Freyja flat out refuses, causing the halls of the Æsir to shake and for her famous necklace, Brísingamen to fall off.
The gods and goddess hold a meeting to debate the matter of Þrymr’s demands. The god Heimdallr puts forth the suggestion that instead of Freyja, that Thor should dress as the bride as a way to get Thor’s hammer back. Thor balks at the idea and Loki seconds Heimdallr’s idea, saying it will be the only that Thor can get his hammer back. For without Mjöllnir, the jötnar will be able to invade Asgard. Relenting, Thor agrees to dress as a bride, taking Freyja’s place. Dressing as a maid to the disguised Thor, Loki goes with Thor down to Jötunheimr.
After arriving in Jötunheimr, Þrymr commands the jötnar of his hall to make the place presentable for Freyja has arrived to be his bride. Þrymr then tells how of all of his treasured animals and objects, that Freyja was the one missing piece to all of his wealth.
Disguised, Loki and Thor meet with Þrymr and all of his jötnar. At the feast, Thor consumes a large amount of food and mead, something that is at odds with Þrymr’s impressions of Freyja. Loki, feigning the part of a shrewd maid, tells Þrymr how that is because Freyja had not eaten anything for eight days in her eagerness to arrive. Þrymr decides that he wants to kiss his bride and when he lifts “Freyja’s” veil, fierce looking eyes stare back at him. Again, Loki says that this is because Freyja hasn’t slept either during the past eight nights.
A “wretched sister” of the jötnar arrives, calling for the bridal gift from Freyja. The jötnar bring out Thor’s hammer, Mjöllnir in order to sanctify the bride as they lay it on “Freyja’s” lap. Þrymr and Freyja will be handfasted by the goddess Var. When Thor sees his hammer, he grabs hold of Mjöllnir and proceeds to beat all of the jötnar with it. Thor even kills the “wretched, older sister” of the jötnar. Thus, Thor gets his hammer back.
Völuspá – In this poem, a dead völva tells the history of the universe and the future Odin in disguise about the events of Ragnarök. Regarding Loki, the völva speaks about how she sees Sigyn sitting unhappily near her bound husband, Loki. The location of this being in a grove of hot springs. Once Ragnarok begins, Loki, referred to as the “brother of Býleistr” is freed from his bounds.
The völva further describes how she sees Loki steering a boat, filled with Muspell’s people (these people being from the World of Fire and seen as destroyer of worlds).
The last bit in the Völuspá is the monstrous wolf Fenrir, referred to as Loki’s kinsman as he will eat Odin and then be killed by Odin’s son, Víðarr.
The Prose Edda & Other Sagas
Not to be confused with the Poetic Edda, the Prose Edda consists of four books: Prologue, Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál, and Háttatal written by Snorri Sturluson.
In the Prose Edda, Loki is described as a: “contriver of fraud.” Loki isn’t mentioned very often in the Eddas. He is generally mentioned as being a member of Odin’s family.
This book has various stories that feature Loki. Notably his giving birth to the eight-legged horse Sleipnir and of Loki’s contest with the personification of fire, Logi. This book gives a number of epitaphs for Loki that aren’t very flattering from “originator of deceits” to “the disgrace of all gods and men.”
The Fortification of Asgard – This seems to be a significant story within the Prose Edda, the gods are establishing Midgard and have built “Val-Hall.” An unnamed builder has offered to build a wall for the gods to keep out invaders, all he wants in exchange is the goddess Freyja, the sun and moon.
Sure, why not, the gods agree after some debate. There are some conditions to be met, such as the builder has to complete the work in three seasons without help from any man. The builder argues he needs the help of his stallion Svaðilfari and this is agreed to with, with Loki’s influence.
With the aid of his horse, the builder is able to make quick work on the wall. With the deadline of Summer just three days away, the builder is nearly complete with this task. The gods hold a meeting and decide that Loki is to blame.
But the gods wanted a wall, now they blame Loki for the builder nearly being finished. Oh that’s right, Loki spoke on the builder’s behalf to have his horse help. Right then, the gods decide, if Loki doesn’t find a way to get the builder to forfeit his payment of Freyja, the sun and moon. Loki swears that he will find a way to stop the builder.
That night, the builder and his horse, Svaðilfari head out to the forest to get more stone to finish the wall with. A mare comes running out of the forest and neighs at Svaðilfari, who realizes what kind of horse he sees and goes chasing after. The builder swears and follows after his horse. The two horses are busy all night, running around and getting it on.
The builder is of course, unable to complete the work and thus misses his deadline. Understandably, the builder flies into a rage and the gods realize that he is a hrimthurs (some type and variety of jötunn as the term can be pretty broad). The gods forget their oaths to the builder and call for Thor who comes and kills the builder, smashing his head in with his hammer.
Ya’ know, don’t make a deal or promises if you know you’re just going to renege on them later and refuse to pay up. As to Loki, with his horsing around, he gave birth to the eight-legged horse Slepnir that Odin rides.
Loki & Thor Versus Skrymir – This section of Gylfaginning see a reluctant Third telling the story of how Thor and Loki were out riding in Thor’s chariot. The two came upon the home of a peasant and stopped there for the night. Now, Thor’s chariot is pulled by a pair of goats, whom Thor killed to eat, knowing that they will be resurrected the following day. All good, no big deal for Thor.
Thor invites the peasant’s family to feast on the goats with him that night. He warns the family though not to crack the bones. Loki, plotting what he thinks is harmless mischief, gets the peasant’s son, Þjálfi to crack one of the bones and suck the marrow from it.
Now, when Thor goes to resurrect his goats, he finds that one of his goats has become lame. Afraid of the god’s wrath, the peasant gives Thor his son Þjálfi and his daughter Röskva to be his traveling companions.
Without his goats, the small group of four continues heading east until they arrive at the forested edge of Jötunheimr. The group continued on into the forest until it becomes night. They come upon a large building and take shelter in it. During the night, there are earthquakes that awaken the group who, with the exception of Thor or afraid to fall back asleep. The building turns out to be the giant Skrymir’s glove, who had been sleeping during the night and the source of the earthquakes.
The group moves out from the shelter and sleep beneath an oak tree. During the middle of the night, Thor awakens and attempts to slay Skrymir. Twice, Thor attempts to slay the giant, only to have Skrymir awaken and believe acorns have fallen on him. It is on the second attempt, that Skrymir fully awakens and advices the group not to be so cocky when they arrive at Útgarðr, to turn around and go back.
Skrymir led the group to the jotun city of Utgard where the group lost sight of Skrymir and was greeted by a group of jotun, including the king himself, Utgard-Loki, whom it turns out was Skrymir all along.
Given the general animosity between the gods and jotun, it’s no surprise that Thor, Loki and their other companions were not welcomed, unless of course they could complete a series of seemingly impossible challenges.
Loki was challenged and lost an eating contest when his opponent not only ate all the meat, but the bones and plate itself. Þjálf races against Hugi, losing to him in a series of three footraces.
It now fell to Thor to fulfill three challenges. As Thor boasted he could drink anyone under the table, a large drinking horn was brought to him with the challenge to finish it all in one gulp. After taking three huge swallows, Thor had only managed to drain the horn a few inches.
With the next challenge, Thor boasted his immense strength and Utgard-Loki challenged Thor to pick up a cat off the ground. After three attempts at moving the cat, Thor was only able to succeed at moving one paw.
Enraged by this, Thor accepted the last challenge of a wrestling match with anyone willing to match strength with him. The only one who would, was an old, frail looking woman. Thinking this would be easy, once again Thor was met with defeat at the hands of a feeble opponent who easily bested the mighty god, bringing him to his knees.
After this, Utgard-Loki declared the contests over and allowed the gods to stay the night and rest before returning home in the morning.
Come daylight, Utgard-Loki led the group out of Jotunheim. Once they were well past the borders, Utgard-Loki revealed himself to have been the giant, Skrymir who lead them to the city. Utgard-Loki proceeded to reveal the secrets of all of the challenges that Thor and his companions undergone.
Loki had been competing with fire, that burns and consumes everything it touches. That Thialfi’s opponent was thought, whom no one can outrun. As to Thor, the drinking horn he had drunk from was connected to the ocean and that he had succeeded in lowering the sea levels. The cat that Thor had tried lifting was none other than Jormungand, the Midgard serpent that encircles the world. As for the old woman, she was Age itself whom no one can defeat. That no matter how fiercely and bravely Thor fought her, even he would fall to her.
Before the group leaves, Utgard-Loki says that group should never return and if he knew who he had been dealing with, they would never have been allowed in. Angry at being tricked, Thor raised his hammer Mjollnir only to have the king of giants and his city vanish into thin air.
This is another of Snorri Sturluson’s books, written in the 13th century C.E. Loki is made mention in this text. On the Snaptun Stone, the Kirkby Stephen Stone and the Gosforth Cross, it has been suggested that Loki is the figure seen on these stone artifacts.
Also spelled Lokka Táttur, this is a Faroese tale or ballad from the late Middle Ages and more 18th century. It features Hœnir, Loki and Odin all helping a farmer and boy escape the wrath of a jötunn after he loses a bet. The ballad is notable in that it presents Loki as a benevolent god rather than the usual “evil” deity he’s often seen as due to all of mischief and cunning.
A jotunn comes and snatches up a farmer’s son. The farmer and his wife pray to Odin that their child may be protected. Odin comes and hides the boy in a field of wheat. The jotunn still manages to find the boy. Odin rescues the son and brings him back to his parents, saying he’s done hiding the boy. Now the couple pray to Hœnir who hids their son in the neck-feathers of a swan. Again, the jotunn finds the boy. Now the couple prays to Loki who hides the child in the middle of a flounder’s eggs. Once more, the jotunn finds the child and Loki tells the boy to run towards a boathouse. As the boy runs, Loki turns and faces off against the jotunn who’s gotten his head stuck in the boathouse while trying to snatch the boy. Loki chops off the jotunn’s leg and shoves a stick and stone into the leg stump, preventing the jotunn from regenerating. Loki takes the child home and both the farmer and his wife embrace the two.
Ragnarok – Twilight of the Gods
The final endgame of the Norse Gods, this is not exactly a happy time as a good many of the gods end up dying. Baldur’s death is clearly a catalyst for setting these events in motion. Loki still bound, becomes an enemy of the Norse Gods.
When this event begins, Loki is able to break free of his bonds to fight against the Norse gods on the side of the Jotnar. He sails on a ship made of nails called Naglfar. During this battel, Loki will face off against Heimdallr and the two end up killing each other.
Christian Connection – Given that one man and woman are who survive the events of Ragnarök. The story is then seen not so much as the end of the world yet to come, but an event that has already happened. As Christianity continued to move through Europe, Ragnarök can be interpreted as the end of the Norse Gods and their worship as Christianity becomes the dominant religion.
Der Ring des Nibelungen
Richard Wagner’s famous four opera cycle. Loki does make an appearance in this famous opera series. In Wagner’s version, Loki is called Loge, a play on the Old Norse word of loge for fire. As Loge, he is an ally of the gods, especially Wotan. Loge views all the Norse gods as being greedy as they refuse to return the Rhine Gold back to it rightful owners. At the end of the first opera, Das Rheingold, Loge reveals a secret desire that he turns into fire and destroys Valhalla. In the last opera, Götterdämmerung, Valhalla is indeed destroyed by fire and all the gods with it.
A stone cross dating from the mid-11th century C.E., this artifact features various figures believed to be from Norse mythology. The lower part of the western side of the cross depicted a long-haired female figure who is kneeling, holding an object above another bound and prone figure. Above and to the left of this imagery is a knotted serpent. The female figure has been interpreted by some to be Sigyn holding the bowl above the bound Loki as the serpent drips venom down onto him. The cross is located in Cumbria England.
Kirkby Stephen Stone
This artifact is part of a cross dating from the 10th century C.E. found in Stephen’s Church of Kirkby Stephen, Cumbria England. It features a bound figure with horns and a beard, this image has sometimes been thought to be Loki. The stone cross was found in 1870 and is composed of a yellowish-white sandstone. A similar horned figure was found in Gainford, County Durham and rests in the Durham Cathedral Library.
This is a gilded silver brooch discovered in 7th century Nordendorf, Germany. There are two lines of inscriptions on the brooch. The first line reads: “awaleubwini.” This has been interpreted as “Awa” a woman’s name and likely shortened of Awila. “Leubwini” has been interpreted as meaning “beloved” or “dear friend” and could mean it’s from a friend of the same name.
The second line of the inscription reads: logaþore wodan wigiþonar. The last two names of Wodan and Wigiþonar are easily read as alternate names for Odin and Battle Thor as either “Holy Thunder” or “Fight Lightning.” Personally, I’d go with “Holy Thunder.” The first name is a little more problematic with the name Logabore. It would seem this is the name of a third deity, making for a Divine Trinity. Both deities, Lóðurr and Loki have been suggested. However, where Germanic paganism and beliefs are concerned, there’s just not enough evidence and what there is, is tenuous.
One scholar, K. Düwel put forward that Logabore means: “magician” or “sorcerer” and would point to Odin and Thor as two magician deities. So we get, where this is an example of Pagan Germany slowly becoming more Christianized as the brooch is either a protective amulet against the old gods or it’s meant to be more beneficial as a healing charm. It all lays in how the interpretation of “wigi” for Thor is taken.
This is a semi-circular flat stone found on a beach near Snaptun, Denmark in 1950. The stone is composed of soapstone that originally came from either Norway or Sweden and features a carving dating back to 1000 C.E. The image shown in the carving is a face with scarred lips, which is identified with that of Loki. The scarred lips are thought to be in reference to a story found in the Skáldskaparmál where the sons of Ivaldi stitched Loki’s lips closed.
A hearth stone, the Snaptun stone would have had the nozzle of a bellows placed into a hold at the front of the stone and air pushed through to feed a fire while the bellows were protected from catching fire. It’s thought this stone might point out a connection between Loki, smithing and flames.
Lokabrenna or “Loki’s Torch is the name of the “Dog Star,” Sirius in pagan Scandinavia. The location of Útgarða-Loki’s worship in Denmark, there is also mention of the Danes potentially worshipping or revering this star according to Saxo.
Place Names & Surnames
As Loki gets more associated and reviled as a villain, there aren’t very many locales or surnames being named after the devious Trickster god.
The surnames in question are close enough in spelling, they may or may not be variations to Loki’s name, they include: Locchi (from 12th century Northumberland, England), Locke and Luki (Sweden).
Jacob Grimm mentions a place in Vestergötland, Sweden reputed to be a giant’s grave called Lokehall. Other place names are: Lockbol, Luckabol, Lockesta, and Locastum. One of the Faroe Islands is called Lokkafelli or Loki’s Fell. It should be of note that the Faroe Islands are where the 18th century saga of Lokka Táttur originates.