Category Archives: Hospitality
In Greek mythology, it is Ixion, not Cain who is the first murderer. I suspect, owing to a lot of early stories and histories being passed on orally before getting written down, that there may have been more regarding Ixion’s story that’s been lost. Ixion is still an important figure in Greek mythology. The most complete stories we have of him come from Pindar in his Pythian Odes.
Ixion’s parentage can get a bit muddled depending on the historian and who; in more modern times is drawing from which ancient writer.
Most of the stories seem to agree that Ixion is either the son of Phlegyas, a descendent of Ares or Ares’ son directly. Other stories will place him as the son of Leonteus or of Antion and Perimela. The stories all agree on him having been a king of the Lapiths in Thessaly.
Claim to Infamy
As stated before, Ixion’s importance in Greek mythology is that he is known as the first human to shed kindred blood. That is murder.
This came about when Ixion’s father-in-law, Deioneus was invited to come and collect on the price Ixion promised to give for his bride, Dia. Deioneus is also said to have stolen and then kept some of Ixion’s mares as compensation when Ixion didn’t pay what he owed Deioneus. But instead of paying what he owed, Ixion goes and digs a pit, fills it with burning coal, covers it and then waits for Deioneus to fall into it or pushes him in.
A slight spelling variation to Deioneus’ name is Eioneus.
Crime and Punishment
As this is a new crime to the human race and there were no laws that could be used to punish Ixion for this deed, by the same means, there were no rituals that could absolve Ixion of this deed or of any guilt. Ixion ending up in exile in the stories as an outlaw is probably due to no one wanting anything to do with him and his own kingdom ousting him from what ever throne he sat upon.
The Greeks likely wouldn’t be alone seeing murder, particularly of a relative as a rather heinous act. The god Zeus eventually took pity on Ixion and decided that since he’s a god, he could purify Ixion and then after that, invites him up to Olympus to be a guest. That there’s rumor Zeus was probably only interested in Dia, Ixion’s wife, might have been a motivation for even trying to purify Ixion of murder.
If this is true, for a minor note, when Dia gave birth to her son Peirithous, Zeus could have been the father and not Ixion. Incidentally, there is also a daughter, Phisadie who was given in servitude to Helen by the Dioscuri.
More Claims to Infamy
When you are given a chance, you should learn to take it, don’t abuse it.
Once Ixion was in Olympus and probably feeling he’s living the high life, he set his eyes on Hera and became infatuated or enamored with her. We’ll call it lust and Ixion probably began putting the moves on Hera, ones she probably didn’t appreciate. Who can blame her when some of the sources found for this story say that Ixion tried to rape her.
We’ll pretend that this is at an earlier time when Zeus and Hera still enjoyed a good relationship and we don’t have all of these other stories of Zeus having numerous affairs with all these other women and numerous resulting children.
Shocked, Zeus couldn’t believe what he’s hearing from Hera about Ixion. This man whom Zeus has purified is a guest; surely he knows the rules of hospitality when you’re a guest and what’s to be expected. One of them being is that you don’t go putting the moves and unwanted advances on your host’s wife.
Birth of the Centaurs
In an effort to put truth to Hera’s words, Zeus proceeds with making an image of Hera out of a cloud. This cloud is known as Nephele and when Ixion forced himself on the cloud, he impregnated it. Later, Nephele gives birth to either Centaurus, an ugly deformed child who goes on to be the progenitor of the centaurs, or she gives birth directly to the centaurs as a race. Either way, Ixion and Nephele do ultimately sire the centaur race.
Enraged at Ixion’s bragging about having slept with Hera and violating the Guest-Host laws, Zeus had Ixion bound to a winged, flaming wheel that revolved up in the air in all directions. In addition to this, by order of the gods, what the Irish would call a geas, Ixion was to continuously call out: “You should show gratitude to your benefactor.” Or “Repay your benefactor frequently with gentle favors in return.”
As a result, Ixion becomes one of the more famous sinners found in Tartarus and many writers mention him when they describe this place.
Does the Punishment fit the Crime?
Let’s get this straight….
Ixion murders his father-in-law after refusing to pay the promised price for his bride.
No one wants to purify Ixion of this deed or perhaps they can’t.
Zeus says he’ll try and brings Ixion up to Olympus.
If we believe the rumors, Zeus is eying Ixion’s wife Dia.
Hera complains to Zeus about Ixion’s actions and Zeus creates the cloud Nephele in Hera’s image to find out the truth.
Once Ixion is caught in the act or caught bragging that he’s had sex with Hera, an enraged Zeus chains Ixion to a spinning flaming wheel for all eternity.
That seems harsh. It’s okay if Zeus has an affair with Dia, but it’s no okay if Ixion had an affair or attempts to rape Hera. Two guys falling love or lust with the other’s wife.
Let’s not forget the Greek concept of Hubris. Though with the more modern interpretation of hubris, in that Ixion was extremely arrogant in thinking he could do whatever he wanted, taking what he wanted, murder and be equal to the gods…
One could say that Ixion’s punishment does ultimately fit the crime or crimes.
Murder, Hubris and the violation of the Guest-Host Laws known as Xenia.
Xenia – Hospitality Laws
Xenia is the Greek word for the concept of hospitality and forms the ancient customs of Hospitality. Of all the attributes that Zeus is known for, he was originally the deity who presided over this custom of Xenia. For this, he was known as Zeus Xenios and was at one time, the god of travelers.
Xenia consists of three basic rules:
1) The respect from host to guest. The host must be hospitable to the guest and provide them with food and drink and a bath, if required. It was not polite to ask questions until the guest had stated his or her needs.
2) The respect from guest to host. The guest must be courteous to their host and not be a burden.
3) The parting gift (xenion) from host to guest. The parting gift was to show the host’s honor at receiving the guest.
The custom of Xenia was really important in ancient times as people believed that the gods mingled among them. If a person played a poor host to a stranger, there was the risk of inciting the wrath of a god disguised as the stranger.
This custom of Xenia extended to include the protection of traveling musicians, known as Rhapsode who could expect to receive hospitality in the form of a place to sleep, food and possible other gifts in return for a night of entertainment and news from other parts of the world. The protection and safety of these Rhapsode was believed to be enforced by the god Zeus and any harm to them or violation of Xenia was sure to place the offender at the mercy of Zeus or any god he deemed necessary to enforce this rule.
This is why the story of Ixion in ancient Greece was important and why the laws of Xenia, Hospitality were and had to be kept.
Ixion – A possible Dwarf Planet and Astrology
On May 22, 2001, the plutino or possible Dwarf Planet of Ixion was discovered by the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.
Properly, Ixion’s name is 28978 Ixion and like Pluto, is one of the planetoids that are part of the Kuiper belt. Astronomers are still learning about these Kuiper objects and how best to measure them. Ixion is thought to have a diameter of about 800km, making it the third largest plutino and to be a reddish color in nature.
It’s mentioned here as modern Astrologers are looking at how to interpret Ixion and many, taking the background of his story see a cautionary warning for issues of consciousness, trust and betrayal, abusing second chances, lust and desire in conflict for wealth and power.