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Category Archives: Goat

Yang Jing

yang-jingEtymology: Yang – “goat,” “sheep,” “sun” or “Aspen”, Jing – “essence” or “clean”

Here’s another entity that caught my interest. Once I sat down to try and find more on them, I found the information to be rather sparse.

Per the few sources I can find, Yang Jing is a Chinese Goat God who is often described as wearing a goatskin and a goat’s head like a hood. He may have been viewed as a fertility god possessing a great sexual potency.

The local villagers in the mountainous areas would offer up sacrifices to Yang Jing to gain his protection of themselves, their harvest and livestock from wild animals.

That would have been it, except I found a couple other tidbits of interest in connection to the name Yang Jing that very likely cast some doubt to the authenticity of a Chinese Goat God.

Chinese Medicine

Horny Goat Weed

Also, known as Epimedium, I found the name Yang Jing in connection to this herb for an herbal tonic used for restoring a person’s overall energy and for men. An alternative to using Viagra!

Any herb used for restoring male sexual energy is referred to as a Yang Jing herb.

Chinese Surname

The name Yang is the sixth most popular surname found in Mainland China. There’s a number origins for the Yang clan in China. The first family this name are the descendants of Huang Di during the Xia Dynasty. More families and Emperors from the Zhou, Song, Sui, Ji and Tang dynasties have all claimed or changed names to the Yang surname. Often this seems an effort to lay claim to the dynasty aristocracies.

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La Befana

La Befana

Also known as: Befana, Befanta

Etymology – Epifania or Epiphania – the Italian name for the religious holiday of Epiphany. It is thought by some that Befana’s name comes from the Italian mispronunciation of the Greek word “epifania” or “epiphaenia” which means “appearance” or “surface” and “manifestation.” It certainly is the source for the English word epiphany. Another line of thought is that the name Befana comes from the word Bastrina which refer to gifts given by the Sabine goddess Strina.

Perhaps I’m a bit early in posting for La Befana, the Italian Christmas Witch or Fairy. However with the holiday season, I find it easier to get her in now before January 6th arrives.

For children in Italy, Befana plays a role very similar to Santa Claus, however instead of a sleigh pulled by reindeer, she flies around on a broom, delivering her gifts of candy to good children in the first week of January. Italian children are very lucky, they not only get visited by Befana; they still get visited by Babbo Natale; both of whom bring presents and gifts.

La Befana is described as an old woman wearing a black shawl while riding a broomstick and carrying a bag of gifts. Sometimes Befana is said to ride either a goat or a donkey.

Like her counterpart of Saint Nicholas or Santa Claus, La Befana is also known for coming down the chimney to bring her gifts to children. Presents and candy for those children who have been good and coal for those who have been bad. In more modern times, the coal is actually a piece of black rock candy. Befana’s being dressed in black explains her being covered in soot from going down chimneys, which she will sweep up after she’s done with her visit and leaving gifts.

Where Santa will receive plates of cookies and a glass of milk as a treat or offering left out for him; Italian children will prepare and leave out a plate of soft ricotta cheese for La Befana as she no longer has any good teeth left. Other foods such as a glass of wine or broccoli may be left too.

Another aspect that Santa Claus and Befana share in common is that children will write letters to them, requesting a special need or want. Some cities in Italy will set up a mailbox for letters to La Befana in the same manner that Post Offices such as in the U.S. will have mailboxes set up for Santa. Some children will hide their notes or letters to Befana in their chimney for her to find.

La Befana also doesn’t like to be seen and will smack any child caught spying on her with her broomstick. Obviously this part of the story seems a way of parents keeping children in bed while gifts are left out.

The Basic Story And Legend

There are a few different versions to the legend and story behind La Befana.

First Story

On the second hill in Via della Padella, there is a village where La Befana lives. In this story, she is said to be part fairy and part witch. La Befana spends the entire year in the company of her grotesque assistants known as the Befanucci preparing coal, making candy and toys and mending old stockings which are given out during the nights of January 5th and 6th, which is said to be the longest night of the year.

Second Story

The second story is a Christianized version and probably one of the more familiar ones.

When the three wise men were on their journey to visit the young Christ, they stopped at the home of an old woman with a broom who asked them where they were going. They told her that were following a star that would lead them to the newborn baby and savior Jesus.

The wise men asked the old woman if she wanted to come with them, but she replied that she was far too busy cleaning and didn’t have time to go.

Later when the old woman, La Befana had either finished her cleaning, changed her mind about going or realized that the baby whom the wise men spoke of was the prophesied redeemer, it was too late. She was too late in coming to visit the Christ child, he had already left. Other versions of this story have La Befana getting lost on the way.

Ever since then, La Befana has been searching for the baby Christ and leaving gifts in the homes where children live in hopes that one of them is the young Christ. In some retellings, Befana has come to see and realize over her many years of searching, that in a way, the Christ Child can be found in all children and this is why she will leave her gifts.

Slight variations to this story have Befana running as fast as she could to catch up with the Wise Men that she began to fly on her broom she was still holding onto.

Another variation to the flying broom is that angels appeared, coming from the bright star in the sky and enchanted Befan’s broom so she could search more easily for the Baby Jesus.

Zoroastrian Connection – With this idea mind, the Magi, Kings in their own right, were fire priests from a privileged caste in Persia. The gifts the Magi carry in the biblical story, represent thre worlds: earthly gold, celestial incense and myrrh from beyond the grave. These three elements were linked to the sacred fires of Vedica, India and Avestica, Persia. There may be a connection between them, their gifts and La Befana with them all arriving on January 6th, the Epiphany.

Third Story

In a story similar to that involving the wise men, this story too has Christian connections.

With this story, La Befana was a mother who lived during the time of King Herod. When Herod made his decree that all the first born male children and male children born that year were to be killed in his efforts to try and prevent the new king, La Befana’s son was among many of those slain by Herod’s soldiers.

So traumatized by grief with the loss of her son and in deep denial to his death, La Befana became convinced that her son was merely lost. She placed all of her son’s belongings in a sack and went out searching for him, going from house to house. The stress from worry, caused La Befana to quickly age, becoming an old woman.

With what seemed liked forever for the grief stricken mother, yet only a few days, La Befana found a male baby in a manager. Certain that she had found her son, La Befana laid out all of her son’s belongings for the infant. The baby in question was Jesus Christ and he blessed the lady as “Befana,” the giver of gifts.

Every year since, on January 5th, the eve of the Epiphany, La Befana would be Mother to all of the world’s children and care for them by bringing gifts of treats, toys and clothing. While some families will leave out a plate of soft ricotta cheese for her, other families will have a plate with broccoli and spice sausage along with a small glass of wine for La Befana.

Fourth Story

In this story, La Befana is benevolent and kindly old Witch who saw the emptiness that children suffered during the long, dark nights of winter. Because of her great love and affection for all innocents, La Befana wanted the children to know that even in the darkness of winter, that kindness and hope could still be found.

Starting with the eve of Yule, typically around December 21st, La Befana would, in secret go from door to door, leaving a basket of gifts. Inside each basket would be bread, cheese, sweets and gifts for the children. A final gift, more important and precious than the others was a colored, scented candle; a Solstice candle. Families would light this candle on the night of the Solstice, the flame of this candle both symbolized and brought the light of hope for the coming year. It is a reminder that even in the darkest cold of winter, the light and warmer days of summer would come again.

Epiphany – Little Christmas

January 6th marks the final day of the holiday season in Italy. This is the day that La Befana arrives, bringing gifts and treats for children, marking the end of the Yule Season. Epiphany or Twelfth Night is also when the 12 Wise Men are said to have finally visited the baby Jesus, bringing with them their gifts.

As Little Christmas, the Epiphany is traditionally a holiday for children in Italy. In the region of Abruzzo and other Southern areas, one festivity that children celebrate is called Pasquetta and commemorates the arrival of the Magi to Bethlehem when visiting the infant Jesus. There are parades held that feature La Befana. She is sometimes accompanied by her male companion, Befano. Children will sing songs to La Befana and leave out dolls in windows. Some families will burn the dolls as a means ending the past year and bring good luck for the coming year. Family and friends will from house to house visiting each other after opening their gifts from La Befana in the morning. Firework displays are also part of many modern Epiphany celebrations. Her arrival is also celebrated with traditional foods such as panettone, a Christmas cake.

The celebration of Befana during Epiphany is huge in Italy where she has become a national icon. In the areas of Marche, Umbria and Lazio, Befana is associated with the Papal States where Epiphany has the strongest presence. Befana’s home is thought to be Umbria.

Ancient History

The stories and traditions of La Befana are older than those of Babbo Natale; Santo Natale, the Italian names for Father Christmas or Santa Claus. She can be found going back centuries with some speculation that La Befana may be the goddess Hecate. Historically, La Befana first appears in writing in a poem written by Agnolo Firenzuola in 1549.

La Befana’s festival has taken over an ancient pagan feast celebrated on the Magic Night, the 6th day of the New Year. One aspect of the Epiphany celebrations as part of an ancient holiday for celebrating the New Year, is a time for purification. This is seen in Befana’s carrying a broom that she uses to sweep around the fireplaces of those whom she visits as a mean of clearing away the old, negative energies of the previous year and cleansing it for the coming New Year.

Other rites used for purification were burning effigy dolls of Befana to symbolize the death of the old year and the birth of the New Year. The end of the long winter nights and the return of the longer days of spring and summer. The coal Befana is known for leaving for naughty children has connections to sacred bonfires and is a symbol of fertility with the renewal of the earth at spring. The sacred bonfires are also seen in the ceppo or yule logs burned at this time of the year. The ashes from the burned yule log would be kept and sprinkled out in the fields for good luck and to ensure a healthy crop.

Sometimes the Ceppo is a pyramid made of wood, a tiered tree believed to have started in the Tuscan region of Italy. This tree would have three to five shelves and the frame decorated. On the bottom shelf is the family’s Nativity scene and the remaining shelves would hold greenery, fruit, nuts and present. The Nativity or Presepio represents the gift of God. The fruit and nuts represent the gifts of the Earth and the presents the gift of man. The top of the tree would have an Angel, star or a pineapple that represents hospitality. Sometimes candles are attached to the outside of each shelf, which is why the ceppo is also called the “Tree of Light.”

In Abruzzo, on the morning of Janurary 6th, sacristans would go from house to house leaving what is known as “Bboffe water.” This water was used for devotions or sprinkled around the house ward off and keep away negative energy or magic.

Ancestor Worship

In the region of Romagna, the celebration of Epiphany was a time for connecting with their ancestors, which would help to ensure a successful crop and fertility for the coming year. This connection is seen in the Befanotti who represented the ancestors going from house to house singing Pasquella and in Befana coming down the chimneys to leave a gift.

Neolithic Connection?

The Italian anthropologists Claudia and Luigi Manciocco make a connection of Befana’s origins back to Neolithic times, beliefs and practices. They make a further connection of Befana having evolved into a Fertility and Agricultural goddess in their book “Una Casa Senza Porte” (“House without a Door”).

Ancient Sabine Goddess – Strenua

La Befana is thought to be connected to the Sabine/Roman goddess known as Strenua or Strina who was a goddess of strength and endurance. This connection has been made mention in the book “Vestiges of Ancient Manners and Customs, Discoverable in Modern Italy and Sicily” by Reverend John J. Blunt. Strenua presided over the New Year, Purifications and Well-Being. She would give gifts of figs, dates and honey. Strenua’s festivities were opposed by early Christians who viewed them as too noisy, riotous and licentious.

On January 1st, twigs were carried from Strenua’s grove, likely located in or near Via Sacra where she had a temple, in a procession to the citadel. This particular rite is first mentioned happening on New Year’s Day in 153 B.C.E. This is the year when the consuls first began assuming their office at the beginning of the year. With the switch and change over from the Julian to the Gregorian Calendars, it’s not clear if January 1st had always been the date that Strenua’s New Year celebration had been observed or if it had been held on the original New Year’s Day, a date sometimes thought in this case to have been March 1st.

The name Strenia is thought to be the origin for the word strenae, which were New-Year’s gifts that the Romans exchanged to promote good omens. Various strenae have been branches or twigs and money. Another name for these gifts is Bastrina and it is thought to have given their name to La Befana.

According to a Johannes Lydus, strenae is a Sabine word meaning “wellbeing” or “welfare”. It is unknown how accurate this may be as many words attributed to the Sabines are only singular, one word or there and no surviving scripts or inscriptions have been found. Saint Augustine says that Strenia was a goddess responsible for making a person vigorous or strong. And if you haven’t guessed it, the root for the word strenuous.

There seems to be a lot of strong agreement that Strenua rites and celebrations survive in the festivities surrounding La Befana.

Other Mythological Figures Possibly Connected To Befana

Giubiana – An old woman or crone and festival of the same name held in the Northern Italy region of Lombardy. An effigy of Giubiana and sometimes her male counterpart and spouse, Ginée who is the personification of January. An effigy of Giubiana is burned to ashes to symbolize the burning away of the old year and the end of winter.

Nicevenn – La Befana has been connected to the Scottish figure of Nicevenn as a source of inspiration for her legend and traditions. With Nicevenn or Gyre-Carling as she was also known, it was considered unlucky to leave any unfinished knitting lying around lest she steal it.

Perchta – A southern Germanic goddess from the Alpine countries. She is sometimes identified with the Germanic goddess Holda. Both goddesses are known as a “guardian of the beasts” and making an appearance during the Twelve Days of Christmas; overseeing spinning. Perchta is a goddess who went from being benevolent to more malevolent with the passage of time and rise of Christianity. At one time during the Yule Season and Epiphany, Perchta will leave a silver coin for those who have been good and she reportedly will slit open the bellies of who haven’t and stuff them with straw and pepples. Thankfully, Perchta has become more tempered again and will leave coal instead if someone’s been bad.

Befana Poems And Songs

There a number of different songs sung about Befana with slightly different versions found in different regions of Italy.

The following is one version:

“La Befana vien di notte
Con le scarpe tutte rotte
Col vestito alla romana
Viva, Viva La Befana!”

The English translation is as follows:

The Befana comes by night
With her shoes all tattered and torn
She comes dressed in the Roman way
Long life to the Befana!

A poem by Giovanni Pascoli:

“Viene, viene la Befana
Vien dai monti a notte fonda
Come è stanca! la circonda
Neve e gelo e tramontana!
Viene, viene la Befana”

The English translation is as follows:

“Here comes, here comes the Befana
She comes from the mountains in the deep of the night
Look how tired she is! All wrapped up
In snow and frost and the north wind!
Here comes, here comes the Befana!”

Nephele

Nephele
Ancient Greek Spelling: Νεφελη

Alternate Spellings: Nefeli

Etymology – From the Greek word: nephos, meaning “cloud” or “cloudy.” The latinized spelling is nubes.

Pronunciation: NEF-eh-lee

Nephele is an interesting character found in Greek Mythology. We first hear of her in the story of Ixion. Yes, that Ixion who is the first murderer in Greek Myths; who also puts some unwanted moves on Zeus’ wife Hera. When Hera complained, Zeus fashioned a cloud in Hera’s likeness in order to catch Ixion in the act.

Cloudy Beginnings

As previously mentioned in the story of Ixion, Nephele is the name of the cloud that Zeus fashions in Hera’s likeness in order to catch Ixion in the act of some unwanted moves.

Mother Of The Centaurs

Nephele is the mother of the Centaurs when she is raped by Ixion who thought she was the goddess Hera. She either gives birth to Centaurus, who is an ugly deformed child that goes on to be the progenitor of the centaurs or Nephele gives birth directly to the centaurs as a race. Either way, Ixion and Nephele do ultimately sire the centaur race.

In the version of the story where Ixion is bound to a flaming wheel in Tartarus, the resulting centaurs that are born were left on Mount Pelion where the Centaur-God Chiron and his daughters took them in to raise. In this lineage, the Centaurs are sometimes referred to as the Ixionidae or as Nubigenae, meaning cloud-born and connecting them to Nephele as their mother.

Hercules Versus The Centaurs

In one of many of Hercules adventures, he does battle against the Centaurs. Nephele is commented by a Diodorus Siculus in his Library of History, to have sent a heavy rain to make the ground more treacherous for those who relied on two legs to walk instead of four like her centaur children.

Goddess In Her Own Right

Nephele, when she is acknowledged as having a name in the Greek Myths, is mentioned as being a Cloud Nymph and like all Nymphs, they are minor goddesses. While being forces and personifications of nature, Nymphs were not as powerful as the other major Greek Deities. Given the story with how Nephele helped her centaur children and later two more children of hers, Phrixus and Helle, she has to have had some power and significance.

Disputing Goddess-hood

Because of her origins in the story of Ixion, Nephele is often seen as being a clone and copy of the goddess Hera.

It’s just possible, that like Chiron, as Greek culture and influence spread of the twelve major Olympian gods, that Nephele’s status and power as a goddess in her own right diminished to her being a Nymph and Clone of Hera.

The First Wife Of Athamas

After the incident involving her with Ixion, there becomes a problem over a matter of a lot of confusion not only with Nephele herself, but the other Olympian gods. In the stories where Nephele is a clone of Hera, there is a huge case of mistaken identity as she was constantly mistaken for Zeus’ wife. Adding to this, Nephele would hide in corners where she would constantly break out into tears. This didn’t work as any of the Gods passing by would keep asking her what the matter was, thinking she was Hera.

Fed up with this, Zeus eventually married Nephele off to the Boeotian King, Athamas in order to be rid of her. All went well until the birth of her two children, Phrixus and Helle when she falls into another state of depression and would turn into a raining cloud.

In turn, Athamas was fed up and started having an affair with Ino, the sister of Semele whom Zeus was also having a current affair with. Eventually Athamas divorced Nephele for Ino and the Cloud Nymph returned to Olympus.

Phrixus And Helle

With Athamas, Nephele is the mother of the twins, Phrixus and Helle. There is a third child, Makistos, though it is the twins who have more of a place in myth and legends.

Because Athamas had divorced and remarried, Phrixus and Helle found themselves with a stepmother who hated them and devised a plan in order to get rid of the two.

This plan of Ino’s involved roasting all of the town’s crop seeds so they wouldn’t grow. The resulting famine caused all of the farmers to go running scared, seeking out the help of a nearby oracle. Unknown to the Farmers and others, Ino had already bribed the men at the Oracle to tell the farmers that they needed to sacrifice Phrixus.

Before the farmers could follow through on the sacrifice, Phrixus and Helle were rescued by a flying golden ram sent by their mother Nephele.

The twins were told not to look down towards the Earth on their flight from Boeotia. Unfortunately, Helle did look down and fell off the ram into the Hellespont, a narrow strait near Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. Helespont incidentally is named after Helle for this is where she is to have drowned.

Phrixus survived the flight and made it to Colchis where King Aeetes took him in and treated him fondly, even so far as to give his daughter Chalciope in marriage to him. By way of thanks, Phrixus gave Aeetes the Golden Fleece off the ram. Aeetess hung the Golden Fleece from a tree in his kingdom. This is the same Golden Fleece that Jason, leader of the Argonauts would later come and take.

Capricorn

Capricorn Constellation

Those familiar with Greek mythology, will no doubt be familiar with the image of the Sea-Goat known as Capricorn. The lower half of Capricorn resembles that of a fish, while the upper half is that of a goat. There are a few different conflicting myths regarding the Capricorn constellation.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

The Capricornus or Capricorn constellation is Latin for “Goat-Horned.” This constellation is one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, Capricornus is one of 88 known constellations and is bordered by the constellations of Aquila, Sagittarius, Microscopium, Piscis Austrinus and Aquarius. Many of the constellations bordering with Capricornus are water-related and are located in an area of the sky known as the Sea or Water. The latitude at which the Capricorn constellation appears overhead and can be seen by observers and star gazers is still known as the Tropic of Capricorn. This is when the sun is at its most southerly position during the Winter Solstice. The term also applies to the line on the Earth, on atlases that marks when the sun is directly over head at noon on the Winter Solstice.

Chinese Astronomy

In the Chinese system of Astronomy, the constellation Capricornus is located in The Black Tortoise of the North or Bei Fang Xuán Wu. Its name in modern Chinese is mó jié zuò, meaning “the rub ram constellation.”

Middle Eastern Astronomy

The Arabs, Persians, Turks and Syrians all knew of Capricornus as the Goat. In certain places of the Middle East, the constellation was known as the Southern Gate of the Sun, indicating that it is in this constellation that the Sun reached its lowest point in the solar year before the days become longer and the nights shorter.

Other Cultural Astronomy

The Nakh people call this constellation Negara Bjovnaš, the “Roofing Towers”

In the Society Islands, the figure of Capricornus is called Rua-o-Mere.

The planet Neptune was discovered in Capricornus by German astronomer Johann Galle, on September 23, 1846.

Mesopotamian Mythology

The constellation of Capricornus dates back to the ancient Babylonians and Sumaria. The first recordings and depictions of this constellation date to the 21st century B.C.E. before 1000 B.C.E. It was associated with the planet Saturn and the Mesopotamian god Enki, the Babylonian Ea. In the beginning, Enki was the God of the city Eridu. He was the god of artisanship, water, saltwater, lake water, intellect and creative activity. Enki or Ea was described as being fish-tailed and was called the “Antelope of the Sea.” He was seen as coming up from the abyss of the deep ocean teaching humans knowledge and the wisdom of the gods.

Enki’s symbols were the goat and fish that both combined into the sea-goat. This symbol of a goat-fish represented the great propriety of the buildings of Babylon out of the low, damp lands they were once located in. The horns of the goat represented the towns of Nineveh and Babylon built on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

The Capricorn constellation is called “šaxû ibex” in Babylonian. The sun in that month moves into the “suxûru” or fish constellation, which is called the star of Tashmetum, named after a goddess of Akkadian mythology. Tashmetum is the wife of the god known as Nabu. Nabu is the god of wisdom and writing in Babylonian legends. The ancient Babylonians revered Nabu because he was the son of Marduk and his wife, Sarpanitum. Finally, Enki or Ea is Nabu’s grandfather.

Greek Mythology

Amalthea

In one account of Greek mythology, this constellation is the symbol for Amalthea, the she-goat who nursed the god Zeus when he was an infant. Her broken horn that was used to feed Zeus was changed into the horn of plenty or cornucopia. A slight variation to this is that Amalthea is the name of the nymph who raised Zeus and took care of the goat that provided milk and nourishment for him. After Zeus had grown up and was able to over throw his father Cronus, Zeus placed Amalthea up in the heaven in thanks as the constellation of Capricornus.

Cornucopia

The horns from Amalthea the goat later become the Horn of Plenty, or Cornucopia. It is also said that the association with cornucopia is because this is the period of time when the sun is resting and “nourishing itself” before moving northwards on its solar path across the heavens. This was also seen as a symbol of discipline.

Pan

In Greek mythology, Capricorn is known as Pan and he is usually portrayed as the son of Hermes. He had the upper half of a man and the legs of a goat. How Pan becomes associated with the constellation of Capricorn is that one day when Pan and the other Gods were down by the Nile River, they were attacked by the monster Typhon. The Gods all changed themselves into various animals and forms in order to escape. In the confusion and panic, Pan jumped into the Nile River, intending to change into a fish, but only his lower half changed while his upper half turned into a goat. When the other Gods saw this half-goat, half-fish form of Pans, they laughed so much and decided to place an image of it up among the stars where it becomes the Capricornus or Capricorn constellation.

This myth is called “Egyptian” by Gaius Julius Hyginus in his Poetic Astronomy and serves as a way to justify a connection of Greek-Roman Deities with those of Egypt. Something the Romans loved to do, equating all of their gods with those of other cultures. Pan is one example here, as some retellings of this story will call him Aegipan and depending on the source, some scholars will say that Aegipan is a separate deity from Pan, or that he is one of the Panes or many names by which Pan is known.

Aegipan

In a more elaborate retelling of the story of the Greek Gods versus Typhon, while the Gods did change into various animal forms, Zeus changed into the form of the ram, Aries and remained in this form for a while. Other gods like Aphrodite and Eros became a pair of fish that form the constellation of Pisces. Now Aegipan had also transformed himself into an animal to escape Typhon, but he was already halfway submerged in the Nile River when he finally decided what animal form he would be. He had decided to be a goat, but only from the waist up and a fish from the waist down. And its this result of indecision during panic and trying to escape that results in the familiar half-goat, half-fish from of Capricorn.

Zeus finally reappears back in his own form and battles against Typhon, but he was however defeated. Typhon proceeds then to cut out the tendons of Zeus’ hands and feet and therefore unable and helpless to move. Typhon hid the tendons in a cave in the land of Cilicia. The draconic being known as Delphyne, a half-serpent, half-woman creature was tasked by Typhon to guard Zeus’ tendons.

Between the gods Hermes and Aegipan, they were able to steal back Zeus’ tendons and return them so Zeus could become whole again. With his strength restored, Zeus was now able to battle Typhon again and this time, defeated him hurling thunderbolts at him. For Aegipan’s role in this battle the Titan, Zeus set the Capricorn constellation up in the stars to honor him.

Aegipan or Pan?

Well now that all depends… some scholars will say that Aegipan is a separate deity from Pan like Nomios and Phorbas who are collectively called the Panes. Other scholars will say that the Panes are merely different aspects of the same god, in this case, Pan. Additionally, Aegipan is sometimes said to be the father of Pan and not Hermes. It can create for a lot of confusion. Which is what Pan is good at and hence the origin of the word panic.

Winter Solstice

During the early Bronze Age, Capricornus marked the Winter Solstice, the day and time of year when the days are their shortest and the nights are at their longest. Due to the rotational axis shift of the Earth, around 130 B.C.E., the Winter Solstice occurs earlier and no longer in the Capricorn constellation. The solstice still marks the start of the astrological sign of Capricorn in the Zodiac with the sun in Sagittarius.

As of 2002, the Sun now appears in the constellation of Capricornus from January 19 to February 15. In tropical astrology, the Sun is in the sign Capricorn from December 22 to January 20, and in sidereal astrology, this time is from January 15 to February 15.

Zodiac

The constellation of Capricorn is the tenth sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. It is the second faintest constellation of the zodiac after the Cancer and can be seen at its brightest in September about four A.M. in the morning.

For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be sometime from December 22 to January 19. Oftentimes, this is very close to the time and start of the Winter Solstice.

Capricorn is recognized by the name of the “Gate of Death” and is opposite to the constellation Cancer, the “Gate of Birth. “ Capricorn relates to the time the Sun embarks on the tenth part of its orbit and relates to a time of new knowledge. The planet Saturn is said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Earth, an introverted sign and is one of four cardinal signs.

Capricorn people or those born under this sign are thought to be well ground and capable of exercising a lot of discipline as needed. They make for great listeners due to their great patience. This ability allows Capricorns a good insight into the lives of other people, traditions and personal histories. They can be very cultured and knowledgeable about the world and society. Capricorns may also care a great deal about personal appearances and perceptions, always seeking to dress neatly or be very stylish. They can be seen as generous, interesting and tactful as dispensers of wisdom.