Category Archives: Ghost
Also Known As: Saint Nicholas, Saint Nick, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, Santa (Santy in Hiberno-English), Mikulás (Hungary), Weihnachtsmann “Christmas man” (German)
That’s right, the jolly, big man in red who brings presents to all of the good boys & girls around the world on Christmas Eve or December 24th for Christmas Day.
The American Santa Claus that many have come to know and love, is often shown as a jolly, stout or portly man with a white beard who wears a red coat and pants with white trim, black boots and belt with a large sack of gifts ready to pass out for children. This imagery of Santa Claus became ingrained in the American psyche with Clement Clark Moore’s poem: “A Visit from St. Nicholas.”
But how did we get here to this beloved holiday figure?
A Santa By Any Other Name….
The mythos of Santa that we have all come to know and love is ultimately a composite and influenced by many numerous cultures, especially those found throughout Europe.
Amu Nowruz – This was the most interesting one to learn about. The figure of Amu Nowruz is a familiar one in Iranian and other Middle Eastern cultures for their celebrations of the New Year that coincides with the official start of Spring. In Iranian tradition, Amu Nowruz appears every year at the start of Spring along with his companion Haji Firuz. Their appearance marks the beginning of Nowruz, the New Year. Amu Nowruz is often depicted as an elderly, silver or white-haired man wearing a felt hat, long blue clock, sash, pants, sandals, and carrying a walking stick. Amu Nowruz’s role is to pass on the story of Nowruz to the young.
I mention bring up Amu Nowruz because of the timing for the Christmas celebrations and how close it is to the European celebrations of the New Year. Anyone who looks at Christmas as the celebration of the birth of Christ, knows that shepherds guard their flocks in the springtime, when its lambing season. If you study the change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar, you know that the date for the start of the New Year was altered.
Father Christmas – The British Santa who dates to 16th century England during King Henry VIII’s reign. Father Christmas is depicted as a large man dressed in green or scarlet robes lined with fur and is seen as the spirit of good cheer during Christmas, bringing joy, food, drink and revelry much like the Spirit of Christmas Present in Dickenson’s “A Christmas Carol.” By this time, England no longer observed Saint Nicholas’ Day on December 6th. The Victorian revival of Christmas, has Father Christmas as a symbol of “good cheer.” Along with the Dutch Sinterklaas, Father Christmas is a major influence on the imagery of the American Santa Claus.
Saint Nicholas – The historical Santa Claus that many love to point out. Saint Nicholas was a 4th century Greek bishop from Myra, Turkey. Saint Nicholas is a Catholic Bishop who rides on his white horse, Amerigo as he travels. He is the patron saint of children, archers, pawnbrokers, sailors and the cities of Amsterdam and Moscow. There are stories of Saint Nicholas leaving gifts in choir boys’ shoes and throwing money down chimneys to pay for a girl’s dowry that have contributed to the modern celebrations of Saint Nicholas’ Day and Christmas. Saint Nicholas’ Day is celebrated on the 6th of December by many instead of having him come on the 24th and 25th. Martin Luther suggested the Christ kind or Christ Child is who brings presents on Christmas Day.
Sinterklaas – A figure from the Netherlands and Belgium who is a tall, stern figure known for handing out gifts to good children and switches to the naughty ones. Sinterklass rides a horse named Amerigo or Slecht Weer Vandaag. Next to Saint Nicholas, Sinterklass is another prominent figure whom many point to as the most likely progenitor to Santa Claus. In the Netherlands, Santa Claus is known as de Kerstman, “the Christmas man.” In French, Santa Claus is known as Père Noël or “Father Christmas.” Sinterklass is most noted too for his assistant(s) known as Zwarte Pieten or Pères Fouettard in French. Sinterklaas has a strong connection and influence with Saint Nicholas and his festival in Myra, Turkey. Santa Claus’ name has been pointed out as an easy phonetic spelling from the Dutch into English when Dutch immigrants in the 17th & 18th century brought their Christmas traditions and thus Sinterklaas with them to America.
Woden – Or Odin, is a Germanic god. Before the Christianization of Europe, the Germanic peoples celebrated a midwinter holiday known as Yule. Many of the Yule traditions have easily found themselves incorporated into the modern celebrations of Christmas. Yule was also a time for when the Wild Hunt would ride throughout the land. Other supernatural and ghostly happenings were to occur as well. The leader of this hunt would be Woden. Additionally, it has been pointed out, that Woden is a god of poetry and wisdom. He is also the god who brought and introduced runes, the writing system. This is seen in the Dutch traditions of singing songs, writing poems and the passing out of pepernoten which are chocolate letters, what used to be runes that Woden would pass out to men. It has been theorized by many that Woden has influenced the imagery associated with Saint Nicholas as seen with the white beard and the horse he rides.
Other Pagan Figures – There are a number of other pagan deities such as the Roman god Saturn and his celebration of Saturnalia, the Greek god Cronos, the Holly King of Celtic mythology who signifies the dying year, the Norse god Frey, even Thor who all have some influence into the modern portrayal of Santa Claus and Christmas time celebrations.
Codifying A Legend
It’s generally agreed by many that the figures of Saint Nicholas, Sinterklass and Father Christmas all play a part in merging together to create the American Santa Claus, with a few remembering Woden’s part in it too. After all, the name Santa Claus can be pointed out as a variant spelling and pronunciation to Sinterklass. The first real mention of “Santa Claus” is in 1773 in any American publications.
History of New York – A book by Washington Irving, writing in 1809, intended as a satire of the Dutch figure of Sinterklaas, he is pictured as being a thick-bellied Dutch sailor with a pipe wearing a green winter coat.
A New-Year’s Present – A book published in 1821 for children, it has the poem: “Old Santeclaus with Much Delight” written by an anonymous author. Here, Santeclaus is described as riding a reindeer pulled sleigh as he brings gifts for children.
A Visit From St. Nicholas – Better known as “The Night Before Christmas” written by Clement Clark Moore in 1823. There’s a bit of dispute, that a Henry Livingston, Jr. who passed away nine years earlier is the actual author. This book really codified and made much of Santa’s appearance lore surrounding him cannon. Here, Santa or St. Nick is described as: “chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf” with a round belly. He is also assumed to be small in stature given the description of his sleigh as miniature and being pulled by tiny reindeer. This story also gives us the names for the eight reindeer who pull Santa’s sleigh: Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donner and Blitzen. It should be noted that Donner and Blitzen names mean thunder and lightning in German. Additionally, their names had been the Dutch variations of Dunder and Blixem before getting changed.
William Gilley – A friend and neighbor to Clement Clark Moore. Gilley wrote a poem in 1821 titled Sancte Claus that also describes a Santa Claus who drives a reindeer pulled sleigh and delivers gifts by going down a chimney.
Kris Kringle – By 1845, Santa was also known by the name of Kris Kringle. Some places in the U.S. such as Pennsylvania, Santa was known as Krishkinkle.
Thomas Nast – An American cartoonist who defined the image of the American Santa as being large and heavy set. Nast did an illustration for Harper’s Weekly on January 3rd of 1863 where Santa is dressed in an American flag and a puppet by the name of “Jeff.” This was a reflection of that publication’s Civil War articles. Nast is likely the source for the part of Christmas lore that Santa lives at the North Pole with his illustration on December 29th, 1866 captioned Santa Clausville along with several other illustrations showing Santa in his workshop. Nast’s influence is been so great, that later songs, children’s books, movies, T.V. specials and even advertising continue to use it.
George P. Webster – In the same 1869 Harper Weekly publication, Webster had a poem appearing alongside some of Nast’s illustrations where Santa is described living near the North Pole, to the point, that this bit of lore has become well established in the Holiday Mythos surrounding Christmas time.
Coca-Cola Santa! – Another change to Santa’s image came in the 1930’s with Haddon Sundblom’s depiction of Santa. This of course, has led many to jump a band wagon conspiracy theory that the Coca-Cola Company invented Santa as the colors of red & white that Santa wears are the same colors as the Coca-Cola brand.
To put this conspiracy to rest, Coca-Cola is not the first soft drink company to use Santa in his familiar red & white get up to promote their products. White Rock Beverages did so in 1915 for their mineral water and then later in 1923 for ginger ale. In addition, Puck magazines used a red & white garbed Santa on their covers for the first few years of the 20th century.
He’s Making A List!
One of the things Santa is known for is maintaining a list of who all the good children are and who the naughty ones are. The good children of course get presents and the naughty ones get coal.
Letters To Santa
This is one of many traditions done by children at Christmas time. Frequently this letter is a wish list of what they hope that Santa will bring them. Wise children will know to keep the list short and not to get too greedy with their wants. Many children will also assure Santa that they’ve been doing their best to be good. Many different post offices and services will accept the letters that children have written for Santa.
The Spirit Of Giving
The very image of Santa as a gift giver has been strongly tied to many charity organizations such as Salvation Army and the number of people who seek during the holiday season to help out others. Department Store Santas and just about anyone dressed as Santa to bring gifts or to aid in fundraising efforts for those in need. In this respect, Santa Claus keeps strong connections to Father Christmas and Saint Nicholas with promoting goodwill and people being more giving and caring during this time of the year.
Whether it’s Yule or Christmas, it goes without saying, we should always be showing goodwill, giving and caring about others all year long. Since the Christmas celebrations take place in Winter, it’s especially important to remember those in need. Which is where Santa’s role as a patron Saint of Children comes into play: giving to those in need and helping to keep the magic of wonder, belief, innocence, giving and love. Life gets rough and it can get hard during the dark, cold winter months.
Coming Down The Chimney – The idea of Santa coming down the chimney to deliver his gifts, clearly connects him to his older European roots with those like Odin who would come down the chimneys on the winter solstice or the stories of Saint Nicholas where he tosses down bags of coins through a window or down a chimney to pay for a daughter’s dowry if she came from a poor family. In much of ancient European folklore, the hearth or fire place is a sacred place where the guardian spirit or fairies of a household would bring their gifts.
Stockings Hung By The Chimney With Care
Many families who celebrate Christmas have some sort of tradition with leaving stockings hung up by the fire place or laid out. This naturally references back to Saint Nicholas who was known for leaving gifts in children’s socks or shoes.
Lumps Of Coal – If a child has been particularly naughty, he or she may receive lumps of coal or a switch instead. Granted that doesn’t usually happen and is more of a warning for children to always do their best to be good.
Cookies For Santa
An offering of cookies and milk Santa Claus when he visits is fairly standard among many American families. Some will leave a carrot or two for the reindeer too.
Just what is left or offered can vary too by country.
Australia & Britain – Sherry or Beer along with mince pies are left out.
Canada & United States – Milk and Cookies are the norm.
Denmark, Norway & Sweden – Rice porridge with cinnamon sugar is left out.
Ireland – Guinness or Milk along with Christmas pudding or mince pies.
“Ho, Ho, Ho! Merry Christmas” is perhaps the most iconic saying associated with Santa Claus. No just any laugh, but a deep belly laugh that is associated with happiness. Anything less, just isn’t Santa. The imagery of Santa Claus be rather rotund is seen as an important attribute of his and immortalized in Clement’s iconic poem: “A Visit from St. Nicholas” for the classic lines:
“. . . a little round belly
That shook when he laugh’d, like a bowl full of jelly”
The North Pole
The north pole is where Santa is said to reside, far away from much of the world so he and especially his elves can craft toys to be delivered. The idea of Santa living at the North Pole likely originated with the artist Thomas Nast and author George P. Webster. This locality has grown up from a simple House and Workshop to a full-blown village where Santa and his helpers live.
Canada – According to the Canadian Post, Santa Claus’ postal code is H0H 0H0, as in his traditional “Ho, Ho, Ho” laugh that Santa is well known for. In 2008, Santa Claus was awarded Canadian citizenship by the Canadian minister of Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism, Jason Kenney. This way, after Santa Claus finishes his annual, nightly rounds, he can return straight home to Canada and the North Pole without hassle.
Kyrgyzstan – There is a mountain peak named for Santa Claus. A Swedish company suggested that this mountain was more likely to be a better place for Santa to launch is gift-giving campaign from to all over the world. In 2007, a Santa Claus Festival was held in Bishkek, the Kyrgyz capital. 2008 was declared the Year of Santa Claus.
Lapland – A region in Finland. It was pointed out in 1925 that Santa couldn’t possibly live at the North Pole as his reindeer would nowhere to graze. Radio Host “Uncle Markus” Rautio for the Finnish radio show the “Children’s Hour” revealed that Santa lives in Lapland’s Korvatunturi, meaning “Ear Fell.” It makes sense as the whole of Lapland has been pointed out to be shaped like a rabbit’s ear and it would enable to Santa to be able to hear the Christmas wishes of children the world over.
Nordic Claims – Several Nordic countries claim that Santa lives within their borders. Norway for example says that Santa lives in Drøbak. Meanwhile, Denmark claims that Santa lives in Greenland. In Finland, Korvatunturi is claimed as Santa’s home.
At first, early depictions of Santa show him making his gifts by hand in a workshop. Later, Santa is shown with a number of helpers in his annual, nightly task. After all, Santa can’t be everywhere, though he’ll do his best.
Babouschka – In Russia, Babouschka is an elderly woman who misled the Wise Men on their way to Bethlehem. Later, she regretted the decision and unable to find the Wise Men, Babouschka has since then, visited the homes of Russian children, hoping that one of them is the baby Jesus when she leaves her gifts.
Belsnickel – A figure who follows Santa Claus in some regions of Europe such as Germany and Austria, he is similar to Krampus in that he will punish naughty children.
Christkind – Or Kris Kringle is known to deliver gifts to children to Switzerland and Germany. Christkind, meaning “Christ child” is an angelic being who helps Santa.
Ded Moroz and the Snow Maiden – Ded Moroz or Grandfather Frost is accompanied by his granddaughter, Snegurochka the Snow Maiden in the Slavic countries. Ded Moroz was once an evil wizard who kidnapped children. Ded Moroz and his granddaughter arrive on the New Year’s Eve or Day bringing gifts as he tries to atone for his one evil ways.
Elves – To make all of the toys that Santa gives out on Christmas Eve, he has the aid of a number of elves who work in his workshop. As time went on and moved into the industrial era, the means by which the elves craft and then manufacture the toys has changed.
Fake Santas! – No! That can’t be! Yet, inevitably, some bright and clever child will point out that the Mall Santa isn’t really Santa Claus. As a wise adult will point out and counter, that is because Santa Claus can’t be everywhere and that the adult dressed as Santa is just one of many, numerous helpers throughout a busy and chaotic holiday season. Many young children will generally except this explanation without question. Though older children do seem more prone to skepticism.
Father Christmas – Father Christmas, however similar to Santa he is, it is Father Christmas who comes filling stockings in Britain.
Jultomten – If you’re in Scandinavia, an elf by the name of Jultomten who brings in a sleigh drawn by goats.
Krampus – German for “claw,” the figure of Krampus hails from the Alpine countries in Austria and Germany. Krampus has seen a revival in more recent years as a dark figure and companion to Santa Claus where he scares or beats naughty children into behaving.
La Befana – The Italian Christmas Witch, La Befana is very similar to Babouschka as she too searches for the baby Jesus and delivers gifts to children on January 6th, the Epiphany.
La Pere Fouettard – “The Whipping Father,” Pere Fouettard accompanies the French Pere Noel on his nightly visit of December 5th where like Belsnickel, Krampus and Zwarte Piete, he will punish naughty children.
Pere Noel – Or Papa Noel, is a figure like Father Christmas and Santa, he is who comes bringing gifts to children in France. Instead of reindeer, Pere Noel rides a donkey named Gui, meaning “mistletoe.”
Reindeer – And not just any reindeer, eight of them that help pull Santa’s sleigh and fly through the night delivering gifts. The eight reindeer are as follows: Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donner and Blitzen. It should be noted that Donner and Blitzen names mean thunder and lightning in German. Further, only female reindeer keep their antlers in winter.
Rudolph – The ninth reindeer who has a glowing nose. Rudolph entered the Santa Claus mythos in 1939 when Robert L. May wrote the story for the Montgomery Ward department store to help drive up holiday traffic and sales. May used a similar rhyme like Moore’s “Twas the Night Before Christmas” to tell Rudolph’s story. Later, one of May’s friends, Johnny Marks turn Rudolph’s story into the well familiar song. The rest is history as there are television specials and books featuring Rudolph and his adventures.
Tomte – Hailing from the Scandinavian countries, the Tomte or Nisse as small gnome-like characters who bring gifts.
Zwarte Piete – A helper and companion to the Dutch Sinterklaas. Early depictions of Zwarte Piete show him as a punisher while later depictions have tried to soften the image.
What About Mrs. Claus?
As this seems to have been a thing that weighs on some people’s minds, many authors have written, saying that yes, Santa Claus is married.
Just what does she do? Besides stay home and take care of the house and all of the elves? I personally imagine her being La Befana, the Italian Christmas Witch. Hey, not everyone believes in Santa and there’s other Christmas time figures who all likely deliver gifts to their respective areas and those who believe in them.
Tracking Santa On His Nightly Runs
With the arrival of the internet age, there have come many websites and even a few T.V. programs that will track Santa Claus on his nightly run during Christmas. Many of these sites have come and gone over the years. The most amusing origin of one such site, NORAD came about when in 1955, a Sears ad misprinted the phone number that had children calling the Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) instead on Christmas Eve. When Colonel Harry Shoup, the then Director of Operations received the first phone call, he told children that there were indeed signs of Santa heading south. This kicked off a whole tradition of tracking Santa with NORAD when later in 1958, Canada and the United States created the North American Air Defense Command.
Many parents will use the websites as a means of enforcing a bedtime. That Santa can’t come if you’re still awake.
The Life And Adventures Of Santa Claus
Written by L. Frank Baum who also wrote the Wizard of Oz series, “The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus” was written in 1902 before much of the lore surrounding Santa Claus became cannon. It tells of Santa, then known as Neclaus, meaning “Necile’s Little One” how he was raised among the immortal fairy and would latter take on the role of Santa Claus after Ak, the Master Woodsman shows Neclaus the misery and poverty that other humans know.
There has been a Rankin/Bass Stop-Motion animation adaptation of this story as well as a traditionally animated adaptation of this story. Since so much of the lore surrounding Santa Claus seems pretty well set and known, “The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus” often provides an alternative spin and take on the Santa legend. To me, it’s rather satisfactory in answering how Santa got his start and became the well-known, beloved Holiday figure he is today.
With the strong connections to Wodin/Odin in the mythology behind Santa Claus, many have pointed out the more pagan origins of Christmas, of which there are indeed a lot. With Santa Claus, they will point that his garb is reminiscent of what Shamans would wear.
It was true way back then, when the colonists, mainly Puritans arrived in North American during the 17th century and first founded the American Colonies; that would later become the United States, that Santa Claus wasn’t welcomed and even banned. For the Puritans, the image of Santa Claus was too pagan, too much a part of the Roman Catholic Church and took away from the celebration of Christmas, focusing on the birth of Jesus Christ. Hell, Christmas celebrations were even banned at first. The celebrations at this time involved a lot of riotous, drunkenness and public displays of disorder. Christmas as it would be known today, didn’t exist.
At this time, with the harvest season clearly over, many of the lower class laborers coming in from the fields now had plenty of leisure time. Workers and Servants alike sought to take the upper hand with the higher ups, demanding largess in the way of money and food. Industrialists in America were all too willing to increase the work hours and fewer holidays than in Europe.
I get it, Christmas got started in the first place with the Roman Catholic Church trying to appease and convert Pagans to Christianity. Many pagan holidays got replaced with those of Christian ones, the imagery from Pagan ones replaced with Christian ones. So you clearly get a Pagan and Christian side to the celebration of Christmas. One that can get some strongly devout followers trying to denounce the more pagan overtones, of which, Santa Claus is just one of may holiday symbols caught in the crossfire of a millennia old religious and holiday feud. Combined with the riotous drunken revelries, its easy to see why early devout Puritans and Calvinists didn’t want to observe Christmas.
Not until after the Revolutionary War did Christmas start being celebrated, this time they included Santa Claus. We can thank all the later immigrants who brought their Christmas traditions and brought Father Christmas and Sinterklaas who would blend together to become the familiar, beloved Santa Claus. Otherwise, Christmas as many in the U.S. would come to know it, wouldn’t exist.
The 19th century saw a cultural change. There was getting to be more focus on family home life and seeing childhood as a precious time to be protected. Part of this saw Christmas become “tamed” and the image of Santa Claus as a friend and protector of children become prominent.
Even today, the controversy continues, you still have those who feel that Santa Claus’ presence takes away from the focus of the season, that he’s too pagan. It didn’t stop some like Reverend Nedergaard, from Copenhagen, Denmark in 1958 calling Santa a “pagan goblin.” Really?
You have those, rightfully so, who feel the holiday has gotten far too commercialized and materialistic. You can’t blame them as many retailers do take advantage of the holiday as a time to boost and market sales. So yes, you can reclaim the holiday by making sure to give others and charity, spending time with family and spend less on pricey gifts so that they are more meaningful.
Then you get into those clergy and parents who feel you shouldn’t lie to children about Santa Claus being real. Which is hard, because, you can certainly point towards the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, Turkey. He was real and lived. If you’re Christian, he became a Saint for his actions, a patron saint of children.
In a twist of irony, while some Churches still try to stamp out Santa Claus, others have found that having Santa there along with a Christmas tree and gifts actually gets people coming in. Go figure.
Childhood should be a time of wonder and hope. Yes, this is the time when many beliefs and conceptions about the world will be formed. Many children will figure out the reality of Santa Claus on their own. It should be a parent who decides to inform their child or not. Not some random stranger with a grudge who must go out of their way to destroy someone else’s fun, festivities and celebrations by enforcing their views.
In theater, we have the “Suspension of Disbelief.” You can at least do that before destroying someone else’s holiday good cheer. Go take over and live in the Grinch’s cave if you’re going to have to bah humbug the holiday season.
Alternate Spellings: Wani Yuu Dou
Etymology – Umbrella Ghost
The Kasa-Obake of Japan are an unusual type of ghost or yokai. Sometimes, the Kasa-Obake are considered a tsukumogami, those human tools that have managed to survive long enough and have absorbed enough energy to become animated, sentient beings. In this case, the Kasa-Obake is an old umbrella that has managed to reach 100 years old.
This yokai is described as an umbrella with one eye that jumps around one leg with it’s sole foot wearing a wooden sandal or geta. Other descriptions will give the Kasa-Obake two arms and possibly two eyes. In addition, the yokai is sometimes shown as having a long tongue. In the Hyakki Yagyo Zumaki text or yokai emaki, the Kasa-Obake are shown to have two feet instead of one.
Behavior wise, the Kasa-Obake is seen as a playful, child-like trickster that loves to frighten people.
In Japanese folklore, the tsukumogami are human tools, that over a period of time, often months and years are capable of becoming yokai. By having survived that long, that tsukumogami has gained and absorbed enough energy to become sentient as well as animated.
In the case with the Kasa-Obake, they are umbrellas that have survived one hundred years of use before becoming yokai.
Where there have been many types of tsukumogami yokai, the Kasa-Obake is the one that seems to have become the most well-known of this variety.
A Made Up Yokai
Edo Period – The Kasa-Obake with the classical appearance of being an umbrella with one eye and foot comes from this era. What I find cool, is that there is an old card game known as Obake Karuta (“Ghost” or “Monster Cards”) that people would play, wherein the players try to collect the most cards in order to win. The game is clearly a predecessor to the more modern Pokemon and Yu-Gi-Oh! Card games that people collect and showcase different, various monsters.
Hyakumonogatari Kaidankai – Or “The Gathering of One Hundred Supernatural Tales”, is another game popular during the Edo period. In this game of telling ghost stories, the Kasa-Obake likely originates from the need for story-tellers to come up with another, new story about yokai to fulfill the needs of this game with having one hundred ghosts. In other words, the Kasa-Obake is very likely made up.
Ansei Period – A board game from this era, called Mukashi-banashi Yōkai Sugoroku, the Kasa-Obake is shown and given the name of Sagazaka no Ippon Ashi or “One-footed from Sagizaka.”
Variations On A Theme
There are a couple of other very similar yokai that are also described as umbrellas, though they’re not the Kasa-Obake.
Higashiuwa Region – In the Ehime Prefecture, there is a story of a rain umbrella yokai that appears in the valleys on rainy nights. Those who are unfortunate to see this yokai are unable to move their feet as they cower before it. I’m not sure how that could be, unless there is some supernatural effect going on.
Hyakki Yagyo Emaki – Dating from the Muromachi period, the yokai found in this text or scroll have a more humanoid appearance and have umbrellas on their heads.
Mizokuchi Region – In the Tottori Prefecture, what is now the Hōki, Saihaku District, the Yureigasa or “Ghost Umbrella” also has one eye and foot much like the Kasa-Obake. They are said to go out on extremely windy days and blow people up into the skies.
Kasa-Obake continue their presence into the modern era with appearances in a good many, various video games, anime and manga; especially any making use of yokai.
Etymology – Sown-Ones or Sown Men. From the Greek word: σπείρω, speírō, meaning: “to sow.”
Also known as: Σπαρτοί (Spartos), Σπαρτος (Spartoi), Spartus, Spartes, Sparti, Serpent’s Race, Ophion’s Race, Gegenees (Earth-Born), Gigantes, Terrigenae (Earth-Born)
In Greek mythology, the Spartoi are the earth-born warriors of the war god, Ares. When the teeth of the slain dragon Dracon were planted in a field sacred to Ares, a warrior springs up from the ground fully grown, armed and ready for battle from each tooth. As such, the Spartoi are seen as the sons of Ares.
Spartoi Of Thebes
The famous hero Cadmus is perhaps the most well-known for having planted and created such an army in his founding of Thebes.
As the story goes, Cadmus was the son of King Agenor and Queen Telephassa in Tyre. After his sister Europa had been kidnapped by the god Zeus, Agenor sent Cadmus and his other brothers to search for her. Eventually all the brothers gave up their search and began to find other places to settle since they couldn’t return home to Tyre.
Cadmus had been told by an oracle at Delphi, to found a city where ever a cow would stop and lay down. After a good long while, the cow finally lay down and Cadmus sent his men off to the nearby spring of Ismene to fetch water as part of sacrificing the cow to Athena. As it would be, this particular spring was guarded by a dragon or serpent, Drakon that killed many of Cadmus’ men before he finally slew it with his sword.
Now a couple of different things happened. First, Athena appeared to Cadmus and gave him half of the dragon’s teeth, instructing him to plant them. As Cadmus did so on the Aonian plain, from each tooth sprang up a fully armed warrior. Fearing for his life, Cadmus threw a stone in amongst the warriors and they began to fight each other. Each thinking the stone had been thrown by another warrior. These warriors fought until there were only five of them left standing. Sometimes, depending on who’s telling the story, Athena instructed Cadmus to leave only five living Spartoi. These five remaining warriors’ names were: Chthonius, Echion, Hyperenor, Pelorus and Udeus. At Cadmus’ instructions, they helped him to found and build the city of Thebes.
Secondly, with the dragon being sacred to Ares, Cadmus was forced to be a servant to the god for an “everlasting year,” such a time period was the equivalent of eight years as repayment for killing it. At the end of that time, Cadmus was married to Harmonia, the daughter of Aphrodite and Ares. Cadmus and Harmonia had four daughters, Agave, Autonoe, Ino and Semele.
In his writings, when Cadmus planted the dragon’s teeth, only five warriors sprang up from the ground. There was no fighting it out among them. In addition, Hellanicus has Zeus step in to save Cadmus from the Ares’ wrath as the war god wanted to kill the mortal. And the Spartoi, Echion marries Cadmus’ daughter Agave and their son, Pentheus succeeds Cadmus to become king.
Royal Family Of Thebes
The five surviving Spartoi from the dragon’s teeth that Cadmus sowed, go on to become the ancestors and founding families of Thebes. Additionally, whenever the Theban seer summons the ghosts of heroes past, it is the Spartoi who appear.
The descendants of the Spartoi all bear distinctive birth marks that identified them as such. Some thought is that these birth marks looked like serpents or dragons. Another source sites that this birth mark appeared as a spear.
Khthonios – (Χθονιος, Chthonius) “Of the Earth.” He has two known sons, Nykteus and Lykos. His granddaughter Nykteis marries Polydorus from Ekhiôn’s line and uniting these two families to the royal ruling line of Cadmus for Thebes.
Ekhiôn – (Εχιων, Echion – Latin) “Of the Viper,” He marries Agave, Cadmus’ daughter and their son Pentheus goes on to become king after Cadmus. He also believed to have dedicated a temple to Cybele in Boeotia.
Further descendants of Ekhiôn after Pentheus’ reign are: Polydorus who married Nykteis, a daughter of Nykteus, the son of Khthonios. They in turn had Labdakos who died soon after Pentheus’ death but not before leaving behind a year-old son Laios. At this time, Thebes was ruled by a regent, Lykos until Laios came of age.
Hyperênôr – (Ὑπερηνωρ, Hyperenor) “Overbearing”
Pelôros – (Πελωρος, Pelorus, Pelor) “Huge” or “Gigantic”
Oudaios – (Ουδαιος, Udaeus – Latin) “Of the Earth.” From his linage, there is a soothsayer, Teiresias, son of Everes and the nymph Khariklo.
Seven Against Thebes
In Aeschylus’ tragedy from 5th century B.C.E., the whole dilemma comes about because Oedipus marries his mother Jocasta without knowing it. Oedipus and Jocasta had four children of which, the incest and inbreeding caused huge problems for the people of Thebes as they saw their crops begin to fail. In response, Oedipus blinded himself out of shame and cursed his two sons: Eteocles and Polynices to figure out who would succeed as ruler of Thebes through war.
All started out well as at first, Eteocles and Polynices decided they would avoid any bloodshed over their kingdom by alternating who ruled each year. Eventually, Eteocles refused to step down as king and his brother Polynices raised an army to confront his brother, leading to the story of the Seven Against Thebes.
Much of Aeschylus’ tragedy is mainly dialogue that delves into depth many of the characters of his story until it resolves at the end with a messenger coming and saying that the army has left and both Eteocles and Polynices are now dead.
There are a number of scenes in which descendants of the Spartoi are made mention of. One scene has a Tydeus, son of Astakos and ultimately descended from the Spartoi is set to guard a gate. Another scene has a Megareus, also descended from the Spartoi sent out to confront Eteoklos after he taunts Ares, the god of War as being unable to throw him from the battlements.
When the Thebans consulted their prophets, Teiresias told them that they would win the battle if Kreon’s son, Menoikeus and the father of Jocasta, a descendant of the Spartoi, offered up his life to Ares at the spring of Dirke or the Dragon’s hole. Menoikeus did so, pulling out a sword that was already stabbed into him and killing himself. Another variation to this story has Menoikeus throwing himself from a wall to ensure the Thebans victory after hearing Teiresias’ prophesy how if any of the descendants of the Spartoi should die, Thebes would be saved.
The Haunted Fields Of Thebes
Continuing Teiresias’ part in the story of the Seven Against Thebes, the Roman tragedy of Oedipus has the seer performing Necromancy and summoning the ghosts of the Spartoi, the Theban ancestors aid their living kinsmen against their attackers.
In Statius’ poem Thebaid the summoned ghosts of Spartoi are a bit vampiric as they are made mention of draining the blood of the living. That could just be the poetic phrasing on his account for the nature of war. Statius also continues to mention in his poem how the fields surrounding Thebes, particularly the plain sacred to Ares were haunted and the ghosts of Spartoi would appear to frighten off Farmers from tilling the land.
Other Descendants Of The Spartoi
There is a grave marker for the historical Theban Epaminondas with a shield of a dragon or serpent on it. The relief symbol indicates that Epaminondas was descended from the Spartoi.
The Roman mythographer, Pseudo-Hyginus in his Fabulae, when writing about Antigona (Antigone) and her son Haemon. When Haemon came of age, he went to Thebes for their annual Games and Kreon, his grandfather recognized him due to his birthmark that all those of Spartoi linage have.
In Plato’s Sophist, he comments that the Spartoi were so earthy and unable to grasp any philosophical concepts. Saying that anything they couldn’t hold in their hands, had no existence.
Spartoi Of Colchis
As to the other half of the dragon’s teeth that Athena hung onto, she gave those to King Aeetes of Colchis near the Black Sea. When Jason and his Argonauts came to Colchis seeking out the Golden Fleece, King Aeetes set Jason what he thought would be an impossible task in order to earn it. He was to sow the dragon’s teeth and slay all the arising Spartoi from them before the end of the day.
Jason was instructed by King Aeetes to sow the teeth of a Drakon in a field sacred to the god Ares. In this case, the task wasn’t as simple as that of plowing the field, Jason was to use a pair of metallic bulls who breathed fire constructed by the god Hephaestus to plow and sow the dragon’s teeth. Making the task more daunting is that the bulls had never been tamed or yoked for doing farm labor before. So much of Jason’s time, with the aid of his fellow Argonauts, was spent in taming these fearsome, wild bulls.
As the field was plowed, Jason sowed the dragon’s teeth and as it happened before with Cadmus, an army of Spartoi rose up from the earth, fully armed and ready for battle. Just as Cadmus had done before with his task, Jason also threw a stone into the middle of the newly sprung up Spartoi. As with the previous group of Spartoi, this new group also fought each other over who threw the stone. In some instances of this story’s retelling, Jason has the help of a witch, Medeia, who uses salves, herbs and charms to protect him from the spears and weapons of the Spartoi. As this new sprung group of Spartoi rose up and fought each other, the hero Jason slew and attacked many of them in order to fulfill his task from King Aeetes and win from him the Golden Fleece.
To Sow Dragon’s Teeth
This phrase has come to be a poetic way saying that someone is fomenting chaos, contention and stirring up strife or war. More specifically, the phrase refers to a fight or problem that is to have already been taken care of and laid to rest yet pops back up anew. The original example being Cadmus’ slaying the dragon and then sowing its teeth to create an army ready to fight. In other words, the problems of the past keep getting brought up and no one is willing to move on.
Poetically, the term Dragon’s Teeth refers to subjects or people of civil strife, for whatever cause and reason cause people to have to rise up and take arms.
Other phrases or words from the story of the Theban Spartoi is the word Cadmeian (or Kadmeian). It is used to mean any victory in war often has more losses instead of gains.
Marvel Comics And Guardians Of The Galaxy
For those who’ve enjoyed the movie and read the comics, the Spartoi are an alien and cousin race to the Shi’ar with whom they have had unsteady alliances with in the past. The Spartoi come from a planet known as Spartax and have built an empire that spans hundreds of worlds. Compared to humans, the Spartoi are very long lived. J’son or Jason of Sparta and a prince is the father of Peter Quill or Star Lord in the comics. The basic concept of the Spartoi in Marvel Comics was very closely tied to Greek mythology.
Other names: “Lord of the Black Magic,” “God of the Danger that Lurks in the Gloom”
Etymology – “of the night” or “He of the night”
There’s a lot of ancient Basque mythology that didn’t survive the arrival of Christianity between the 4th and 12th centuries C.E. Most of what is known and has survived is from the study of place names and the scant historical references of pagan rituals practiced by the Basques.
In Basque mythology, Gaueko is often depicted as a great black wolfhound who sometimes walks upright like a human. He is also known to appear as a bull, monster or a gust of wind. Gaueko is also known for eating shepherds and their flocks. Gaueko’s howls can often be heard on cold winter nights.
Gaueko is the male personification of the Night and all of its dangers. In Basque cosmology, the day is for humans and the living and that the night is for the spirits of the dead. As a spirit of the night, Gaueko would appear to people at night, uttering the words: “Gaua Gauekoarentzat, eguna egunezkoarentzat” or “The night for Gaueko, the one of the night, the day for the one of the day.” The idea being that he would urge a person to return home until morning came.
A slight variation to this sentence goes: “The day for the people of the day and the night for the night creatures.”
Now this is where it gets murky; later Christian influences tend to demonize Gaueko as a demon who is quick to punish those who don’t heed his warning to return home at night and stay there.
In trying to place Gaueko in a more positive light, he can be seen as more of a guardian or protector. He warns people to go home so that any wandering spirits of the dead won’t take out revenge or anger upon the living. Now, if the person goes home and stays where they’re safe, then it seems that Gaueko can protect them from the wrath of the spirits of the dead. And if a person chooses not to remain home where they’re safe, likely any “punishment” is the result of running afoul of vengeful, wandering spirits.
Also known and spelled as: boogerman, boogeyman, boogieman, boogie man, boogyman and bogyman
Pronounced – boo g-ee-man, boh-gee-, boo-
The term or name bogeyman is often used to describe an entity or monster that causes an irrational source of fear. The bogeyman’s appearance is frequently nebulous and vague, leaving much to the imagination. This has led some people to believe that it may be a shape shifter that can reflect what a person most fears.
Stories of the Bogeyman vary by culture and even from home to the next as it is a creature often used by parents to keep children from misbehaving. For many children, that irrational fear of the unknown, that unknown terror under the bed, in the closet, lurking just outside a window, coming through unlocked doors and down chimneys is very real. Even if parents didn’t tell stories to frighten children, there would still be this irrational fear of the unknown for many. Many though, outgrow this irrational fear as they grow up and often find there truly is nothing to fear.
Possible Historical Connections
Tracing the name and origins of the name bogeyman is a bit murky and there have been many ideas and theories put forward.
A few sources place the appearance of the word bogeyman in the English language from the Scottish word bogle, which means “ghost” or “hobgoblin” which dates to around 1505. Other sources will place the word bogeyman to around 1836 as another name for the Devil. It certainly seems to have become popular with the works of Scottish poets such as Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott.
Another idea is that the word comes from the Middle English word bugge, meaning a “frightening specter.” Other similar words to this are boggard, bogy, bugbear, the Welsh bwg, the Scots Gaelic bòcan and the German word bögge; all of these words refer to a goblin or frightening creatures.
This idea is a rather interesting source for the Bogeyman as a “boggy man.” Bog men can be found periodically preserved in peat bogs. In these stories, the bog men arise from the dead much like zombies to attack the living.
The name bogeyman may come from the Bugis people who were pirates from Indonesia and Malaysia. Its likely that English and French sailor brought home stories of the bugis where it becomes anglicized to bogeymen. They would tell their children “if you’re bad, the bugisman will come and get you!” Eventually, the word bugis changes into the word bogey. Etymologists tend to disagree on the Bugis being the source for the Bogeyman as the word and term had been in use long before the Europeons started exploring and colonizing Southeast Asia.
There’s a claim that Bogeyman is a reference to Napoleon Bonaparte who had been nicknamed “Boney” by the British. He was used as a threat for British children of the time and that somewhere along the line, Boney becomes Boneyman and further becomes Bogeyman.
Snot Your Friend
The most interesting connection of the bogey man is the relationship of its name as a slang term for snot and boogers.
A Monster By Any Other Name….
Nearly every culture around the world has its own version of the bogeyman. Some faceless monster used to keep unruly children in line and from misbehaving.
There’s a long list of them that can be given too.
Afghanistan – The Bala or Newanay Mama, which means “The Monster or Crazy Person”, is used to scare children when they won’t sleep or take their medicine.
Albania – In South Albania, there is the Katallani “the Catalan” a monster which relies on the historical Catalan occupation of the region centuries ago used to scare children. In South Italy, there is the Gogoli, “the Mongol” another historical use of the Golden Horde that is used to frighten children into behaving.
Algeria – The H’awouahoua is a chimerical monster made up of many different animal parts with eyes that are blobs of flaming spit and a coat made from the clothes of those children it eats.
Azerbaijan – A monster called Khokhan (“xoxan”) is used for scaring children into behaving.
Bahamas – The “small man” is the name given to an entity who rides in a cart that pulls itself. He picks up any child found outside after sundown. Anyone taken by the small man becomes a small person and rides with the small man forever. The term “rollin’ cart” has been used to scare children into behaving themselves.
Belgium – Oude Rode Ogen (Old Red Eyes) is known throughout the Flanders region, it is believed to have originated in Mechelen and is a cannibalistic shape-shifter that is able to change from a human to a black dog. Oude Rode Ogen later becomes a children’s story in the 1900’s called “The Nikker” who eats children that stay up past their bedtimes.
Belize – The Tata Duende is a small wrinkled goblin with a beard, no thumbs and backwards feet who wears a large brimmed hat. He is described as a protector of the forests and animals who scares children from going out to play at night or in the jungle.
Bosnia, Croatia, Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia – In these countries, the Bogeyman is called Babaroga. Baba means “old woman” and rogovi means “horns.” So the name literally means “old woman with horns.” The specifics of Babroga vary from household to household. In one household, Babaroga will take children and put them in her sack where she will take them to her cave to eat. In another household, she will take children, pulling them up through small holes in the ceiling.
Brazil – The “Bag Man,” called “homem do saco” in Portuguese, “hombre de la bolsa,” “hombre del costal” or “del saco” in Spanish is one such monster or man-like creature who is known for carrying off misbehaving children in a sack. There is also another very similar creature the “Bicho Papão” or Eating Beast who will carry off children. Bicho Papão is also known as Sarronco, the “Deep-Voiced Man”. Another monster is the Cuca, a female humanoid with an alligator head. Parents will sing a lullaby to their children at night about how Cuca will come take them away if they don’t go to sleep. Cuca appears as a character in Monteiro Lobato’s Sítio do Picapau Amarelo book series that uses a lot of Brazilian folklore. The difference between Bicho Papão and the Bag Man is that the Bag Man comes during the day and Bicho Papão comes during the night.
Bulgaria – The Torbalan or “Man-with-a-sack” is the name of the local bogeyman. In some places, a dark, hairy ghost-like creature called a Talasam who lives in the shadows of barns or in attics is what will come to scare children into behaving.
Czech Republican – A creature known as the Bubak, a scarecrow is used to frighten children into behaving. It will hide along riverbanks, making a crying noise like an infant to draw victims to it.
Congo – The Dongola Miso or “Creature with Scary Eyes” is used to scare children into going to bed on time. It is also used to warn children and adults alike about the dangers of dealing with and speaking to strangers.
China – The Ou-Wu is a witch or scary looking woman who kidnaps children that misbehave. She is popular in the southern regions of China and Hong Kong. The term is the origin for “monster” and has become used as a synonym for ugly or hideous.
Cyprus – In the Cypriot dialect, Bogeyman is known asd Kkullas.
Denmark – Here, the Bogey Man is known as busseman or Bøhman and is known for hiding under the bed where it grabs children who won’t sleep. Much like in the English language, the name has become a slang term for snot or nasal mucus.
England – In Yorkshire, children are warned that if they steal from orchards, they might get eaten by a fairy in the form of a giant caterpillar known as Awd Goggie. Another similar monster is “The Gooseberry Wife” who guards gooseberries on The Isle of Wight.
Egypt – The Abu Rigl Maslukha, “Man With Burnt/Skinned Leg,” is a particularly scary story told by parents to children who misbehave. The Abu Rigl Maslukha is a monster who got burnt as a child as he wouldn’t listen to his parents. He will grab children and cook them to eat.
Finland – Here, the Bogeyman is known as Mörkö. In the Moomin stories, the Mörkö or Groke is a frightening, dark blue and big ghost like creature.
France – Here the Bogeyman is called “le croque-mitaine” which means “The mitten-biter.” Another translation of the name is “the hand-cruncher.”
Georgia – In addition to a “Bag Man,” there is also the “Bua” used by parents to scare children who have misbehaved. No real description of Bua is given and its suspected there’s a link between it and the the Georgian word bu which means owl.
Germany – There is the black man or Der schwarze, called so for his preference to hiding in dark places like closets, under the bed or out in the forests. There is a children’s game called Wer hat Angst vorm schwarzen Mann (Who is afraid of the Bogey Man). There is also an old traditional folk song “Es tanzt ein Bi-Ba-Butzemann in unserm Haus herum” that translates as: A Bi-Ba-Bogeyman dances around in our house. Another name for the Bogeyman is Buhmann or Butzemann. And finally there is also the Grossman.
Greece – The Baboulas is said to hide under the bed, though parents will tell stories of this creature in other ways to frighten children into behaving.
Guyana – The Jumbi is the name for the Bogeyman and like many other variations, it too lives in the dark, staying in closets and under the bed. It is used to scare children to eat their food so that they can defend themselves against him.
Haiti – A tall man, with legs two floors high is believed to walk around the towns at midnight, catching and eating those people who stay outside. He called Mètminwi which seems to be a contraction of the French “maître,” for master and minwi, the French word minuit” for midnight. So his name translates to “Master of Midnight.” There is also Tonton Macoute or Uncle Gunnysack who would trap misbehaving children and eat them for breakfast. The MVSN, a secret police force in Haiti used this myth as a form of control as many so called Tonton Macoutes were followers of Voodoo.
Hejaz, Saudi Arabia – The Dojairah and Umna al Ghola, which means “Our mother the Monster” is used to scare children when they misbehave or outside alone at night.
Hungary – Stories of the Mumus is used to scare children. There is also the Zsákos Ember, a man with a sack. A final monster is the Rézfaszú bagoly or “Copperpenis Owl” and whose description is that, a giant owl with a copper penis.
Iceland – The Grýla, is a female troll who would take misbehaving children and eat them during Christmas Eve. Fortunately, she has been dead for quite some time. She is the mother of the Yule Lads who are Iceland’s version of Santa Claus.
India – There are a number of different names for the Bogeyman in India. In North India, the Bori Baba who carries a sack is used to frighten children. There is also the Chownki Daar, a night security guard who will come and take children away if they won’t go to sleep. In South India there is the Rettai Kanna (the two-eyed one) or Poochaandi who used to threaten children in the state of Tamil Nadu. There is also the Buchadu or Boochodu is used similarly in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Bihar parents use the demon Bhakolwa for scaring children. In Karnataka, there is the demon Goggayya, the “terrible man,” central Kerala has the Kokkachi who will take away disobedient children. More bogeymen like creatures are the Oochandi of South Kerala, the Gongo of West Coast India, a male ghost called Buva or Bagul Buva among the Marathi speaking people is used for scaring children and finally there is the Kaan Khowa used by Assamese parents who will eat children’s ears if they don’t go to sleep.
Indonesia – The Wewe Gombel is a ghost that kidnaps children who are abused by their parents. She takes them to her nest on top of a palm tree where she cares for the children until the parents realize what it is they have done. If the parents decide to change their ways, the Wewe Gombel will return the children. The Wewe Gombel’s story originated with an event that took place Bukit Gombel, Semarang.
Iran – The Lulu is used in Persian culture to frighten children into behaving. The Lulu is also sometimes called the Lulu-Khorkhore or “bogeyman who eats everything up.”
Iraq – There is the Saalua from ancient folklore. She is a half-witch, half-demon ghoul used by parents to scare their children. Saalua is mentioned in a story found in the 1001 Arabian Nights. She is known too in other Gulf countries.
Italy – The “L’uomo Nero” or The Black Man is used, he is a tall man wearing a heavy black coat and either a black hood or hat to hide his face. Alternately, he is a ghost with no legs. Parents are known for knocking under the table and pretending someone knocked on the door as they say: “Here comes l’uomo nero! He must know that there’s a child here who doesn’t want to drink his soup!” Unlike other monsters, L’uomo Nero doesn’t actually harm or eat children, he just take them away to a strange, frightening place. There is a lullaby used with L’uomo Nero who keeps a child with him for a whole month. Black is also used as a pun in politics in Italy as the color is associated with fascism. Unfortunately it also has negative, derogatory racial puns and slurs associated with the color black. Other places in Italy, the name babau is used for the Bogeyman.
Japan – The Namahage are demons that warn children not to be lazy or cry. During the Namahage Sedo Matsuri or “Demon Mask Festival,” villages wear demon masks pretending to be these spirits.
Korea – The Dokebi is a monster used against misbehaving children. Other variations to Dokebi are the Mangtae Younggam, an old man who carries a mesh sack to carry away kidnapped children in. Other places they have the Mangtae Halmum, an old woman with a mesh sack.
Macedonia – Aside from the Babroga, there is also the Strasilo (the “frightener”) who comes out at night, hides under beds, in forests, caves and basements. It is said to grab and eat children.
Mexico – El Cucuy is an evil monster that hides under children’s beds at night. He will kidnap and eat any child who disobeys their parents. He is described as being a small humanoid with glowing red eyes. Sometimes he is believed to have been a child who was a victim of violence that has come back to life.
Myanmar – The Pashu Gaung Phyat is used to threaten children with. The name means Malayu Headhunter. In Burmese, the Malays were called “Pashu,” which may have come from Bajau or Bugis. Many ethnic groups in Eastern Malaysia were notorious for being headhunters right up until the 1970’s with the Wa tribe.
Nepal – There is the “Hau-Guji” in Nepali. The Newars tell of an ape-like monster called Gurumapa who enjoys eating children. There is a story told of this creature found at Itum Bahal in the inner temple of Kathmandu.
Netherlands – The bogeyman is known by many names, some of these names are: Boeman, Boezeman, Boezehappert, Jan Haak, Mannetje met de haak, Bullebak, Boevent, Beukèl, Haantje Pik, Tenensnijder, Boelekerel, Nekker, Krolleman, Heintje Pik, Okkerman and so on. Many of these are known for hiding in the water. As Boeman, it is depicted as a creature that resembles a human, dressed all in black with sharp claws and fangs and will hide under the bed or in closets. It too will take those children who have misbehaved and won’t go to sleep and lock them away in his basement for a period of time.
Norway – The Bogeyman is called Busemannen, much like the Boeman of the Netherlands, it is depicted as a creature that resembles a human, dressed all in black with sharp claws and fangs and will hide under the bed or in closets. It too will take those children who have misbehaved and won’t go to sleep and lock them away in his basement for a period of time.
Pakistan – The Bhoot or Jin Baba is used by parents to scare children into behaving. This creature is a ghost Djinn. In other places it is known as Kathu Ki Maa.
Philippines – There are a number of different bogey man like monsters. The Pugot, Sipay, Mamu and Mumu. Among the Kapampangan people, there is the Mánguang Anak or Child-Snatcher.
Poland – Places like Silesia or Great Poland use the bebok (babok or bobok) to scare children into behaving. Another creature is the Hastrman, a scarecrow that much like the Czech Republican Babuk also hides along riverbanks, making noises like an infant to draw people to their doom.
Portugal – The Portuguese brought Bicho Papão (the Eating Beast) or Sarronco (Deep-Voiced Man) to Brazil. They also have an “homen do saco” or Bag Man. The difference between Bicho Papão and the Bag Man is that the Bag Man comes during the day and Bicho Papão comes during the night.
Quebec – In this province of Canada, the “Bonhomme Sept-Heures” or 7 O’clock Man is used to scare children into behaving if they won’t go to bed or else he takes them to his cave to eat them.
Romania – The Bau-Bau is used by parents to scare children into behaving.
Russia – The Babay is said to hide under the bed. The Babay is described as an old man with a bag or a monster who will come take them away if they misbehave. Similarly spelled, is the Babayka who comes at night for misbehaving children.
Serbia – The Bauk is an animal-like creature from Serbian mythology, it is described as hiding in dark places such as holes or abandoned houses where it waits to grab and carry of its victim to eat. It can be scared away with light and noise. It is known for having a clumsy gait.
Singapore – The local bogey man stories here are of Ah Bu Neh Neh or Matah who will snatch up misbehaving children. Matah is a variation off the Malay word Mata-Mata which means spy or spies and is used as a nickname for the police.
Spain – El Cuco, El Coco or El Bolo, a shapeless figure or hairy monster who eats children that misbehave when they won’t go to bed is used in place of the Bogeyman. Parent will sing lullabies or tell rhymes to their children about the dangers of refusing to go to sleep or else El Coco will come eat them. The nursery rhyme for El Coco is thought to have originated in the 17th century and has since changed over the years. El Coco has also traveled overseas to the Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. There is also the El roba-chicos or child-stealer who is used in many Spanish speaking countries. Incidentally, Coconuts received their name from El Cuco due their resemblance to the Spanish bogeyman. Another shapeless monster is El Ogro or Ogre that is also described as being hairy and will hide in closets and under beds where it will eat misbehaving children if they don’t go to bed. There is also the El Sacamantecas or “Fat Extractor” who is used for scaring children into good behavior by killing people to take their fat.
Sri Lanka – The Sinhalese people tell stories of the Gonibilla, “the sack-kidnapper” who will come day or night to carry off misbehaving children.
Sweden – The Bogey man is known as the Monstret under sängen or “Monster under the bed.”
Switzerland – The Bogeyman is called Böllima or Böögg and is an important figure in Springtime ceremonies as he or it symbolizes winter and death. In the Sechseläuten ceremony held in the city of Zürich, the effigies of Böögg are burnt.
Trinidad and Tobago – Many use folklore as a means of scaring misbehaving children into obey. The most common word used is the Jumbie. Many of their “Jumbies” are the Soucouyant, Lagahoo, La Diables and Papa Bois to name a few. The name Bogeyman will also be used in many urban areas. It can also be called “The Babooman.”
Turkey – The Gulyabani is a gigantic and strange monster that scares both children and adults alike.
Ukraine – The Babay is also present here just as it is in Russia.
United Arab Emirates – The Om Al- Khadar wa Alleef, meaning Mother of green and leef “bark” is used to scare children. She take the appearance of a tall woman who long hair flows in the wind. She is often used by parents as a means of getting children to stay indoor after sunset and go to bed. What’s interesting is that the Palm tree is used as the inspiration for this figure due to the scary sounds it can make when the wind blows, its height and how in the dark, it can resemble a woman.
United States – Aside from the classic Bogeyman, there is also the Jersey Devil used to scare travelers and the old British stories of Bloody Bones or Rawhead and even Tommy Rawhead told in the U.S. South. During the Cherokee Corn Festival, young men will wear caricature masks making fun of politicians and using them to scare children or chase after young women. This was known as a Booger Dance and the dancers are referred to as Booger Man. In areas of the Pacific Northwest, the bogey man will appear as a green fog. Other places the Bogeyman will scratch at windows, hide in closets or carry them off in a sack. Warts in some children’s stories are said to be transmitted to someone by the Bogeyman. Among the Pennsylvania Dutch, the term “der Butzemann” is used for male scarecrows and female scarecrows are Butzefrau.
Yukon – In this province of Canada, the Quankus take and puts misbehaving children into a large sock, carrying them away at night. Quankus too is used by many parents to scare children into going to bed.
Etymology – The Crab.
Cancer, the Crab is one of twelve familiar signs of the Zodiac in Western Culture. Surprisingly for all of its importance in the Zodiac, the part it plays in Greek mythology is only that of a bit part.
The modern-day symbol for Cancer is a pair of pincers like those on a crab. The constellation shape for cancer itself looks more like an upside-down “Y” which is interpreted to be the back of the crab. Over the millennia, the Cancer constellation has been used to represent a number of different animals, most often those of an aquatic, shore-dwelling animal with an exoskeleton.
Astronomy & Astrology
Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.
These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.
Cancer is one of the oldest recognized constellations and was one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations. It is the 31st largest constellation in the night sky. The Cancer constellation is a rather small constellation and is found between Gemini to the west and Leo to the east. Other constellations bordering with Cancer are Leo Minor, Lynx, Canis Minor and Hydra.
There is a 12th century illustrated astronomical book that depicts the Cancer constellation as a water beetle. In 1489, an Albumasar wrote about Cancer, describing it as a large crayfish. Then in the 17th century, Jakob Bartsch and Stanislaus Lubienitzki describe the constellation as being a lobster.
In Chinese astronomy, the stars that make up Cancer lie within the Vermillion Bird of the South or Nán Fāng Zhū Què.
The four stars (Delta, Gamma, Eta and Theta Cancri ) surrounding the star cluster known as Praesepe or the Beehive Cluster were known as Gui, meaning ghosts, which referred to the spirits of the dead. The 23rd Chinese Lunar Mansion was also called Gui for this asterism. In China, Praesepe was called Jishi, a group of corpses. This star cluster and the four stars surrounding it were seen as a ghost being carried in a sedan chair on a wagon. For this reason, this group of stars was known as Yugui or Ghost Wagon.
North of Gui was another grouping of stars that formed a figure called Guan, a beacon fire on a watchtower. Sources will differ as to which four groups of stars this was to have been and it may have changed from time to time too. Some sources place Gui as being around Chi Cancri while other sources place Gui around Iota Cancre. A final chain of four stars that crosses into Cancer from Canis Minor was known as Shuiwei or the “water level.”
In ancient Egyptian records dating back to around 2,000 B.C.E., the Cancer constellation was seen as Scarabaeus or the Scarab and a sacred emblem for immortality. A scarab was also responsible for pushing the Sun across the heavens.
In Coptic Egypt, Athanasius Kircher reports that Cancer was Κλαρια, the Bestia seu Statio Typhonis or the Power of Darkness. The scholar, Jérôme Lalande identified Cancer with Anubis, one of the Egyptian divinities commonly associated with Sirius.
Greek & Roman Mythology
Cancer the crab was known by several names. In Latin, the name Cancer means crab. Manilus and Ovid both referred to this constellation as Litoreus or “shore-inhabiting.” In Greece, it was Karkinos, meaning crab. In the Alfonsine tables, it was called Carcinus, a Latinized form of the Greek word. Aside from being known as a crab, it was also called Asses and Crib.
The famous hero Hercules had to perform a series of twelve tasks or labors as part of his penance for the death of his sons after he had been driven mad by Hera. For the second of these labors, Hercules traveled to the swamps of Lerna where the Hydra dwelt. With Athena’s aid, Hercules was able to locate the Hydra’s lair. The Hydra was a gigantic water snake with nine heads and immortal. The mighty hero found himself at a standoff with the beast as he soon discovered that for every time a head was chopped off, two more would grow back and its breath could kill on contact.
The crab, Cancer enters the story here as either the Hydra called on it for help or the goddess Hera sent it to hinder the hero Hercules. It’s considered a large crab, large enough that it tries to do a number on Hercules’ foot with its pincers. For all its trouble, Hercules simply kills it by crushing it in return with his foot and then turning his attention back to the Hydra and finally succeeds at killing it. A slight variation to this turn of events places Hercules as having kicked the crab hard enough that it flew up into the heavens to become the familiar constellation of Cancer.
With the Hydra’s death, Hercules proceeds to dip his arrows into the beast’s blood. As the Hydra’s blood is poisonous, the slightest scratch from one of these poisoned-tipped arrows would be instant death to his enemies. Instead later, it results in the accidental poisoning and death of either Chiron or Pholus depending on the version of the story of Hercules’ battle with the centaurs being told.
Late addition or down grade of a legend?
Several scholars have come to believe that its very well possible that the crab part of the myth when Hercules battles the Hydra in the Twelve Labors of Hercules, is a latter addition by early astrologers and astronomers trying to connect and relate all the constellations to Hercules’ legends.
Regardless of what the case is, the crab is awarded a place in the heavens as a constellation by Hera. As the crab failed to kill Hercules, it only has faint stars that make it up; no bright stars are found within it.
Cry Havoc And Let Slip The Donkeys of War!
There are two stars, Delta and Gamma Cancri, respectively known as the Northern and Southern Donkey that are part of an old Greek legend. When the gods went to battle the Titans, Hephaestus, Dionysus and several other gods rode in on donkeys. The Titans, having never heard the sounds of Donkeys braying, thought that they were monsters and so fled the field of battle. To commemorate this event, Dionysus placed the donkeys in the night sky as a star next to the star cluster Praesepe, which represented a manger or crib.
Another version from Greek Legend
In another legend, Hera is to have driven the god Dionysus insane. As a result, he ended up wandering through Egypt and Syria in the throes of madness. In an attempt to recover his sanity, Dionysus visited the Oracle of Zeus in Dodona to find a solution. While on his way there, he came upon a swamp where, he encountered two asses or donkeys which he subsequently caught. Dionysus then proceeded to ride the donkeys through the swamp in order to avoid getting wet. Once through and on the other side, Dionysus found that he was cured of his insanity and rewarded the donkeys by placing them up in the heavens as the Northern and Southern Donkey.
And from Roman Legend
In this one, the god Silenus’ donkey that he rode got into a contest with Priapus over the size of their erect manhoods. When the god won, he killed the beast and Silenus taking pity, placed the donkey up into the stars where it can be found in Cancer.
Hindu Mythology & Astronomy
In Sanskrit, Cancer is known by the name of Karka and Karkata. In Telugu it is called Karkatakam. Other dialects from India such as Kannada call Cancer Karkataka or Kataka. In Tamil its Karkatan and in Sinhalese its Kagthaca. Later Hindus would know Cancer as Kuilura. Etymologists believe that all of these word variations have influenced the Greek name for Cancer.
In Malaysian myths, Cancer was the “First and Only Crab” which existed long ago, the primal or mother crab from which all crabs came. It was a huge crustacean who lived in a deep hole in the sea. This hole was so large that the crab’s coming and goings from it would cause the ocean tides.
In Akkadia, Cancer was known as Alluttu. It marked the location for the Sun of the South during the Summer Solstice. Later on, it became associated with the fourth month of Duzu that roughly corresponds with the modern, western calendar of June-July. Duzu was known too as the Northern Gate of the Sun.
Among the Babylonians, the constellation was known as MUL.AL.LUL, or Bulag a name that can refer to either a crab or a snapping turtle. One source places the meaning of the word Bulag as “the Wicked One.” This is to be an early reference to the stars as having a reputation for being of an unfortunate nature. On boundary stones, the image of a turtle or tortoise is found regularly and thought to be what represents Cancer. A crab symbol has yet so far, not been found on any of the boundary stones.
Gate Of Men
There also seems to be a strong connection linking the ideas of death and passage into the Underworld that may contribute to the Greek myths and legends associated in the story of Hercules and his battle with the Hydra.
In the ancient Chaldean and Platonic philosophies, Cancer was known as the Gate of Men. This was a gateway or portal by which souls descended from the heavens when they were ready to be born. About 2700 years ago, the sun passed through the Cancer constellation during the Summer Solstice. At this point and time, Cancer was the apex of the Zodiac. The symbol of a crab came into use as it was believed that the sun’s seemingly backwards motion through the heavens were much like those of a crab in how they walk; that is sideways and backwards once it reached the Summer Solstice. The symbolism of the crab is also used as it’s a shore creature and represented a bridge between the land and ocean from where all life began. The opposite sign of Cancer is Capricorn, seen as the Gate of the Gods through which the souls of the dead would ascend back up to the heavens.
Stars of Cancer
Alpha Cancri – Also known as Acubens or Al Zubanah, both meaning “the claws.” Another name for this star is Sertan, “the crab.” It is the fourth brightest star of the Cancer constellation.
Beta Cancri – Also known as Al Tarf or Tarf, the name is thought to come from the Arabic “aṭ-ṭarf” which means “the eye,” or “aṭ-ṭarfah” meaning “the glance of Leo.” Beta Cancri is the brightest star found within the Cancer constellation.
Delta Cancri – This star is the second brightest star within the Cancer constellation. An orange giant, it is also known as Asellus Australis or the “southern donkey colt.” Additionally, this star also holds the record for the longest name. Arkushanangarushashutu is from the ancient Babylonian language and means: “the southeast star in the Crab.” This star also marks the location of o Praesepe or the Beehive Cluster.
Gamma Cancri – Also known as Asellus Borealis or “northern donkey colt” is a white A-type star or subgiant.
Both Delta and Gamma Cancri as the Northern and Southern Donkey are associated with a Greek legend in which Dionysus, Hephaestus and several of the gods rode into battle against the Titans riding on donkeys.
Zeta Cancri – Also known as Tegmine, meaning “the shell of the crab” is a star system of at least four stars.
Also known as M44 and better known by its Latin name Praesepe which also means hive or crib, is the brightest star cluster found in Cancer that can be seen by the naked eye at night without the aid of a telescope. The Beehive Cluster is found in the center of the Cancer constellation. It is best seen and observed during the months of February to May on the Northern side of the Equator when Cancer appears at its highest point. There’s well over three hundred stars found in the Beehive Cluster. It thought that over a hundred of these stars are brighter then the Earth’s own Sun.
The ancient astronomer Ptolemy described the Beehive Cluster as “the nebulous mass in the breast of Cancer.” Hipparchus referred to this cluster as a “Little Cloud” and Aratus called it the “Little Mist.” In antiquity, this cluster had often been used to predict the weather. If it wasn’t crystal clear or visible, then inclement weather could be expected. The Beehive Cluster was also one of the first objects that Galileo observed in his telescope in 1609. At that time, he identified 40 stars within the cluster. Nowadays, there are about 1010 likely members with most of them being red dwarfs. Halley’s Comet was discovered in this part of the night sky in 1531.
Both the Greeks and Romans identified the Beehive Cluster as a manager that two donkeys, represented by neighboring stars as Asellus Borealis and Asellus Australis eat from. These two stars represent the donkeys that the god Dionysus and his tutor Silenus rode on during the war with the Titans. The ancient Chinese saw in the cluster a ghost or demon riding in a carriage and called it a “cloud of pollen blown from under willow catkins.”
Cancer has only one meteor shower associated with it and it’s known as the Delta Cancrids.
Tropic of Cancer
The tropic of Cancer is the latitude line on the Earth that marks the northernmost point when the Sun appears to be overhead at noon. Particularly during the Summer Solstice on or roughly around June 21.
In ancient times, Cancer marked the location of the Sun’s most northerly position in the heavens and Summer Solstice. With the precession of the equinoxes over the years, the sun is now technically in Taurus come June 21st when its time for the Summer Solstice.
The constellation of Cancer is the fourth sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from June 21 to July 21. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during March around 9 p.m. The Moon is said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Water, an extroverted sign and is one of four cardinal signs.
Those born under the sign of Cancer are thought to have sensitive, shy and caring natures. On the extreme side of things, a Cancer person can be seen as being too emotional, touchy and moody. They can be tough when they need to be. Home is important to a Cancer person. They love all the creature comforts of home and family. A Cancer person may have a strong love for family traditions and certainly family values.
Dark Sign Of The Zodiac
Because it has so few stars and isn’t very bright as a constellation to begin with, Cancer is often seen as the “Dark Sign,” described as being black and without eyes.
House Of The Moon
In Richard Hinckley Allen’s book Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, the constellation of Cancer was considered the House of the Moon as it was believed that the moon was found here at the time of creation.
Alternate Spellings: Wani Yuu Dou
Etymology – Wheel Monk
Wanyudo is a well-known monster or yokai in Japanese mythology. He takes the form of a burning oxcart wheel with the face of a bald, tormented man in the center or hub. The image for Wanyudo comes from the Shokoku Hyaku Monogatari, a collection of ghost stories first published in 1677.
This yokai also appears in Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki (“The Illustrated One Hundred Demons from the Present and the Past”) by 18th century Japanese scholar Toriyama Sekien. This book is the second in Sekien’s Gazu Hyakki Yagyō, a supernatural bestiary of ghosts, demons, monsters and other creatures of Japanese folklore.
There are a few folklore references that say Wanyudo is the condemned soul of a tyrannical daimyo, who in life was known for having his victims drawn on the back of an oxcart.
Wanyudo is believed to guard the gates of Hell and wanders back and forth along the road between the living world and the underworld, either scaring people as he passes by or stealing the souls of anyone who gets to close so that he can drag them back down to Hell with him.
Protection from Wanyudo
There is a charm of protection that involves writing on a piece of paper: “Here is the home of a winning mother” and then fixing it on the entry way to your house. This is said or believed to keep Wanyudo away.
According to one source, this charm supposedly refers to a story in the Records of the Grand Historian concerning Confucius’ pupil Zengzi. Apparently, Zengzi was disgusted with his reputation of “winning for his mother” to such a degree, that he couldn’t set foot inside the home of a “winning mother.” Though it’s unclear exactly how this relates to Wanyudo.
One website I went to commented about the importance of the wheel symbol in Buddhism.
In Buddhism, the wheel represents the teachings of Buddha. The Buddha is the one who turns the wheel or Dharmachakra, “the wheel of law.” In Tibetan, this symbol is called chos kyi’khor lo, meaning “the wheel of transformation.” The turning of the wheel is a metaphor for rapid spiritual change as taught in Buddhism. The spokes of the wheel represent the Noble Eightfold Path laid out by Buddha in his teachings.
The wheel represents the endless cycle of samsara or rebirth that can only be overcome by the teachings of Buddha. There are some Buddhists who see the parts of the wheel as symbolic of the “three trainings” in Buddhist practice. First is the hub, symbolizing moral discipline and thus the mind. Second are the spokes (often shown as eight) symbolizing wisdom used to defeat of ignorance. And finally third, the rim which symbolizes the training of concentration which holds everything together. Dharma as should be noted, in Buddhism, is the teachings or laws of Buddha that expound on Natural Law.
Tibetan Buddhism – Yama
Since we’re on this subject of connecting the Wanyudo to Buddhism, I think it’s interesting to note and point out that one of the Tibetan Buddhist Wrathful Deities, Yama a god of death is sometimes shown as holding the Tibetan wheel of life.
The imagery of Wanyudo is also very similar to that of a character from Greek mythology, Ixion, a King of the Lapiths in ancient Thessaly who was punished for his attempted rape of Hera by the god Zeus and tied to a spinning flaming wheel in the underworld of Hades where he calls out: “You should show gratitude to your benefactor.”