Category Archives: Folk Lore
Warning: Before you read any further with this post, there is animal mutilation of a dog, and I am well aware this is a very sensitive subject for a lot of people. There is also child endangerment in this story.
A Hobyah is a cannibalistic goblin from English fairy tales. The story involving Hobyahs can be rather scary as they are never really described, leaving them to the imagination of those reading to fill in the blanks. That hasn’t stopped a few from trying to describe the Hobyahs as some sort of short, humanoid reptile or salamander-looking creature.
This is the main story featuring Hobyahs. It was collected by Mr S. V. Proudfit, in Perth, Australia. Later, Joseph Jacobs includes the story in his More English Fairy Tales collection.
Once there had been an old man and woman and a little girl who all lived in a house made of hempstalks. The old man had a dog by the name Turpie. One night, the Hobyah began to show up crying: “’Hobyah! Hobyah! Hobyah! Tear down the hempstalks, eat up the old man and woman, and carry off the little girl!”
At this, the dog, Turpie began barking fiercely causing the Hobyahs to run away. In anger, the old man said that as he couldn’t sleep, he would cut the dog’s tail off in the morning.
And that is what the old man did…
The next night, the Hobyahs returned, once more crying: “’Hobyah! Hobyah! Hobyah! Tear down the hempstalks, eat up the old man and woman, and carry off the little girl!”
Once more Turpie began barking, scaring off the Hobyahs and once more the old man complained in anger that this time if the dog didn’t stop barking, he would cut off one of its legs.
And again, that is what the old man did…
This pattern would continue for the next few nights. Each night the Hobyahs would come crying: “’Hobyah! Hobyah! Hobyah! Tear down the hempstalks, eat up the old man and woman, and carry off the little girl!”
And each time, Turpie would begin barking, scaring off the Hobyahs, and each time the old man would complain, saying they would cut off another leg on the dog as he couldn’t sleep.
This continued until the old man got to where he cut off Turpie’s head in order to silence the dog and be able to get to sleep.
Now, when the Hobyahs came the next night crying: “’Hobyah! Hobyah! Hobyah! Tear down the hempstalks, eat up the old man and woman, and carry off the little girl!” There was no Turpie to bark and scare off the Hobyahs. With no one to stop them, the Hobyahs tore down the hempstalks and ate up the old man and woman.
As for the little girl, the Hobyahs threw her into a bag and carried her away to their home in a cave where they hung up the sack. All the Hobyah took turns to hit the top of the bag crying: “Lookme! Lookme!” Then all the Hobyah went to sleep as day had come.
Terrified, the little girl began to cry. Luck was with the girl for a man and his great big dog were in the area and they heard her cries. I imagine this man’s dog hearing the girl and leading his master to her.
Finding the little girl in the bag, the man asked how she came to be in there. After hearing her story, the man placed his dog into the bag and took the little girl home.
When night came and the Hobyah’s woke up, they took down the bag, hitting it on top, once more crying: “Lookme! Lookme!”
As the Hobyahs opened the bag, the big dog leaped out and ate up all the Hobyahs.
After that, there were no more Hobyahs.
There have been a few different retellings of The Hobyahs.
In one retelling, it is the old woman who gets carried away by the Hobyahs in a bag. The old man gets a chance to redeem himself by restoring Turpie back to life. Or, it is the little girl who brings Turpie back to life and the two are able to escape and defeat the Hobyahs.
Joseph Jacobs notes the Hobyahs as a type of bogie or spirit.
The story of The Hobyahs seems to be a popular, though creepy story that many in Australia are familiar with. A couple authors such as Robert D. San Souci have retold the story as a children’s book and Joan Aiken has the Hobyahs appear in her book The Witch of Clatteringshaw
Alternative Spellings: 狐狸精, 狐, きつね
Alternative Names: Kitsune-Tsuki
Hailing from the island nation of Japan or Nihon comes the mystical and mischievous kitsune! Stories of fox spirits or kitsune are rather common and popular and feature in a good number of manga, anime, and video games. So much so they have even become a popular staple even in Western literature and stories. The mystical, shape-shifting kitsune are seen as akin and like the stories of European faeries. One can usually tell if they’re dealing with a kitsune spirit or yokai rather than an ordinary fox by the number of tails that they have. The number of tails can denote a kitsune’s age and thus the wisdom and magical powers they’re reputed to possess.
What’s In A Name
The Japanese or Nihonjin word for fox is kitsune. Now, depending on how the word is used and the context in which it is used, with emphasis on the syllables and vowels, kitsune can refer to an ordinary animal or the supernatural fox entity.
A fun thing to discover and note is that the usage of the word spirit, when it comes from an Eastern meaning, refers to a state of knowledge or enlightenment. When we look at Japan, they have a lot of stories about animals and even objects that when they gain a certain age, become sentient and powerful. Some will become yokai or monsters and others are more benevolent. Focusing on the fox spirits, there are two types of kitsune, the myobu or the celestial fox who are associated with Inari or there are the nogitsune, the wild foxes are far more unpredictable and malicious in their tricks and antics.
For the ordinary animal, there is the Red Fox and the Hondo Kitsune found in Japan and both lend a paw and inspiration to the spirit, mystical foxes.
While it is easy enough to give a fairly direct translation of kitsune into English, there is more to the word. Some of the etymological suggestions for the word seem contradictory among various scholars. Nozaki says that kitsune is an onomatopoeia for the sound that a fox makes when it cries seen in the word “kitsu” and that the last part “ne” is an affix for an honorific. In this respect, kitsu is an archaic word for a fox’s cry and modern Japanese words used are kon kon or gon gon. Interestingly enough, I have found that kitsu also means “come here.”
Other etymologies are from Myogoki in 1268 who says that kitsune comes from the words “tsune” or “always” and “ki” or “yellow.” Arai Hakuseki in Toga, 1717 says that “ki” means “stench” and “tsu” is a possessive part and “ne” as in “inu” for “dog.” Then there is Kotosuga in Wakun no Shiori (1777-1887) who agrees about “ki” meaning “yellow,” “tsu” is still a possessive part and “ne” is from neko, for cat.
In the numerous folktales told of kitsune, these are foxes that are intelligent and hold great magical or mystical powers. This power only increases as the fox gets older. When a kitsune becomes old enough, sometimes 50 years of age, other stories say 100 years, a kitsune gains or learns the ability to transform into a human. Frequently, it is a female kitsune who will transform into a young human woman. In this guise, the kitsune is sometimes portrayed as a lover or wife until she is discovered and the kitsune runs away back to the wilds in its fox form. Other times the kitsune acts as a protector or guardian. Because of the kitsune’s power and abilities, some people would make offerings to them much like they would deities.
Fox Tails – One way to gauge how old and thus powerful a kitsune is, is to count the number of tails. The more tails, the more powerful a kitsune will be. Fortunately, this power tops out at nine tails, but that is still a formidable being to encounter. Other folktales say that a kitsune gains one tail for every hundred years of life until they’ve reached 1,000 years of age. Other stories say that a kitsune gains their extra tails from Inari for their deeds and actions. When a kitsune gains its ninth tail, they are believed to have its fur turn silver, white, or gold. These kyubi no kitsune or nine-tailed foxes are particularly powerful in that they can hear and see anything happening around the world. These foxes are also known for their infinite wisdom.
Illusions – Kitsune can create illusions that are incredibly realistic. As an offshoot of this power, other sources have tried to say the kitsune ability to bend reality, drive people mad, take on various shapes, or create a second moon. These may just be an extent to how realistic kitsune illusions can be.
Kitsune-Bi – Or foxfire, this is the ability of kitsune to create fire from their tails or to breathe fire. This foxfire has also been compared to will-o-wisps.
Hoshi no tama – This is similar to the kitsune-bi or foxfire. Some depictions of kitsune show them carrying around a white ball or hoshi no tama (star ball). These star balls are often glowing with foxfire. When in its fox form, a kitsune will keep or carry this star ball around in their mouth. When they’re in the guise of a human, this star ball may take the form of a jewel or piece of jewelry. There is a belief that this star ball holds part of the kitsune’s power or when the star ball is described as a pearl, a part of the kitsune’s soul and that the kitsune will die if they are separated too long from their jewel. Those who can get hold of a kitsune’s hoshi no tama can potentially get a favor from the kitsune.
Kitsune-ken – Translated as fox-fist, this refers to a kitsune’s power over humans. There is a game similar to rock, paper, and scissors, however, these three hand positions signify a fox, hunter, and village headman. The headman beats the hunter, the hunter beats the fox, and the fox beats the headman.
Shapeshifters – Aside from an increased number of tails, depending on the story, after a kitsune has reached the age 50 or 100, they are able to shapeshift into a human. Often, they will change into the form of a beautiful young woman or an old man.
Mirrors & Shadows – There is a limit to this shapeshifting, a fox will need to place reeds, a broad leaf or skull over their head to shapeshift. Another limit in folk tales is to look for the fox tail that a disguised kitsune will try to hide and other stories hold that looking at a person’s shadow will reveal if they’re a shapeshifted kitsune or not. Sometimes a shapeshifted kitsune’s true form will be revealed if they look into a mirror or other reflective surface.
Kitsune-gao – Or fox-faced, this is in reference to human women who have a narrow face with close-set eyes, thin eyebrows and high cheekbones. These facial features are considered attractive, and some stories hold that this is a sign of a fox in human form.
Tricksters – With their use of shapeshifting and illusions, it’s easy to see how kitsune are known for their mischievous natures and playing tricks on people. The more benevolent kitsune are prone to pranks and tricks on those that need to be taken down a notch while more malevolent kitsune are going to have more harmful tricks that they pull.
Like the Fae of Ireland, kitsune will keep a promise or oath given, seeking to repay any favor or debt that is owed. A kitsune may even go so far as to guard a particular individual or household and so long as they’re treated with respect, they will benefit their chosen companions.
Vampire Foxes – Some stories will depict kitsune-like vampires or succubus & incubuses who feed on the life energy or spirit of humans, most often through sex. These could be stories that are actually Kumiho or Huli jing.
Dogs – Kitsune are believed to have a fear and hatred of dogs even in their human guises. Some transformed kitsune will become so frightened that they will change back to their fox form to escape.
Food – I’m not sure if I would call this a weakness. Kitsune are known for having a fondness for deep-fried tofu which can be seen in the number of Japanese dishes that have deep-fried tofu and names such as Kitsune Udon and Inari zushi. Any dish that has red beans and deep-fried tofu is sure to be a favorite of a mischievous kitsune.
Old Fashion Speech – Some folklore suggests that kitsune only have interactions with humans every hundred years and for this reason, they have antiquated, outdated speech. Close to this is that kitsune have certain words that they have trouble pronouncing certain words. One of these words is “moshi,” so many Japanese have taken to answering their doors and phones with the greeting “moshi moshi!” to make sure a potential guess isn’t a kitsune.
As popular and old as the numerous legends and folklore of kitsune in Japan are, many scholars believe that all these stories likely trace their origins back to China, Korea, and possibly even India. The earliest collection of stories that we have were written down in the 11th-century manuscript, the Konjaku Monogatari, with stories hailing from China, India, and Japan.
Chinese folklore has stories of fox spirits known as Huli Jing and in Korea, there is the Kumiho both have strong similarities to the Japanese kitsune. There are similarities in the stories of these fox spirits with those from Japan, however, those attributes are negative ones.
There are some scholars who disagree on the origins of kitsune, whether that’s China and Korea or if they’re solely Japanese in origin. The Japanese folklorist Kiyoshi Nozaki sees the kitsune as being held in a positive light in the 4th century C.E. and the negative traits from China and Korea are later additions.
Some scholars say that the kitsune can trace their origins to India where the fox has a role as a trickster in Indian spirituality. In this respect, the kitsune is compared to the Ruksasha. The Chinese story of the “White Ghost Tiger” of China as an enemy of the Chinese fox is likely a translation from India that the fox and Ruksasha have. The kitsune powers of illusion also have in common with the illusion powers of Ruksasha. Lastly, we see a connection between the Ruksasha’s tendency to devour humans has been compared to the vampiric traits seen with the huli jing and kumiho that are associated with kitsune.
Nozaki says that in the 16th-century book of records, Nihon Ryakki, foxes and humans have lived in close proximity to each other in ancient Japan. The Inari scholar Karen Smyers takes note that foxes being portrayed as seductresses have a connection to fox myths in Buddhism and were then introduced into Japanese folklore through similar Chinese folklore.
Kami Or Yokai?
Depending on the source, kitsune can be classified as either a kami or a yokai. The name yokai is a broad general term and category for a good number of various supernatural monsters and spirits within Japanese mythology. The word Kami refers to the deities, any divine being, and spirits that are considered holy. Given the nature of kitsune and that not all of them will be divine and can be more negative in their antics, such as the nogitsune, it is easy to why the term yokai applies more to the mischievous shape-shifting kitsune. With the term kami, depending on the inflection or with a lowercase spelling, the word kami refers to a lesser spirit.
Are You A Good Fox Or A Bad Fox?
Within Japanese mythology and folklore, there are said to be thirteen types of kitsune, all of which correspond to different element such as celestial, wind, spirit, darkness, fire, earth, river, ocean, forest, mountain, thunder, sound, and time. In broad terms, these various kitsune can be divided into two groups of zenko (good) and nogitsune (bad) kitsune.
Kyubi no Kitsune – The nine-tailed foxes that many people will think of as kitsune. These are kitsune who have lived over a thousand years, gaining infinite wisdom. The kyubi no kitsune’s fur is often either silver, white or gold from their extreme age and they have the ability to see and hear anything happening around the world.
Myobu – The celestial fox, they are associated and aligned with the goddess Inari.
Ninko – They are an invisible fox spirit that people can perceive and only once it possesses them.
Yako – Translating to “field fox.” They are also known as Nogitsune. These kitsune are considered dangerous in that their tricks and mischievousness are more malevolent.
Zenko – These kitsune are considered good or benevolent and helpful. Most of the zenko kitsune will be aligned with the goddess Inari.
Also spelled as kitsune-tsuki, translates to fox possession. With kitsunetsuki, what happens, is a fox spirit will possess someone, who is always a young woman. The fox spirit is believed to enter through either beneath the fingernails or her breasts. A woman’s facial expressions are believed to have changed, becoming more fox-like. Other beliefs are that a person who was illiterate could gain the ability to read. A victim of kitsunetsuki will have a craving for rice or sweet red beans, become listless, restless and have an aversion to eye contact.
All kitsune can possess a person according to folklore, though they will only do so if someone agrees and lets them.
Japanese Witchcraft – Those who force a fox possession are those of a hereditary fox employee or tsukimono-suji. This does take us a step in the direction of looking at superstition. In Japan, a familiar would be the source of a person’s magical power. While nearly any animal could be a witch’s familiar, foxes and snakes are the most noted. There for a familiar acting as a tsukemono or “possessing being” would be used to explain a sudden illness, floods, and any number of misfortunes that could be attributed to evil spirits.
Insanity – With the hereditary fox possession, this would have explained mental illness, especially where it is hereditary. The victim of kitsunetsuki would frequently be treated cruelly in an effort of trying to drive out the possessing spirit. A victim would be taken to an Inari shrine in hopes that a priest would be able to perform an exorcism. If such a priest could not be found, then people would either beat or burn the victim in the hopes to drive out the fox spirit. There are some cases where an entire family could be ostracized if someone was believed to be kitsunetsuki.
Records of fox possession date from the Heian era and continue until the 20th century as a common diagnosis for insanity. Diagnosis’ of kitsunetsuki is specific to Japanese culture like clinical lycanthropy among Westerners. Stories of fox possession can still appear in tabloid media and other forums.
I say that as it puts me to the mind of fairy gold, where a person is paid in gold by a fae, and in the morning, the gold coins have turned to leaves and twigs.
The same thing happens with kitsune. Any payment or reward that involves money from a kitsune is going turn out to be the same thing. Pieces of paper, leaves, twigs, stones, and other similar junk items under an illusion. A kitsune sincere in their rewards and not tricking a human is more likely to offer intangible rewards such as protection, knowledge, and a long life.
As previously mentioned, the kitsune known as zenko are associated with the Shinto kami known as Inari, a deity of rice and such association has only reinforced the kitsune’s connection to the supernatural. These kitsune serve as Inari’s messengers and there are times that Inari themself is depicted as a fox. These kitsune also worship Inari and can be found in shrines and cemeteries. Devotees to Inari will also leave offerings of fried tofu and udon in offering for the fox spirits who they might petition to aid and protect against the nogitsune. The zenko or Inari kitsune can be identified by the red bibs that they were and that they cannot bring harm to humans. These kitsune will be white in color and seen as a good omen. In the same vein, black foxes and nine-tailed kitsune are also regarded as good omens. There is some speculation among folklorists on if there was another Shinto fox deity that existed prior to Inari and his association with kitsune.
Better known as fusui in Japan, it is believed that a statue of a fox is able to repel evil kimon or energy that comes from the northeast. There are many Inari shrines, notable is the Fushimi Inari shrine in Kyoto where there large numbers of kitsune statues.
In the Buddhist religion, the goddess Dakiniten is seen as Inari’s female aspect. Dakiniten is often shown as a female boddhisattva riding a flying white fox as she wields a sword.
This is an old card game whose name translates to either “Ghost” or “Monster Cards” that people would play during the Edo period in the 19th century. Players would try to collect the most cards in order to win. The game is clearly a predecessor to the more modern Pokemon and Yu-Gi-Oh! Card games that collect and showcase different, various monsters. At any rate, one such obake karuta has a picture of a kitsune on it.
The Kitsune’s Hoshi no Tama
This is a 12th-century story where a man was able to gain a kitsune’s favor after taking their hoshi no tama or star ball. The kitsune pleaded with the man who ignored them. After a bit, the fox told the man that star ball wouldn’t do them any good and that if the man didn’t give him the star ball back, he would have a terrible enemy. However, if the man gave the star ball back, the kitsune promised to be a protector deity. The man gave the star ball back and the fox did indeed save his life by guiding the man past a band of robbers.
This is the name of a popular figure in folklore and kabuki plays, they always cast a fox’s shadow, even in their human form.
Lovers & Wives
It should come as no surprise that with kitsune being known to primarily shapeshift into beautiful women, they also frequently take on the roles of lovers or seductresses and wives. In many of these stories, sometimes a young man will unknowingly marry a kitsune, eventually, he learns of her real nature and she is forced to flee, reverting back to her fox form.
Sometimes the man will wake up finding himself in a fox den or some other place far from home, filthy and dirty. Other stories have the fox wife bearing the man children who inherit the kitsune abilities. There are several historical Japanese reputed to have been born of a kitsune mother. One such figure is the astrologer and magician Abe no Seimei.
Kitsune Wedding – When rain falls from a clear sky, this is called a kitsune no yomeiri or the kitsune’s wedding. There is a folktale where a kitsune wedding is described as happening in just such conditions. The events are considered good omens and the kitsune seek retribution on any who are uninvited.
For the versions of the kitsune reported to be a type of energy vampire or succubae/incubi, this makes sense for them to go this route in order to get close to their prey and feed.
This story concerns a historical person by the name of Koan who had been staying in the home of one of his devotees. As Koan entered the bathhouse, he scaled his foot after the water had been drawn too hot. Yelping in pain, Koan fled the bathhouse naked and the people present who saw him were astonished to see fur covering much of his body and a fox’s tail. Koan transformed into a fox in front of everyone into an elderly fox before running away.
An Old Fox Tale
This story is one of the oldest surviving kitsune tales that date to C.E. 545. It is found in the Nihon Ryouiki or “Japanese Ghost Stories” collection. There are many numerous stories of kitsune appearing to a human man as a woman and then her fox nature is revealed that she must flee and run away. This story is slightly different from how it ends.
A man by the name of Ono who lived on the island of Mino, spent years longing for his ideal image of feminine beauty. One evening, Ono met a beautiful woman out on a moor and married her after proposing to her on the spot and detailing all the ways in which he would take care of her. At the time of the birth of their son, Ono’s dog also gave birth to a pup. As the pup grew, it became more and more hostile to the woman. She begged Ono to kill the pup, but he refused. One day, the dog attacked the woman so aggressively that she became frightened, transforming into a kitsune with nine tails who to lept over a fence as she fled.
Ono called after the fox that “You may be a fox! But you are the mother of my son and I love you! Come back when you please, you will always be welcome!”
So, the fox did, every evening she would return to sleep in Ono’s arms and then leave in the morning.
In this story, it is noted there is an old etymology for kitsune with kitsu-ne meaning “come and sleep,” and ki-tsune meaning “always comes.” Which I find interesting depending on the emphasis for the syllables.
Kitsune Versus Tanuki Rivalries
The tanuki or raccoon dogs of Japan are another notable trickster, and they share a lot of traits in common with kitsune such as shapeshifting. There is a Japanese phrase that says a fox has seven disguises, but the tanuki has eight. Popular motifs show the kitsune as classy and elegant where the tanuki comes across as more the party lover. A kitsune is often more snobbish and someone said to have a triangular, foxlike or kitsune-face is given as a compliment. In comparison, the tanuki is regarded as clumsier or a bit of a slop and to say that someone is tanuki-faced, having a more squarish or round face is to say they’re silly.
I find it interesting to learn that when you take the kanji for kitsune (狐) and the kanji for tanuki (狸) and put them together to form 狐狸, this reads as kori and is a metaphor for a “sly person.” Then, when you place the kanji for dog or inu (狗) between those kanji, you get the word kokkuri (狐狗狸), which is the name for a Japanese divination game much like the party atmosphere use of Ouija boards.
There is a Japanese phrase that says a fox has seven disguises, but the tanuki has eight. Popular motifs show the kitsune as classy and elegant where the tanuki comes across as more the party lover.
Other Fox Spirits
Hồ ly tinh – This is the name for the Vietnamese fox spirit.
Hulijing – These more dangerous fox spirits and shapeshifters hail from China.
Komihu – These fox spirits and shapeshifters hail from Korea.
Reynard the Fox – The familiar fox trickster from Western literature. Reynard is the name of the fox in the French The Beast Epic. The name Reynard is often the stock name for a fox character.
Etymology: Strike from shan
Also Known As: Badé, Changó, Esango (Edo people), Hevioso, Jakuta, Nzazi, Sango, Ṣàngó, Siete Rayos, Xangô (Latin America), Sogbo or Ebioso (Fon people)
In Nigeria, among the Yoruban people and the Dahomey religion, Shango is a god or Orisha of fire, thunder, and lightning. Like many storm and thunder gods, Shango lives up in the sky where he hurls thunderstones down to the earth, killing those who offended him or setting houses on fire.
Animal: Black Cat, Dog, Duck, Fresh Water Turtles, Quail, Ram, Sheep, Tortoise
Colors: Red, White
Day of the Week: Friday and Ojo Jakuta, the fifth day of the week in Yorubaland.
Feast Day: December 4th, same as Saint Barbara
Gemstones: Thunderstones; either meteorites or stone celts
Number: 3 and 6
Patron of: Resistance, Strength, Power
Sphere of Influence: Thunder, Lightning, Fertility, War, Truth, Intelligence, Courage, Power, Dominance, Resistance
Symbols: Stone Celt, Double-Headed Axe, Bangles, Brass Crown, any object struck by lightning
Taboo (Yoruba): Cowpea, don’t eat this.
Statues, imagery, and other art featuring Shango show him with a double axe on his head that represent thunder. He will often be dressed in clothing that’s red and white. Sometimes Shango has six eyes and other times he has three heads. In some traditions, Shango wears a headdress with cowrie shells on it.
In the Candomblé traditions, Xangô as he is called wears red and has a brass crown.
There is a religious ritual of Shango designed to help devotees and followers of Shango to gain and have self-control. Shango beads tell the story of his essence with white beads representing Obatala’s logic alternating in balance with the red beads of Aganju’s fire and passion when pursuing a goal.
The initiation ceremony of Shango came about after his deification which preserves his memory and the prosperity he brings to his followers on a personal level just as he brought prosperity to the Oyo kingdom in life.
Altars to Shango will often have a carved image of a woman holding her bosom as a gift to Shango with a double-bladed axe sticking out of her head. The axe symbolizes the devotee as being possessed by Shango. The woman has an expression that is calm and collected, representing the attributes or qualities she has gained from her faith.
Ritual foods for Shango include guguru, bitter cola, àmàlà, and gbegiri soup. The Bata drum is also used during Shango’s worship and rituals.
In this religion, Shango or Xangô was the son of the Oyo king Oranyan. During the African diaspora, Xangô gained strong importance among the slaves in Brazil for his strength, resistance, and aggression. Xangô became a patron orixa of plantations and many Candomblé terreiros. In contrast, Oko, the orixa of agriculture didn’t receive as much favor among slaves in Brazil and given the circumstances, I don’t blame them.
A dish known as amalá (a stew of okra with shrimp and palm oil) is sacred to Xangô.
In the Santería religion, Shango, or Changó as he is known is the focal or center point of the religion and represents the Oyo people of West Africa. Changó is a representative of the ancestors and all who adhere to the Santeria faith.
In Latin America, there is a major initiation ceremony that has been held for the last few hundred years that is based on the Shango ceremony of the Ancient Oyo. It is a ceremony that has survived and is considered the most complete to have arrived on the Western shores.
There is an initiation ceremony that is also based on the Shango ceremony and is the basis for all the Orisha initiation ceremonies within the Americas.
Other traditions that venerate Shango are Folk Catholicism, Louisiana Voodoo, Palo, the Portuguese Candomblé and Umbanda, the Trinidad Orisha, Haitian Vodou, and Vodun.
Before becoming deified or an orisha, Shango was once a mortal king, the third king of the Oyo Kingdom. After his death, Shango became deified. I have other sources that say Shango is the fourth king.
The lineage of kings is as follows: Oduduwa, Oranyan, and Ajaka. In life, Shango was known as Jakuta and was the third king or Alafin of Oyo kingdom. Jakuta was the brother to Ajaka known to be more peaceful compared to Jakuta’s more violent rule who could wield supernatural forces to create thunder and lightning. Jakuta ruled for a period of seven years that was noted for constant war campaigns and numerous battles. Towards the end of Jakuta’s reign, it is said he caused the unintentional destruction of his palace with lightning. While alive, Jakuta was married to three women named Oshun, Oba, and Oya.
Oral traditions tell how during Shango’s mortal reign, a subordinate chief challenged Shango’s rule. Many people were impressed by the subordinate chief’s feats and demonstration of magic, such that they went to follow this new leader. Dismayed by this public defeat and humiliation, Shango left Oyo and committed suicide by hanging.
A variation to this story I came across is that Shango was so fascinated by the use of magic that while calling down the powers of thunder and lightning, Shango accidentally set fire to his palace and killed his wives and many of his children. It is in shame from that, that Shango left the kingdom of Oyo.
When enemies and detractors of Shango were contemptuous and spreading his shame, a series of storms swept over Oyo, destroying many homes. This caused people to believe that Shango’s powers had made him a god or orisha and these storms were proof of his wrath. There are suggestions that Shango’s followers set fire to these homes.
However, those loyal to Shango said that he really ascended to the heavens by climbing a chain and that he became an orisha. Shango would gain the attributes of an earlier orisha, Jakuta who represented the wrath of the supreme deity Olorun-Olodumare. Shango’s cult and worship would continue to grow and spread throughout Oyo and Yorubaland. Even neighboring people of the Edo and Fon would adopt Shango into their religions.
Shango is a member of the Orisha, who are either a spirit or deity. In the Yoruba religion, a nature-based tradition, it is believed that the source of everything is called Olorun or Olodumare. The Orisha themselves are regarded as being different aspects of the main deity, Olorun-Olodumare. Shango is regarded as the most powerful of all the Orisha.
With the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, the worship of Shango was brought with the slaves and is now found throughout much of the southern U.S., Latin America, and South America.
Much like the Hindi avatars, Shango has had many Irunmole or manifestations. The names of some of them are Airá, Agodo, Afonja, Lubé, and Obomin. All of these people are believed to have been an incarnation of Shango and like many such Irunmole, had great wisdom and power while they lived.
Parentage and Family
Oranyan – The mortal king of Oyo before Shango become deified.
Yemaja – Orisha mother goddess and protector of birth.
In some traditions, Shango’s wives are said to be the rivers.
Oba – She tried to win Shango’s love by offering her ear to him to eat. In anger, Shango sent her away and she became a river goddess.
Oshun – A river goddess and Shango’s favorite as he loves her cooking.
Oya – A Storm and Mother goddess, she is also the Niger river. It is said she stole the secrets of Shango’s magic.
Oya – Depending on the stories or tradition, Oya and Shango are brother and sister, not husband and wife.
As noted, the main wives of Shango are venerated as Orisha. All three are associated with rivers in Nigeria. The first is Oya, connected to the Oya River. Oya would become the orisha of battle, storms, and hurricanes. Oya had once been married to Ogun but would fall in love with Shango. Together, Oya and Shango partner up when going out to battle.
Then there is Oshun who is connected to the Osun River. Oshun is the orisha associated with love, sensuality, and femininity.
Lastly, we have Oba who was forever hopelessly in love with Shango. Oba would find herself rejected by Shango after another of his wives tricked Oba into cutting off her ear to feed to him. Oba went into exile in a cemetery and become the orisha of violent storms and death. She would also become the Oba River, specifically where it meets with the Osun River.
Orisha Of Thunder & Lighting
Shango is known as an orisha of thunder and lightning.
Fire – It should come as no surprise that one of Shango’s domains is that of fire as well. After all, lighting strikes are known to cause a fire.
Oṣè – This is the name that the double axe in Yorubaland that Shango has is called. The double axe symbolizes and represents lightning.
Resistance – During the African diaspora and slavery, Shango became a very important symbol of resistance.
Thunderbolts – Stone Celt
A celt in this case is a primitive stone tool like an adze, hoe or axe. Farmers would sometimes find these primitive, prehistoric tools while out-tilling their fields. Believing these stone celts were Shango’s thunderbolts, the farmers would take them to Shango’s priests who kept these in Shango’s shrine in an inverted mortar.
Shango was renowned and feared for his powers and whenever he spoke, fire came out of his mouth.
Jakuta – When not identified as an ancestor, it is believed that Shango likely usurped the duties and aspects of an older deity by the name of Jakuta. This older deity, Jakuta was known to hurl fire stones as punishment towards people if they acted against the wishes of Olodumre, the Supreme God, or Orisha. The name Jakuta means “Hurler of stones” or “Fighter with stones.” The prefix Ja means to hurl from aloft and the suffix okuta means stone. That’s interesting to note in connection to the stone celts that farmers would find out in fields and believed to be thunderbolts. Jakuta is also associated with a fellowship of meteorites.
Possession – Those who worship Shango and become possessed by him can eat fire, using oil-soaked cloth known as itufu to do so. Some may carry pots of live coal on their head or shove their hands into coals without any harm.
As a fertility deity, particularly masculine fertility, Shango grants wealth and prosperity to his followers just as he did for the kingdom of Oyo during his mortal life and reign.
Dance – Shango’s power, seen in his ritual dances represents the dangerous side of sexual relationships. Another interpretation is a warning of the arrogancy in using military force for political gains and leadership. The bata drums are beaten to represent the sound of thunder.
As seen in the dances that Shango does, he is also he orisha of war as in life, he held many continuous campaigns and battles to expand his influence.
Oṣè – The double axe that represents lightning is also a symbol of military prowess and the use of violence.
Justice – There is also a close association of the use of force or might to make right and enforce justice. Shango was known for being rather harsh and strict with his subjects.
There are a few different Saints that Shango has been equated to and it varies by the religion revering him.
Saint Barbara – The Saint whom Shango is equated to in the Candomble tradition. She is the patron saint of armorers, artillerymen, military engineers, miners, and others who work with explosives. She has an old legend that connects her to lightning and mathematicians.
Saint Jerome – They are the patron saint of translators, librarians, and encyclopedists. In some traditions, he is regarded as the husband to Saint Barbara and for that reason, Saint Jerome gets syncretized or equated with Shango.
Jupiter – The Roman god of the heavens, his attributes are the lightning bolt.
Marduk – The Mesopotamian god of fertility and storms can be comparable to Shango.
Raijin – The Japanese god of thunder.
Teshub – The Hurrian god of the sky and thunder.
Thor – The mighty thunderer of Norse mythology, he is the god of thunder and war.
Zeus – The Greek god of the heavens, his attributes are the lightning bolt.
Etymology: “God of Wealth”
Also Known As: Ts’ai-shen, Tsai Shen Yeh, Zhao Gongming, Bi Gan
Alternative Spellings: T’shai-Shen, 財神 (Traditional Chinese,) 财神 (Simplified Chinese)
In the Taosist and folk religions of China, Caishen is the god of wealth, specifically prosperity who is rather popular that even atheists will worship him from time to time, at least during the Lunar New Year celebrations.
In some depictions, Caishen is shown dressed in exquisite flowing red robes and riding a black tiger. He is said to have a black face with a thick mustache and wears an iron helmet along with holding an iron weapon. Unless this misunderstanding is on my part, Caishen may also be shown with a Ri Yu staff or scepter that he holds. A golden yuanbao (gold ingot, bar of gold) is also shown near to Caishen or he may be holding one. Other imagery of Caishen will show him with several attendants with various gold bars, scrolls and fruit to pass to people that Caishen has blessed.
A temple to Caishen was built in the 2000s in Zhouzhi, Xi’an, Shaanxi. That is fairly recent in the grand scheme of things.
Caishen aids in ensuring that a person will receive profits from any commercial transactions.
Gold – This is rather obvious as a symbol of Caishen. He is often shown with a gold yuanbao or ingot as this holds value. The iron weapon that Caishen is shown holding also sometimes transforms into gold, showing Caishen’s power over wealth and prosperity.
Alchemy – There is sometimes another tool, a golden cudgel that Caishen holds that he can use to turn stone or iron into gold.
Tiger – In Chinese symbolism, the tiger represents persistence and represents that a person must do more than wish for wealth, they must do more and act on it.
Close on the heels of being a god of prosperity, Caishen presides over a bureaucracy with numerous minor deities under him.
Aside from promoting prosperity and wealth, Caishen is known to protect or ward against thunder and lightning.
Lunar New Year
During the Chinese Lunar New Year, Caishen descends from the heavens to come down to the earth and check on his followers.
With the Lunar New Year, this is a good time in the days leading up to it to do some spring cleaning of your home and remove unwanted clutter. Do any repairs that need it and check the lightbulbs, especially for the front door.
Families worship Caishen in the early morning by setting three candles on the dining table and burning three incense sticks of choice as the main entrance and windows are open to invite Caishen into the home. After bowing and inviting Caishen in, it is traditional for the family to set a place for him at the table and to eat dumplings on this day as they look like the gold yuanbao or ingot associated with Caishen. Images of Caishen are also displayed, in more modern times, posters are acceptable.
On the second day of the Lunar New Year, Caishen ascends back up to the heavens, and the pictures used to welcome him on the first day are now burned to see him off. Burning the pictures is part of wishing for a more prosperous and luckier year.
The fifth day of the Lunar New Year is Caishen’s birthday, so its natural to want to celebrate that and wish him a happy birthday too! Cake, dumplings, and fireworks!
It is popular among friends and family to say the traditional New Year greeting of “Gongxi Facai” or “May you become rich!” Admittedly, many Westerners confuse the saying as being equivalent to the English “Happy New Year” when it’s a prayer wishing someone wealth and prosperity.
For those who practice feng shui, an image of Caishen can be displayed in one’s home or office to attract money, good luck or fortune, wealth, and prosperity. Some believe that this can come in the form of a sudden windfall of financial luck. The higher that you are able to place this image of Caishen, the better as that is believed to show more respect for him with the best places being the foyer, entryway, or living room for him.
Among the “Pure Land Buddhists,” they venerate Caishen as a buddha. In esoteric Buddhism, Caishen is identified with Jambhala, the God of Wealth.
In various Chinese and Taosist temples, a statue of Caishen may sometimes stand near a door, usually in conjunction with Randeng Daoren, the Burning-Lamp Taoist.
Under Mao and Communism, the veneration of Caishen in mainland China hasn’t faired too well as the state believes in making it’s own way and luck with money. Several of the temples and statues of Caishen were destroyed during this time.
As luck would have it, 1979 saw a renaissance from the “Four Asian Tigers” of overseas Chinese communities in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea where the veneration of Caishen had been kept alive, finding themselves wealthy and prosperous, even well developed. This wouldn’t be hard for people back in mainland China to see a correlation and have a swift return to using Caishen’s symbols from abroad and to place statues of Caishen in several prominent places, there are shrines, incense burned and statuettes tucked away on a shelf in a restaurant.
Possible Reality Behind The Myth
Many of China’s mythical figures are often said and thought to have once been a living person in life before ascending a deified or higher state. In this case, there are several legends of whom Caishen has been linked to, making it a bit dubious to determine if these were real, living historical people once.
With Caishen, we see him linked to the historical figure of Zhao Xuan-tan or Chao Hsüan-t’an, “General Zhao of the Dark Terrace,” during the Qin Dynasty. As Zhao Xuan-tan, he gained enlightenment on the top of a mountain. While still mortal, Zhao Xuan-tan is said to have assisted Zhang Dao-ling during his search for the Life-Prolonging Elixir.
Bi Gan – The historical figure of Bi Gan is the most ancient person to link Caishan with and the first incarnation. Bi Gan had been married to a woman with the surname of Chen. Their son’s name was Quan. After Bi Gan was sentenced to death by his nephew, King Zhou of Shang, Bi Gan’s wife and son fled to the forest. Bi Gan’s death is noted to mark the collapse of the Shang dynasty. Later, Quan would be revered as the ancestor to the Lins by King Wu of Zhou.
Zhao Gongming – There is a novel written during the Ming dynasty era called Fengshen Yanyi that tells the story of a hermit by the name Zhao Gongming who used magic to support a failing Shang dynasty. Jiang Ziya, who supported the following Zhou dynasty, made a straw effigy of Zhao and after twenty days of spells, prayers and incantations, fired an arrow made of peach tree wood through the heart of this effigy. At the moment the arrow struck, Zhao became ill and died. Later, when Jiang visited the temple of Yuan Shi, he was chastised for causing the death of a virtuous man. Jiang Ziya, having remorse, carried Zhao’s corpse to the Yuan Shi temple to make atonement. As Jiang expounded on Zhao’s virtues, Zhao would become canonized as Caishen, the god of Wealth, and become the president of the Ministry of Wealth. There are some sources that reverse the loyalties of Zhao and Jiang for this story.
The historical figure of Bi Gan is the most ancient person to link Caishan with. Bi Gan had been married to a woman with the surname of Chen. Their son’s name was Quan. After Bi Gan was sentenced to death by his nephew, King Zhou of Shang, Bi Gan’s wife and son fled to the forest. Bi Gan’s death is noted to mark the collapse of the Shang dynasty. Later, Quan would be revered as the ancestor to the Lins by King Wu of Zhou.
Fan Li – During Confucius’ time, Caishen came to be associated with Fan Li, a military strategist, businessman, and advisor to Goujian who ruled over the kingdom of Yue. Both Fan Li and Goujian were taken hostage by the state of Wu and held for three years. After they were freed, Fan Li continued to serve Goujian, carrying his government appointments and reforms that improved the kingdom of Yue. Fan Li’s reforms aided Goujian to be able to conquer the Wu state. After this victory, Fan Li resigned from his position and took on the name Tao Zhu Gong.
Fan Li and his wife, Xi Shi went to live on a boat out on Lake Tai. Fan Li’s success with business and his reforms led to his being defied and regarded as a reincarnation of Caishen.
Caibo Xingjun – This is another name linked to Caishen as a possible historical figure. Originally born Li Guizu, he was born in the Zichuan district in the Shandong Province where he held a position as a magistrate. Due to his service and contributions, Li Guizu was given the title of Caibo Xingjun by the Wude Emperor of the Tang dynasty and the people built a temple to worship him.
These are just some of the stories I was able to find of those historical people who have been linked with Caishen.
The Caishen Of All Directions
With all of these various historical figures linked to Caishen and seeing them as various incarnations; they all lead to the fact that there are multiple Caishen who are associated with the various directions. Additionally, a person wanting Caishen’s aid should pick one of these nine different Caishen to call on.
Center – Zhao Gong Ming, the Military God of Wealth
East – Xiao Sheng, the God of Collecting Treasures
West – Cao Bao, the God of Collecting Valuables
North – Yao Shao Si, the God of Profitability
South – Chen Jiu Gong, the God of Attracting Wealth
South-East – Han Xin Ye, the God of Gambling
South-West – Liu Hai, the God of Luck
North-East – Shen Wanshan, the God of Gold
North-West – Tao Zhugong, the Civil God of Wealth
The holiday season has arrived whether that’s Christmas, Yule, or another Winter Solstice festival. One familiar sight around this time will more than likely be the red & white candy canes adorning trees, stockings, and as a general treat given out.
Christianity has been quick to assign Christian symbolisms to candy canes as has been done with a good many other Christmas decorations and symbols that frequently have a pagan origin to them.
There are a few stories that have sprung up since the 20th century regarding the origins of candy canes and a Christian connection. While these stories are quaint, there are no facts or records to back them up.
Indiana Candymaker – First Story
This story says that a candymaker from Indiana, U.S. decided to make a candy that would witness or testify of Jesus Christ. The J symbol for Jesus’ initial “J” or represents the cane of the Shepherds in the fields going to the manger in Bethlehem to see the newborn Christ. The white is for his virgin birth and his purity. Then three red stripes represent the scourging Jesus suffers when people are healed. There is a large red stripe to represent the blood shed by Christ in paying for people’s sins and their eternal salvation.
To do this, this nameless candymaker took a stick of white hard candy and formed the cane, added the red stripes, and before the candy hardened, twisted it to the “J” or cane shape.
Debunked – This one lacks any documentation. Surely, we’d have a record of who this candymaker was if we knew his home state and why he made the candy cane, to begin with.
Persecuted Christians – Second Story
This story says that candy canes were made during a time when Christians were being persecuted and that this cane-shaped candy served as a means by which to recognize each other.
Debunked – This story is easily refuted as the earliest that candy canes are mentioned is the latter part of the 17th century, when much of Europe is Christian. By this time, only those needing a secret means to recognize each other are non-Christians. Nor does this story mention which era of time Christians were being persecuted.
German Origin – Third Story
This story says that in 1670, the choirmaster in Cologne, Germany is the creator of the candy cane. Frustrated as many teachers and parents are when you have restless children who get a case of giggles and wiggles and are unable to stay still or quiet. In this case, choir boys get restless and noisy during long sermons. So the choirmaster hit on an idea and found a local candymaker for some treats. While looking at some white candy sticks, the choirmaster pondered if he would be allowed to give the boys sweets. That’s when the choirmaster asked the candymaker about bending the sticks into a cane shape as he would use the candy as a means for teaching. The white represents the purity of Christ, the cane hook for the story of the shepherds who came to find the infant Jesus at the manger.
Debunked – Aside from sounding authoritative because it’s “church history,” again, like the story of the candymaker from Indiana, there are no records of this happening.
What Can Be Verified
The above stories are largely quaint anecdotes and the earliest records for any of them are from the mid-20th century, the 1900s. The earliest mention of candy canes is in 1866 with the short story “Tom Luther’s Stockings” in Ballou’s Monthly Magazine. Their first-time association of them with Christmas comes in 1874. This is some two hundred years after the candy cane was to have been invented and popularized with the festive holiday season.
We have documentation of candy sugar sticks with colored stripes starting in 1844. The mention and evidence of the “J-shaped” candy canes with red stripes don’t come until the beginning of the 20th century. The evidence for this comes from Christmas cards printed before 1900 depicting plain white canes. Not until after, do the striped canes begin to appear on Christmas cards.
The best that can be guessed at is that some unknown person did come up with the idea of bending the cane sugar sticks into their familiar “J-shape” to represent a shepherd’s crook and to make it easier to hang on a Christmas tree for decoration. While it’s a good guess, that’s all it is.
German Immigrant – In 1847, it is believed that the immigrant August Imgard in Ohio, U.S.A. is the first person credited in America who decorated a Christmas tree using candy canes.
Famous Candy Company
Though indirect, this story is verifiable for the religious connection. The owner of the Famous Candy Company, Bob McCormack in 1919 did begin the process of bending candy canes into their J-shape, a process that needed to be done manually and resulted in limited quantities due to the amount of labor needed.
It’s McCormack’s brother-in-law, Gregory Harding Keller, a Catholic priest who came up with the means to automate the bending process for candy canes. Hence the Keller Machine. So yeah, there’s the Christian connection for those looking for it.
The Famous Candy Company would become Mills-McCormack Candy Company and then Bobs Candies.
Alternative Names: Aschenklas, Bûr, Bullerclås, De hêle Christ (“The Holy Christ” in Mittelmark). Farmhand Robert, Farmhand Rupert, Hans Ruprecht, Rumpknecht, Servant Robert, Servant Rupert, Rû Clås, Ru Klaus (“Rough Nicholas”), Pelz Nicholas (“Fur Nicholas”)
The figure of Knecht Ruprecht is another character who appears within the wintertime, Christmas, and Yule traditions as another companion of Saint Nicholas in Germany.
Knecht Ruprecht is known for wearing black or brown robes with a pointed hood and walking with a limp from a childhood injury. Due to this limp, Ruprecht carries a long staff, he also has a bag of ashes, a whip, a stick, a sack for hauling away naughty children, and sometimes small bells on his clothing. Further details are that he may be shown riding a white horse or that he may be accompanied by fairies or by men dressed as old women with blackened faces.
The Devil You Know
In Germanic folklore, Ruprecht is the German name for the English Robert and a common name for the devil.
In this respect, Reprecht is a lot like the earlier forms of Zwarte Piet as the devil. This fits those traditions with figures like Krampus and Zwarte Piet where Saint Nicholas is to have chained and enslaved the devil.
This devil figure is then who punishes misbehaving children with whippings, handing them a switch or coal.
When it comes to Germany, several various dark figures lend themselves to the wintertime, Saint Nicholas Day, and Christmas traditions. At first glance, it’s easy to distinguish all of them as they all have different names and appearances. Then when you get into the various traditions surrounding each figure, they do hold similar roles. Some folklorists will state that the different names are regional variations of the same figure.
Maybe, but some of them like Krampus, Belsnickel, Knecht Ruprecht and Hans Trapp are way too distinct in their descriptions and frequently their origins to really see them all as being the same being. And maybe there is some comfort in seeing only one Christmastime bogeyman to be afraid of instead of several.
With variations in names, some of them do end up blending Knecht Ruprecht with Saint Nicholas so he is known as Ru Klaus or “Rough Nicholas” or Pelz Nicholas or “Fur Nicholas.” As Pelz Nicholas, we see Knecht Ruprecht get blended with the figure of Belsnickel. Even further names are Aschenklas or “Ash Nicholas” in reference to the bag of ash that Knecht Ruprecht carries. There a couple sources that give alternate names of Pelzmartin or “Fur Martin” when the figures of Knecht Ruprecht and Saint Martin are blended together.
Knecht Ruprecht is a dark helper and companion with a similar role to those of Krampus and Zwart Piet. It’s essentially a good cop, bad cop routine they share where Saint Nicholas is the gift giver who rewards while Knecht Ruprecht and others threaten punishment in the form of either thrashings or kidnapping.
Belsnickel – Knecht Ruprecht has also been identified as just another name for this gift-giving companion of Saint Nicholas in Germany. The two are frequently confused and identified with each other.
Kobolds – Jacob Grimm in his “Deutsche Mythologie” says that Knecht Ruprecht and other punishing type companions are like Kobolds who could be either helpful or not so helpful.
So, what’s a kobold? Those are a type of household spirit in pre-Christian beliefs that could be either beneficial or malicious depending on how they were treated. After the arrival of Christianity, these types of spirits were said to be more mischievous when they weren’t helping or not properly given respect.
Robin Goodfellow – Jacob Grimm also goes on to say that this is the same person as Knecht Ruprecht and just another name that all these house spirits are known as.
Crime & Punishment
On December 6th, Saint Nicholas Day, Knecht Ruprecht will ask children if they are able to pray. If the child demonstrates that they can, they are rewarded with gifts of apples, nuts, and gingerbread. If the child is not able to recite a prayer, Knecht Ruprecht will hit them with his bag of ashes.
Particularly naughty children will be given lumps of coal, sticks, and stones while good children receive sweets from Saint Nicholas in their shoes that they leave out. The absolute worst would be tied up in a sack and thrown into a river.
Nuremberg Christmas Procession
Knecht Ruprecht makes his first appearance in the 17th century during the Nuremberg Christmas Procession where he is a companion to Santa Claus. This is the first concrete documentation of this figure and their association with Saint Nicholas and the Christmas traditions.
According to traditions and stories, Ruprecht is either a farmhand or in other stories, a foundling that Saint Nicholas finds and raises as his own son. The German philosopher Alexander Tille has commented that Knecht Ruprecht represents the archetypical manservant much like stock characters Junker Hanns and Bauer Michel who represent the Nobility and are defined by their social rankings with no individuality.
In the High Alps, Knecht Ruprecht takes on more of the role of Saint Nicholas’ assistant, keeping an eye out for the Saint’s arrival. This is where both Knecht Ruprecht and Saint Nicholas can get blended together to be known as Ru Klaus as both are accompanied by troops of the goat-like creatures known as Krampus who will terrorize any misbehaving children.
Knecht Ruprecht has been the subject of a piano piece by the German composer Robert Schumann in 1848. The German poet and novelist, Theodor Storm wrote a poem called “Knecht Ruprecht” in 1862
For Knecht Ruprecht, not really. He’s much newer compared to the figures of Krampus and Perchta. However, as a collective whole with Zwarte Piet and Belsnickel, then yes, there is an argument to be made with connecting Knecht Ruprecht to older pagan traditions for the dangerous time that Winter can be. So, it’s fair to say we can see the ever-evolving Christian influence to try and tame the more wilder, dangerous Yuletide figures and monsters. Connecting him to the Norse Odin seems more of a stretch as I’ll give that one more to Saint Nicholas.
Saint Martin’s Day
Or Martinmas, which is sometimes also called Old Halloween or Old Hallowmas Eve and was celebrated on November 11th to mark the end of the harvest season and the start of winter. Traditions involve feasting on the Martinmas goose or Martinmas beef, drinking wine, bonfires, mummery, and Saint Martin going around on horseback to bestow gifts of apples, nuts, cakes, and other sweets to children who hung their stockings with hay for Saint Martin’s horse.
Saint Martin is also sometimes called Pelzmartin or “Fur Martin” and seems to be a figure similar to Saint Nicholas in their gift-giving roles. As a result, Knecht Ruprecht is said to sometimes be a companion to Saint Martin.
With the growing Christian influence in Germany, Knecht Ruprecht is also known to accompany Saint Peter, Saint Rupert, and even the Christkindel, or “Christ Child” during their gift-giving journey on Christmas.
Little People – Native American
Stories abound in the folklore and myths of numerous cultures around the world of Little People. Places such as Ireland, Hawaii, Greece, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Flores Island all have their own stories and legends.
This article post will focus on the Little People of Native American beliefs and folklore.
Some stories describe the Little People as “hairy-faced dwarfs.” In other places, petroglyphs depict them with horns on their head. They often travel in groups of five to seven, sometimes on land or by canoe on waterways.
Legends told by the Cherokee say the Little People love music, especially drumming, singing, and dancing. Sometimes a person will hear their drums in the mountains. It is, however, unsafe and unwise to follow that sound. The Little People are known too to put a spell or enchantment on a person, causing them confusion and getting lost. Even after a person makes it back to their settlement, they will remain in a daze forever. Any item or trinket such as a knife found in the forest, a person must ask the Little People if they can have it. If permission isn’t asked, the least of a person’s worries is to have rocks thrown at them on the way home.
Legends of Little People say that they live in the woods near sandy hills and rocks alongside large bodies of water like the Great Lakes. If the Little People were known to live in caves, those places would be avoided so as not to disturb those living there.
Several Native American legends speak of the Little People as pranksters. Some will sing and then hide when someone comes looking. Any type of distraction or mischief. The Little People are known to love children and take them away from abusive parents or if the child is out left alone. If an adult was encountered, the Little People would plead for their existence not to be spoken of and reward or aid their family in times of need.
All of this varies from tribe to tribe as to who and what the Little People are like if they were friendly or considered evil and best avoided. Some tribes would leave a gift for the Little People to try and stay on their good side.
Reality Behind The Myths?
When you get out to the parts of the United States for Montana and Wyoming, there are legends about the remains of the Little People having been found. Descriptions often state that these remains are “perfectly formed” and dwarf-sized, etc.
Archeologist Lawrence L. Loendorf comments that such remains and burials are sent to a local university for study. Loendorf further comments that two mummies found were of anencephalic infants in the first half of the twentieth century and that the deformities would cause people to believe those were adults and contribute to a belief of a group of small or tiny people from prehistoric times.
Lewis & Clark – These early explorers recorded in their journals that the Native Americans living near Spirit Mound, South Dakota believed that Little People lived within and refused to go near it for fear of them, citing they were dangerous.
Coshocton County, Ohio – In the 1830s a graveyard was unearthed and believed to hold the skeletons of a pygmy race. The graves were noted to be approximately three long were “bone burials” where several bent or disarticulated bones were packed together.
Pryor Mountains, Montana & Wyoming – The Pryor Mountains are known for their “fairy rings” much like in Irish and Celtic folklore and for stories where strange things happen.
Pedro Mountain Mummy
This is an interesting one. Like many Native American tribes, the oral traditions of those like the Arapaho, Cheyenne, Crow, Shoshone, and Sioux all tell of the “little people” who stand anywhere from just 20 inches up to three feet tall. Some of the tribes will call these little people “tiny people eaters.” Other tribes have referred to the little people as spirits or healers. Plus, long before the arrival of Europeans, there are many stories of encounters with the Little People that are like those of Celtic fairy lore.
Proof of these beings appears to come with the discovery of a 14” fully formed mummy found in 1932. It was found by two men prospecting for gold in the San Pedro Mountains. While blasting a section of the mountain, it opened up a small cavern about 15 feet long and 4 feet high and it had previously been sealed off. Inside, the men discovered the small fully formed mummy in a sitting position with brown wrinkled skin. The forehead was low and flat with a flat nose and heavy lidded-eyes, a wide mouth, and thin lips. Overall, the mummy looked like an old man and was remarkably well preserved.
When they found it, the men took the mummy to Casper, Wyoming where scientists from all over the nation came to look at it. Tests and x-rays showed the mummy to be real, that it had been killed violently by a blow to the head, explaining a damaged spine and broken collarbone. An odd thing noted about the mummy is that the teeth were overly pointed and had a complete set of canines. Scientists judged the mummy to have been 65 at the time of death.
Accounts vary on who did the testing and examinations. The American Museum of Natural History was certified as genuine by the Anthropology Department of Harvard University. The University of Wyoming however gave another report, stating the remains were that of an anencephalic infant after Dr. George Gill, a professor of anthropology, was given a set of X-Rays in 1979 to examine.
The mummy was on display in sideshows for years before getting bought by a Casper businessman, Ivan T. Goodman. Later, in 1950 after Goodman died, the mummy was passed on to Leonard Walder, a businessman from New York. In 1980, the mummy disappeared after Walder passed away and its location is currently unknown.
Other Mummys & Skeletal Remains
There have been other skeletons of “Little People” found in other places in the United States. Places such as Coshocton, Ohio have a burial ground where numerous remains of a small, pygmy race standing around three feet tall have been found.
Another graveyard was found in 1876 in Coffee County, Tennessee. The remains of thousands of small, dwarf-like people were found and said to be buried there.
There are still people who insist that the remains of other “Little People” have been found in caves in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. Some of these may have been infants with anencephaly. Others persist that any testing on these mummified remains has been kept secret and that these mummies disappear after they’re turned over to authorities. One conspiracy theory claims the Smithsonian Institute will hide or destroy these remains.
Occam’s Razor says that any remains were likely returned to the tribes for reburial, especially with infant remains.
By Any Other Name…
Given the numerous different cultures and tribes of the various Native Americans, there are bound to be just as many different names. For comparative folklore, going into Celtic or Irish fairy lore, there are numerous different types of Fae that would be collectively referred to as the Little People so as not to invite their attention or offend them.
So whether we’re seeing different names for them in different languages or different types of Little People can be hard to say as it varies by region.
Some tribes like the Ojibwe have stories of the Memegwaans, or Memegwaanswag who are shy of adult humans but love children.
Another tribe, the Crow see the Little People as spirits of their ancestors and will leave an offering for them when entering an area.
- Alux – Maya
- Canotila – Lakota
- Chaneque – Aztec
- Geow-lud-mo-sis-eg – Maliseet
- Ircinraq – Yup’ik
- Ishigaq – Inuit
- Jogahoh – Iroquois
- Makiawisug – Mohegan
- Mannegishi – Cree
- Memegwesi/Memegawensi/Memengweshii/Pa’iins – Anishinaabe
- Nimerigar – Shoshone
- Nirumbee or Awwakkulé – Crow
- Nunnupi – Comanche
- Popo-li or Kowi Anukasha
- Pukwudgie – Wampanoag
- Yehasuri – Catawba
- Yunwi Tsunsdi – Cherokee
- Canotila – Lakota
- Popo-li or Kowi Anukasha – Choctaw
Also Known As: Rey Pascual, El Rey San Pascual, King of the Graveyard, King of the Underworld, and San Pascualito Muerte
San Pascualito is a folk saint found in Guatemala and the Mexican state of Chiapas. Given the skeletal nature of his appearance, he is a figure that bears a strong resemblance to San La Muerte and Santa Muerte.
Warning – San Pascualito’s imagery causes him not to be acknowledged by the Catholic Church. Having a skeleton iconography puts San Pascualito in the same vein as Santa Muerte and San La Muerte and associations with death and crime. Due to not being as well known either outside of where he is venerated, there is still an air of unease among Catholic and other Christian sects.
Color: Black, Red, White
Month: May (17th Feast Day)
Patron of: Curing Diseases, Cures, Death, Healings, Love, Graveyards, Vengeance
Sphere of Influence: Death, Healing
Symbols: Skeleton, Cape, Crown, Wheeled Cart
San Pascualito is shown as a skeleton wearing a cape and crown.
Tradition holds that San Pascualito’s veneration very likely originates with a Pre-Columbian Death God. As a folk saint, he is strongly associated with Saint Paschal Baylon, a Spanish friar. Though traditions surrounding San Pascualito strongly lean towards a Pre-Columbian death god.
As the historian Francisco Antonio de Fuentes y Guzmán relates, in 1650, an indigenous Guatemalan man in San Antonio Aguacaliente (now modern-day Ciudad Vieja) was dying of an epidemic fever known as cucumatz in the Kaqchikel language. As the man received his last rites, he had a vision of a tall skeleton dressed in glowing robes appear before him. This figure introduced themselves as “Saint Paschal Baylon.” At this time, Baylon would not be canonized by the Catholic church until 1690, though he had been beatified earlier in 1618.
The figure promised the dying man to intercede and end the cucumatz if he were to be adopted by the community as their patron saint and honor his image. For proof of his identity, the figure predicted that the man receiving the vision would die in nine days, at which time the epidemic would end.
When the appointed time came and the man died, the story of the vision began to spread, and people began putting up images of San Pascualito despite prohibition from the Spanish Inquisition.
San Pascualito’s major center of worship and veneration is in Guatemala and the Mexican state of Chiapas. There is a major shrine dedicated to him in Olintepeque, Guatemala. In the Church of San Pascualito in Tuxtla Gutierrez in Chiapas, there is a version of San Pascualito as a seated skeleton in a cart. Devotees of San Pascualito will leave thank you notes, offerings of capes, or burn candles.
The color of the candle determines the intent of the request. Red is for love, Pink for health, Yellow for protection, Green for business, Blue for work, Light Blue for money, Purple for help overcoming vices or temptation, White for the protection of children, and Black for revenge.
King Of The Graveyard
One of San Pascualito’s epitaphs or names, King of the Graveyard does link him to being a potential death cult. Unlike other such cults, San Pascualito is more concerned with curing diseases, ya’ know, staving off death. Not yet.
As a Folk Saint, San Pascualito’s Feast Day is held on May 17th, the same feast day as Saint Paschal Baylon.
Ah Puch – The Mayan god or lord of death.
Grim Reaper – The imagery of the Grim Reaper and San Pascualito are remarkably similar.
Mictlantecutli – There are very noted, strong similarities between the imagery of the Aztec god of death and San La Muerte.
San La Muerte – A similar figure to San Pascualito found in South America, mainly Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay.
Santa Muerte – A similar female counterpart found in Mexico and southern parts of the United States.
San La Muerte
Also Known As: Saint Death, Señor De La Buena Muerte (Lord of the Good Death), Señor De La Muerte (Lord of Death), and in Paraguya, San Esqueleto (Saint Skeleton)
San La Muerte is a folk saint who is worshipped in many places in South America, namely Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay and notably of those who speak the Guaraní language.
Note: The most important thing to note with San La Muerte is not to confuse them with Santa Muerte. Yes, the two are incredibly similar in appearances as local Folk Saints and many of Santa Muerte’s attributes are held to be the same as San La Muerte.
Warning – As a result of San La Muerte’s associations with the criminal element such as the drug cartels, the worship, and veneration of San La Muerte is very controversial, especially by the Catholic Church and several Protestant dominations that don’t acknowledge or see him as cannon. There is a strong reaction of condemnation by the Catholic and other Christian sects to see his veneration as blasphemous and even satanic.
Color: Black, Red, White
Month: August (13th & 15th)
Patron of: Death, the Dead, Inmates, Prisoners
Sphere of Influence: Restore Love, Good Fortune, Gambling, Protection against Witchcraft, Protection against Imprisonment, Luck, Good Health, Vengeance
Symbols: Globe, Scale of Justice, Hourglass, Oil Lamp,Scythe
San La Muerte is essentially a male skeleton dressed in a hooded robe, carrying a scythe, much like the Grim Reaper and Santa Muerte.
Santito – Or Small Saint, these are small skeleton sculptures that depict San La Muerte. These can be carved from wood, bone, and metal. They are somewhere between 3 to 15 centimeters in height. A classic image is a human skeleton standing holding scythe. Devotees will also seek to get their statues consecrated by a Catholic priest seven times. If the statue is made from the bones of a Catholic saint, then such consecration needs only be five times. Devotees are known to perform subterfuge such as hiding their statue beneath the picture of another saint to get them consecrated.
Followers and worshipers of San La Muerte can be found in many places in South America, primarily Paraguay, northeastern Argentina (the provinces of Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa, and Missiones), Southern Brazil (states off Paraná, Rio Grande, and Santa Catarina) are the main places for San La Muerte’s Cults. Since the 1960’s and some internal migrations, the worshiping of San La Muerte has spread into the Greater Buenos Aires and the national prison system.
Like Santa Muerte, most of San La Muerte’s followers are Catholics and former Catholics who venerate this folk saint and deity. This means a person doesn’t have to exclusively be one religion or another to seek her favor and protection.
Put bluntly, everyone, rich and poor alike are equal in death, and in this regard, Santa Muerte plays no favorites. Everyone eventually dies, it’s just part of life.
Many seeking San La Muerte’s favor and miracles due to the strong Catholic influence, will offer up prayers and light votive candles, often of different colors depending on their need. Offerings given to San La Muerte are frequently for specific requests and tailored such as the devotee’s own blood, alcohol, candle and other items.
Such devotion to San La Muerte is a mixture of submission to an entity that expects punishment for any obligations not upheld by the devotee. Such obligations or threats involve going hungry or banishment to an uninhabited place. When the Saint grants his favors, it won’t be in full as there is the need for a threat or punishment again.
Side Note: This is also part of why the Catholic church sees blasphemy with San La Muerte, catholic style prayers, votive candles, and rosaries are used in prayers and rites with this folk saint.
Catholic Folk Saint?
It is thought and believed that the veneration for San La Muerte began among the Guarani tribe shortly after the expulsion of Jesuit missionaries in 1767 with the arrival of Catholicism. Over in Argentine was the local folk saint of Gauchito Gil, a known devotee to San La Muerte. Combine this with the Guarani tribes worshipping the bones of their ancestors, and these traditions and those of the Catholics would lead to the veneration and origins of the San La Muerte’s cult.
Archangel – Belief in San La Muerte has also compared him to supernatural beings like angels or archangels that a devotee will pray to.
Saint Of Protection
There are a variety of favors that San La Muerte is believed to grant. Everything from restoring love, to health and prosperity, protection in general of worshipers, protection from witchcraft, the evil eye, and the granting of good luck in gambling.
More controversial among devote Catholics is San La Muerte’s aid in helping those involved in crime and violence, bringing death to enemies, keeping a devotee out of prison, shorter prison terms even, and the recovery of stolen items.
Brujos and other traditional healers such as Curanderos can also invoke protections for their clients. Many practitioners and devotees will have a statue depicting San La Muerte that is kept hidden so he can extend protection to all family members. There are public altars that display a statue of San La Muerte too. Devotees will act as guardians and caretakers for any public altars.
Other protections will be more personal with rituals done in the house at the altar, wearing amulets, tattoos, or a carving depicting San La Muerte inserted under a worshiper’s skin.
Bullets that were fired to kill a Christian man are considered the most powerful material to use for an amulet. Other materials are gold, silver, and human bone.
Saint & Festival Day
Since there is no official Saint Day for San La Muerte from the Catholic church, plus they’re not recognized by the Catholic faith, some devotees will hold a festival for him on either August 13th or August 15th. When the date falls on the 15th, that is the same Saint Day and festival as Santa Muerte. Though some comment that Santa Muerte’s Saint Day can also be observed on November 1st.
Grim Reaper – The imagery of the Grim Reaper and San La Muerte are remarkably similar.
Mictlantecutli – There are very noted, strong similarities between the imagery of the Aztec god of death and San La Muerte.
Santa Muerte – A similar female counterpart found in Mexico and southern parts of the United States.
San Pascualito– A similar male counterpart to Santa Muerte found in Guatemala.
Credit Knife Man
Also called: “Buying Man,” “Credit Men,” “Credit Swordsman,” “Divine Sale,” “Divination Sellers,” “Knife Man,” “Seller,” and “The Person who took the Knife”
This is an interesting piece of Chinese folklore and divination. When the Credit Knife Man appears, it isn’t just to sell knives, it is to sell these knives on credit with a vague or cryptic prophecy about the following year. When the prediction comes true, the Credit Knife Man returns later to collect the money. The Credit Knife Man is said to appear every time there is a disaster, giving out hints of what is to come.
While the current name is fairly new, the tradition itself is very old. Back in ancient China, the Credit Knife Man, Divine Seller or Buying Man as they were known then would show up, walking through villages as they passed out kitchen knives or other household items on credit while giving prophecies for the following year. No charges, just that they would return when the prediction was fulfilled to collect on the wares, often times knives.
Prophet Or Charlatan?
While there are many folktales regarding the Credit Knife Man, there are some who think the whole idea is made up of charlatans and liars going to villages to deceive and scam people out of their money.
Then you have others who believe that these Knife Men are legit as every year before a disaster happens, they show up, and make a prophecy that turns true.
Seeming to add credibility to all of this is that Credit Knife Men are said to have shown up in 2020 around the Central Plains area of China with a prediction for 2021
Professional Knife Man?
Going back about thirty years ago to the 1980’s and 1990’s groups of people could be found going around the streets and alleyways in China’s rural areas. They would be carrying an array of kitchen knives, scissors, iron pots and other household items. These people didn’t just sell the knives outright, they would sell the knife on credit, giving them to people in need in exchange for a seemingly bizarre or cryptic prophesy.
The “Divine Seller” would keep a registry of names for those whom they had made a prediction to when selling a knife or other household item. As people tended to stay or live in the same village, it would be easy for the “Divine Seller” to return later and collect any money owed on a prediction that is fulfilled.
Where the Credit Knife Man is potentially related to cons and scammers, these people show up in rural, remote villages where people are likely to be less educated, living simpler lives. Such predictions will be given relating to personal, ordinary things and events. The scammer may show up in one village claiming the price of wheat will rise while in another they say it will fall and depending on the outcome, the seller returns to the village in question to collect. As these Sellers travel, they’re more likely to be connected to the world, regional events of what’s happening in the area and how it will affect the local economies before any price drops or rises reach a particular village.
Nor is it hard if you’re paying attention to the trends and events around a person to make some fairly accurate guesses and seeming predictions of what’s coming or could come.
It certainly seems like Confirmation Bias and enough people seeing the “predictions” coming true would certainly double down and pay, ignoring any predictions that didn’t come true and getting a free knife out of the deal.
It appears that the Credit Knife Man or Men belong to the Daoist School of thought and may be a disciple of Guiguzi. As a form of divination, the Credit Knife Man makes predictions involving life and death. They notably appear every time there is a disaster to give hints and warnings.
Just who is or was Guiguzi?
The Guiguzi is a collection of ancient texts written and compiled during China’s Waring States era and towards the end of the Han Dynasty. The author credited with writing these tests and treatises of diplomacy is Guigu Xiansheng.
By folk traditions, Guiguzi has become the name of a legendary and mysterious figure, known as the “eternal stranger.” They are well versed in strategies and diplomacy and influenced people like Sun Bin, Pang Juan, Su Qin, Zhang Yi, and Shang Yang with promoting justice and saving the world from the Chinese world view.
“The Knife of the Tao” – Giving such divinations and predictions of connecting them with a commodity such as the knife may have been the way that Fortune Tellers and Diviners kept their trade going. Give the prediction while also selling something tangible and needed.
Plus, a business savvy person paying attention to the market trends and events happening around them can seem to easily make predictions. Especially for earlier eras with the slowness of news to reach rural areas.
Adding more mystique and interest to the stories of the Credit Knife Man is a story set in the remote village near the base of the Daxingan Mountains in the northeast. The story tells how there is a person who appears in the village, selling their knives on credit. When asking the older people of the village, when they were young, this person selling knives was middle-aged. Now that they are old, this person has remained the same age and still giving his prophesies. No one knows this person’s name, their real age, only that his knives are sharp and that he doesn’t need money. Every time they show up, they leave a knife and a prophecy and when that prophesy is fulfilled, the person returns to collect the knife. There was one time the village faced a severe drought and the person who received the knife showed up in time to help solve the dilemma.
Another story of the Credit Knife Man is in July 1878 during the Guangxu era. A person buying the knife on credit received a prediction of the price of wheat would drop from 80 cents to 18 cents. The price of wheat did drop all the way down to 18 cents, but there is no record if the Credit Knife Man returned to collect the money.
Presumably he did or there wouldn’t be the story.
Another element of the seeming supernatural nature of the Credit Knife Man is that they seem to appear anytime there is going to be major changes that affect the region or country.
One of the alternative names of “Divine Sale” refers to the divination aspect of the Credit Knife Men. The predictions that the Knife Men often make are bizarre and seemingly cryptic. Anything from the ordinary to the future of the world. Some examples given are how the price of rice and wheat will rise to one yuan, pork rising to ten yuan a catty and how the fields won’t be planted. More examples include how no one is living in a house, people taking off their clothes, beasts walking in clothing, and even more strange ones such as pigs will have a thousand oxen and the bridal price or costs to marry a daughter-in-law being 180.
It’s enough to make one think they’re getting a fortune told from a Fortune Cookie or looking at the Daily Horoscope at first glance. Much like a party game. But after the fact, you see how it applies to not worrying about the price of rice and other food stocks, the societal changes of young people moving away from their hometown in rural areas as they seek work, the way people treat their pets with dressing them and dying their fur, the price of cattle and the steep price of marriages. All stuff that in a way seems very common sense after the fact and seeing the social and societal changes.
Credit Knife Currency
During the Song Dynasty, these Credit Knife Men were known as “Credit Swordsman” and could be found wandering various towns and remote mountain villages. The knives that they sold were not for sale but being sold on credit as a means or excuse to make predictions and prophesies to each other for free. If such a prophesy comes true later, the Credit Swordsman would return to collect on the prediction.
Looking at the Warring States era of China’s history, it makes sense knives would be used for currency and given out on credit during a time when money was hard to come by. So, a good, sharp knife would have a high value and be useful to trade or sell on credit for later. It would also be an act of integrity and honor to pay or repay when the Credit Knife Man managed to return and collect or have a free knife in the event of a failed prediction.
Actual Knife Coins and currency were used during the Zhou dynasty between 600 and 200 B.C.E. These were large, bronze-cast knife-shaped coins or currency used throughout various governments and kingdoms that are now modern China. One story holds that a prince running low on money allowed his soldiers to use their knives in place of currency, for barter and trade with villagers. Another story has the same prince accepting knives as payments for small fines in place of the current, legal ring coins. It is also possible that the knife money is something that came from the Indian Ocean by way of trade routes with barter and trade.
Similar are the Qi Knives found in the Shandong region in the State of Qi that were use in that area. Archaeology places them having been in use during the Waring States era. These knives were also known as Three Character Knives, Four Character Knives and so on based on the number inscribed on them. Depending on the number of the Qi Knife would be how much of a copper and tin alloy they were made of. With higher number Qi Knives having a higher percentage of copper.
In 1932, a veritable treasure hoard of Needle Tip Knives were found at Chengde in the Hebei province. These are similar to the Pointed Tip Knife currency that have been discovered and unearthed in the thousands all with various inscriptions of numbers, cyclical characters and others that haven’t been decoded or translated on them.
There has also been spade money and Ming Knives which are smaller than the Pointed Tip Knifes found. A Mint for Ming Knives was found at Xiadu, southwest of Beijing. This place had once been the capital city Yi during the Yan dynasty around 360 B.C.E. Coinage for the Ming Knives have been found as far away as Korea and Japan.
If you ever have a chance to visit the Qi Heritage Museum in Linzi, Shandong, many examples of these Qi Knives on display.
During World War II and Japan’s occupation of China, the legends of the Credit Knife or Sword Man rose up with them saying they would return to collect the money when the Japanese were driven out. This angered the Japanese soldiers who went and killed the Credit Knife Man. Before he died, the man said his descendants would come to collect. When the Japanese left China, the Credit Knife Man’s prediction does appear to have become true.
October 2020 – A Credit Knife Man in the Central Plains. After selling his knife on credit, they left the prediction “No money will be collected this year.) Referring to 2020 and that he would return next year in 2021, saying: “Give money if you are alive next year, if you don’t have it, you’ll be gone.” As every knows, 2020 is a year we’d like to have a do over with due to the Covid-19 pandemic that swept the globe along with other natural disasters.
July 7th, 2021 – After a flood happened, there is a father living near the edge of the Dabie Mountains of northern Hubei who reports on WeChat having met a person who’s not seen a kitchen knife or scissors for decades. A prediction was made that the Credit Knife Man would come to collect when it snows. “No snow, no money!” And of course, the mountain regions got snow in August, a full month ahead of schedule.
It’s noted that for two consecutive years in a row that Credit Knife Men and their predictions have made appearances in Henan and Hubei.
With a faster speed of technology and communication, such predictions that Credit Knife Men would make seem harder to do if all one was doing is paying attention to the market trends and world events happening around them. For the superstitious or spiritually minded, it does seem that the heavens are angry. Those more science-minded see the effects of climate change and global warming with some of these natural disasters.
There is also a prediction set for August 2022 where the red boat will sink.