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Category Archives: Egyptian

Virgo

Virgo

Other Names – Parthenos

Etymology – Virgin or Young Maiden

The constellation of Virgo is one of twelve that form the classical Greek Zodiac. Virgo is often depicted as a Winged Maiden holding a stalk or sheaf of wheat or some other grain in her hand. After Hydra, the constellation of Virgo is the second largest constellation and the largest constellation of the Zodiac.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Virgo is Latin for virgin and is one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations and is located in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the second largest constellation in the night sky and the largest constellation of the Greek Zodiac. Other constellations close to Virgo are Boötes, Coma Berenices, Leo, Crater, Corvus, Hydra, Libra, and Serpens Caput.

Other Astronomy

The constellation of Virgo has been recognized and known by many different names by different cultures and civilizations. The Egyptians saw Isis, the Goddess of Fertility, in India, they saw Kanya, the mother of Krishna, the Hindu saw Kauni, the Maiden, the Persians knew her as Khosha, the Ear of Wheat and the Hebrews knew of her as Bethulah, “Abundance in Harvest.”

Chinese Astronomy

In Chinese astronomy, the northern part of Virgo is part Taiwei, a palace of the Emperor where a Private Council with administrators and legalities were conducted. This court was also known as the Supreme Palace Enclosure and included parts of the constellations Coma Berenices and Leo. The stars Beta, Eta, Gamma, Delta and Epsilon Virginis, Alpha Comae Berenices and Delta Leonis all formed the walls of this enclosure in the heavens. The stars within these “walls” represented all the different government officials, courtiers and dignitaries.

The stars Spica and Zeta Virginis formed Jiao, the horn of the Blue Dragon cang long. The horn Jiao is also the first of 28 Chinese lunar mansions. Jiao was also seen as the gateway for the Sun, Moon and planets as they passed along the ecliptic. Another pair of stars south of Spica known as 53 and 69 Virginis formed another gateway known as Tianmen.

Two more stars, found at right angles to Spica and Zeta Virginis formed a straight road called Pingdao that the Sun, Moon and planets traveled on. The star Theta Virginis was known as Jinxian and represented the people who have outstanding achievements and were awaiting their honors and awards. To the north of Zeta Virginis, possibly Tau and either 78 or Sigma Virginis formed Tiantain, the heavenly fields that would be ploughed every spring before planting time.

The stars Lambda, Kappa, Iota and Phi Virginis form Kang, the neck of the Blue Dragon. This is the second of the lunar mansions and represented the administrative part of the government that oversees the affairs of individual households. Close to Kang is a lake with sail boats in it called Kangchi. As to which stars represent Kangchi is uncertain as they have changed over time.

Christianity

During Medieval Europe, Virgo easily became identified with the Virgin Mary, the mother of Christ.

According to Manly P. Hall’s “Secret Teachings of All Ages,” the Catholic Feast of the Assumption is connected to the constellation Virgo and the story of the Greek goddess Astraea to Virgin Mary as being the one who rose up into the Heavens. By this same source, the Roman calendar of Columella marks the disappearance of Virgo in the night sky around mid August. And Astraea’s Assumption that was observed by the ancient Greeks and Romans seems to have been adopted by the Catholics.

Egyptian Astronomy and Mythology

The zodiac ceiling painting in the Dendera Temple Complex has been identified as Isis by Eratosthenes and Avienus. In the painting, Isis is shown holding a sheaf of wheat ears in her hand that she later drops to form and become the Milky Way.

Greek and Roman Mythology

There seem to be multiple, conflicting myths from Greek and Roman mythology that have become associated with the constellation of Virgo. Virgo was also called Parthenos among the Greeks.

Hestia/Vesta

Vesta is the Goddess of Light and Roman counterpart to the Greek Hestia, whose function and job was to watch over the hearth fire of a home. The Vestal Virgins were shown the utmost respect and if their chastity was ever violated, they were punished by being buried alive.

Goddess of Justice

In Greek Mythology, there is another goddess, Dike Astraea, the Goddess of Justice who represented the natural order including those of childbirth, change, abundance and death. Dike’s story overlaps a little bit with that of Pandora. For when Prometheus was punished with having given the gift of fire to humans and chained to a rock, Zeus (or Jupiter) then went on to curse mankind with the first woman, Pandora who was given a box. When Pandora finally opened the box, unleashing all manners of plagues and calamities upon humans, the gods began to leave the earth.

Dike is also said to be the daughter of Zeus and Themis and that it is from Themis that Dike took on the duties and responsibility of meting out justice and ordered the seasons. When the Golden Age ended, Dike was one of the last immortals to leave the earth and causing an era of anarchy and crime. It is this goddess who is said to represent the classical Greek Zodiac of Virgo. Dike is sometimes depicted as holding the scales of justice, which is represented in the zodiac as Libra. The legend continues too that one day Dike will return to the earth and bring back the Golden Age.

Sometimes in retellings of this story, Dike is referred to by her epitaph of Astraea, which refers to appearance within the constellation. It can get a bit confusing as it seems as if two different goddesses are being referred to when they’re one and the same. In some retellings of the story of Dike, when she’s identified as Astaea, she will be said to be the daughter of Astraeus, the father of the stars and Eos, the goddess of the dawn.

Dike is to have lived during the Golden Age of man, a period of prosperity and peace with ever lasting spring and humans having never experienced old age, when Cronus ruled Olympus. During this time, Dike was mortal while fulfilling her role as a keeper of justice and law. Once Zeus had defeated and over threw his father, it marked the beginning of the Silver Age and the turnings of the season were introduced and men began to cease honoring the gods as they had before. Dike tried to warn the people of what would happen, but she eventually gave up and found herself forced to turn her back on humans and left for the heavens. It is at this time that men began to war among themselves and the Bronze and Iron Ages came.

Demeter and Persephone

Another Greek myth related to the constellation of Virgo is the story of Persephone, the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and how she was abducted into the underworld by Hades. Before Persephone’s abduction, it had always been eternal spring, never winter. So when Hades abducted Persephone, Demeter beside herself with grief, rage and anger, destroyed the crops of the Greeks and bringing about winter. Demeter swore that she would not allow the Earth to be fertile again until her daughter was returned.

With the people starving and beseeching the gods for help, Zeus intervened, informing his brother Hades that Persephone must be returned. Such would be possible, provided that Persephone hadn’t eaten any of the Underworld food or drink.

However, by one means or another, Persephone did eat three seeds of a pomegranate and as a result; this tied her to the underworld. Eventually a compromise was reached, where Persephone agreed to marry Hades and she would spend part of the year with him, the time known as winter and the other times of the year, she would be with her mother Demeter, allowing for spring and the other seasons.

Incidentally Demeter has sometimes been identified as the virgin goddess Iustitia or the previously mentioned Astraea. It’s also an interesting note, from the perspective of the Northern Hemisphere, that when the constellation Virgo is visible in the night sky, it is spring and when it no longer is visible, it does mark autumn and winter.

Under Roman influence, Demeter is identified with their goddess of the harvest Ceres. Her festival was held in the second week of April around the time that the constellation of Virgo reappears in the night skies and marking the beginning of Spring.

Erigone

The daughter of Icarius, Erigone is also another character in Greek myth who is identified with Virgo. In this story, Icarius, who was a devote of and favored by Dionysus, was killed by his shepherds when heavily intoxicated. In grief, Erigone hung herself and Dionysus hung both Icarius and Erigone up in the heavens as the constellations Boötes and Virgo.

Tyche

Finally, wrapping up all of the Greek and Roman connections, the historians Eratosthenes and Hyginus said that the constellation of Virgo represented the goddess Tyche, the goddess of fortune and her horn of plenty.

Mesopotamian Mythology

In the Babylonian Astronomical tablet known as the Mul.Apin, the constellation of Virgo was known as “The Furrow” and represented the goddess Shala’s ear of grain. To this day, the star known as Spica seems to be a reminder of this older constellation as the star’s name in Latin means “ear of grain.”

This constellation was also called AB.SIN and absinnu, connecting it to fertility. According to the author Gavin White in his Babylonian Star-Lore book, the constellation of Virgo actually corresponds to two Babylonian constellations: “the Furrow,” the eastern half of Virgo and “the Fround of Erua,” in the western half of Virgo. The Frond of Erua is supposed to represent a goddess holding a palm frond, an image still associated with other depictions of Virgo.

The constellation of Virgo has been identified with the Sumerian and Chalean goddess of Ishtar or Inanna, the Queen of Heaven. Ishtar descended into the underworld in order to bring her husband Tammuz back to life and earth. For without him, the earth went dark and nothing could grow. At the intervention of the other gods, Ishtar and Tammuz were rescued and the earth restored to fertility.

Stars of Virgo

Alpha Virginis – Also known as Spica, it is the brightest star within Virgo. It is considered the 16th brightest star in the night sky and is a blue giant located some 260 light-years away from Earth. In latin, Spica means “ear of grain” or “ear of wheat.” 17th century western astronomers referred to Spica as Arista. The Chinese refer to Spica as Jiao Xiu. Hindu astronomers know Spica as Nakshatra Chitra. Spica also appears as one of the stars on the Brazilian flag.

It’s also with Spica, that early astronomers like Hipparchus discovered the precession of the equinoxes by measuring the movement of the stars in the heavens during the year. And Nicolaus Copernicus’ observations of Spica allowed for the change in astronomy to move to a heliocentric cosmology instead of one that placed the Earth in the center of the universe.

Beta Virginis – Also known as Zavijava and Alaraph, is the fifth brightest star within Virgo. The Autumn Equinox is now marked by this star. The name Zavijava comes from the Arabic language of zawiyat al-cawwa’ which means “the corner of the barking dog” or “the angle.”

Gamma Virginis – Also known as Porrima or Arich, is the second brightest star in the constellation. Porrima is the name of two Roman goddesses of prophecy, the Carmenae. This star is also sometimes known as Postvarta or Laouiyet al Aoua. In Ovid’ Fasti, Porrima and her sister Postverta are two sister or companions to Carmenta, a prophetess. Porrima could tell of past events while Postverta could tell of things to come. The later name in Latin of Angulus Latratoris means “the angle of the barker”. This star, along with Beta, Eta, Delta and Epsilon Virginis formed a smaller asterism known as the Barker.

Epsilon Virginis – Also known as Vindemiatrix or the “Grape Gatherer,” is the third brightest star in the constellation. The Greek name of Protrygeter also means “Grape Gather.” This star, being the first star visible in August would mark the start of the year’s vintage. It is one of the few stars named by Aratus. In Ovid’s Fasti, he links this star to the a boy by the name Ampelus, which is also the Greek name for “vine.” The god Dionysus, god of wine loved Ampelus. While out picking grapes on a vine that hung on an elm tree, Ampelus fell to his death. Dionysus placed the boy up into the heavens to commemorate him.

Virgo Galaxy Cluster

Not surprising, with Virgo being the second largest constellation after Hydra in the night sky, that it would also be a section of the night sky where thousands of galaxies are found within. The most famous of these galaxies is one known as the Sombrero galaxy due to how its shaped.

Virginids

There are a number of minor and major meteor shows associated with the constellation of Virgo. The major and more significant ones are: Alpha Virginids (from March 10 and May 6), Gamma Virginids (from April 5 to April 21), Eta Virginids (from February 24 and March 27), and Theta Virginids (from March 10 and April 21). The rest are minor, daytime meteor showers that can be hard to see or spot.

Autumn Equinox

With the precession of the heavens and passage over time, the first day of Autumn and the Autumn Equinox now lies within Virgo, close to the start of when Beta Virginis or Zavijava is high over head.

The Autumn Equinox used to be marked by the constellation of Libra.

Zodiac

The constellation of Virgo is the sixth sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from August 23 to September 22. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during May around 9 p.m. The planet Mercury is said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. In some astrology reports, the asteroid or planetoid Ceres is also said to be the ruler for Virgo. Its element is Earth, an extroverted sign and is one of four mutable signs.

Virgos are said to be known for their attention to detail natures and can often come under condemnation from others for being too picky and critical. Virgos see this as only trying to help and they do love to help and serve. Their methodical, industrious and efficient manners are frequently a great boon when getting a job done and getting it done correctly. It’s good for a Virgo to remember to keep themselves well ground and not to over do it when working. They are also known for their modest and humane natures. Virgos enjoy their practicality and will gives themselves fully to a project until it is done.

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Leo

Leo - Constellation

Etymology – the Lion

The constellation Leo is one of many familiar constellations that form the classical Greek Zodiac. It is often represented as a sickle-shape series of stars, with the sickle part being the lion’s head and the rest forming the body and tail of the lion.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Leo is one of the oldest recognized constellations and was one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations. It is the 12th largest constellation in the night sky. The Leo constellation is a rather small constellation and is found between Cancer to the west and Virgo to the east. Other constellations bordering with Leo are Cancer, Coma Berenices, Crater, Hydra, Leo Minor, Lynx, Sextans, Ursa Major and Virgo.

Several other cultures have known of Leo throughout the millennia. Hindu astronomers have known of Leo as Asleha and Sinha, The Persians referred to this constellation as Ser or Shir, to the Turks as Artan, the Syrians as Aryo, the Jews as Arye, the Tamil as Simham and the Babylonians, Aru; all of which mean Lion in their respective languages.

Chinese Astronomy

The Chinese know of the constellation Leo, or at least know most of that stars that make up Leo as their constellation: Xuanyuan, the Yellow Dragon. In the Chinese zodiac, the stars that make up Leo are thought to represent a horse.

The star Beta Leonis while not part of Xuanyuan, was part of the myth connected to this constellation. It was called Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, a legendary ruler and founder of Chinese civilization. His image, along with the Yellow Dragon, Yuanyuan were immortalized up in the heavens as a constellation.

A set of four stars to the north, south, west and east of Huangdi controlled and ruled the four season. These stars along with Huangdi formed an asterism known as Wudi, the Emperors. The chariots of the Emperors were represented by the five stars that outline the constellation Auriga. North of this group of stars was the Emperor’s heir, Taizi (93 Leonis), his personal assistant Congguan (92 Leonis) and a bodyguard Huben (72 Leonis) who kept watch.

Wudi, Taizi and Congguan fall within a larger area called Taiwei which represented a court where the Emperor met with his private council. Taiwei extends out into the constellation of Virgo. A chain of five stars along the south of Delta, Theta, Iota and Sigma and up to Beta Virginis form one of the boundary walls for Taiwei.

Another fainter line of four stars from the north of Leo into Leo Minor form Shaowei, represent either a delegation of nobility welcoming Huangdi or a group of scholarly advisors. Its unclear which stars were meant to represent Shaowei. Some sources say they are 53 Leonis to 41 Leonis Minoris. This same line of stars later forms Changyuan, an outer wall protecting Taiwei.

There are a few other smaller constellations that the Chinese saw in the area of Leo. The stars Xi Leonis and a couple other stars formed Jiuqi, a banner of a wine maker or merchant. Jiuqi is probably meant to be connected to the kitchen, Waichu seen in the constellation of Hydra to the south.

The stars Chi, 58 and 59 Leonis represent Lingtai, an astronomical observatory. The star Upsilon Leonis and two more stars formed Mingtang, the “bright hall”, an administrative center where the Emperor announced the forecast of events for the coming year. The “brightness” part of this asterism’s title may refer to the Emperor’s presence.

The sickle part of the Leo constellation is recognized as a completely different constellation. One that forms a snaking line up into the Lynx constellation.

Egyptian Mythology

The ancient Egyptians were known to have worshiped lion headed gods. They also believed that the world was created during a time when the Sun rose in the Leo constellation near the star known as Denebola. The Sun in Leo during the time of the Egyptians marked the annual flooding of the Nile River, the life blood of the Empire’s agriculture.

Greek and Roman Mythology

The Twelve Labors of Hercules

In Greek mythology, the hero Hercules was tasked with a series of twelve labors by King Eurystheus that needed to be performed as penance for the killing of Hercules’ family. The first of these tasks was to slay the Nemean Lion, one of many children of the giant Typhon and the monstrous Echidna. Other sources say the lion was the offspring of the god Zeus and Selene and that Selene may have deliberately set the monster against the people of Nemea for not giving her proper dues and respect as a goddess. Some sources will add too that the Nemean Lion was the brother of the Theban Sphinx. And finally, there is also mention of the dog Orthrus having sired the Nemean Lion.

When heading out to accomplish this task, Hercules stopped at the town of Cleonae where he stayed with a poor man known as Molorchus. When Molorchus heard of Hercules’ task, he offered to do a sacrifice to ensure a successful lion hunt. Hercules convinced Molorchus to wait thirty days. That way then, if Hercules returned with the slain beast, a sacrifice would be made to Zeus. If Hercules didn’t return, Molorchus would make a sacrifice to honor the fallen hero.

The nefarious beast was well known and Hercules lost no time at all in finding the beast’s lair; a cave with two entrances. When Hercules arrived, the lion showed itself and the hero began his battle in earnest with it. The lion was said to have a hide so tough that no weapon could pierce it as Hercules quickly discovered when his arrows had no effect on it. Hercules decided to seal off one of the cave entrances before pursuing the beast. Eventually Hercules caught up with the beast and ended up strangling the Lion to death by ramming his fist down its throat.

Obviously, Hercules was able to return to Cleonae where he and Molorchus made a sacrifice to Zeus, King of the Gods. And with the lion now dead, Hercules used one of its claws to skin it for its pelt. Wearing the pelt as a cloak, along with the lion’s head, Hercules returned to King Eurystheus to show proof of having finished the first of his twelve labors. Eurystheus was so frightened of the beast that he fled in terror from it. In any event, Hercules skinned the lion and used its hide for a shield.

Depending on the version of the story of Hercules and his first labor, it will be either Hera or Zeus who places the lion up in the heavens to become the constellation of Leo.

Pyramus and Thisbe

A story told by the poet Ovid, it tells how the parents of the title characters Pyramus and Thisbe, believed them too young to marry and forbade the two from seeing each other. As is the nature of rebellious youth passionately in love, the two still arranged to meet secretly with each other under a mulberry tree with white berries.

When Thisbe arrived to wait for Pyramus, a lion sprung out from under some bushes and she ran away in terror from it. As she did so, her veil fell to the ground and the lion already bloody from an earlier kill, pounced on it.

So later, when Pyramus arrives, he sees the bloodied veil of Thisbe and believes it as proof of her having been killed. Beside himself with grief and unable to see life without her, Pyramus thrusts himself on his sword. As he lays dying, Thisbe returns and seeing that her love is dead, takes up the sword to kill herself too. This tragedy was used to explain why mulberries are red as its believed the blood of the lovers colored them so. Other sources will say that Zeus placed Thisbe’s veil up in the heavens as the constellation Coma Berenices.

Other Names and Zodiac

Leo was also known as Bacchi Sidus, the star of Bacchus and identified with the god Bacchus. Roman poets like Ovid called the Leo constellation Herculeus Leo and Violentus Leo. Others like Manilius referred to this constellation as Jovis et Junonis Side, the Star of Jupiter and Juno. The Greek scholar Eratosthenes and Roman author Hyginus both have said that the lion was placed in the heavens as it is the king of beasts.

In regards to the zodiac and summer solstice, the Greeks and Romans had many various lion-headed fountains that may or may not have symbolized the strong connection of Leo to the life-giving waters and rains that the Egyptians revered.

Mesopotamian Mythology

Like many of the classic constellations, the Leo constellation was known as far back as 4000 B.C.E. by the Mesopotamians. The Babylonians called this constellation UR.GU.LA, the “Great Lion.” The star Regulus was known as “the star that stands at the Lion’s breast” and held distinct regal authority as it was also known as the “King Star” or Star of the King.” The ancient Chaldeans associated Leo with the sun as back during their time; the sun was in the sky during the summer solstice.

King Of The Beasts

The ancient Greeks Eratosthenes and Hyginus both mention that the shape of a lion to have placed in the night sky as it is the King of the Beasts.

Loosing A Tail

Around 240 B.C.E., the Leo constellation lost its tail when an astronomer-priest under Ptolemy III reassigned the stars to make up the constellation of Coma Berenices or Berenice’s Hair.

Stars In Leo

Alpha Leonis – Also known as Regulus and believed to be so named by the astronomer Copernicus, it is the brightest star in Leo and it is the 22nd brightest star in the sky. In the northern hemisphere, Regulus is best seen in late winter and spring evenings. Due to the earth’s orbit and rotation around the sun, Regulus can’t be seen for about a two month’s time during August and September. The name Regulus means “little king” or “prince” in Latin. The Greek name Basiliscos also holds the same meaning. And the Arabic name for this star, Qalb al-Asad means: “the heart of the lion.” Among those civilizations located around the Euphrates river, Regulus was known as “The Flame” or “Red Fire” as it had been believed anciently that this star was responsible for the hotness of Summer.

Another name with the same meanings is Cor Leonis. Regulus was known anciently as one of the four “Royal Stars” of Heaven. The other three are Aldebaran, Fomalhaut, and Antares.

Beta Leonis – Also known as Denebola or the tail of the lion. It is the second brightest star in the Leo constellation. The name Denebola comes from the Arabic name ðanab al-asad.

Gamma Leonis – Also known as Algieba, it is a double star. The name Algieba or Al Gieba comes from the Arabic word Al-Jabhah which means “the forehead” or “lion’s mane.” The star is also known by a Latin name of Juba. Along with other stars, Adhafera or Zeta Leonis and Al Jabbah or Eta Leonis, they are sometimes called the Sickle.

Delta Leonis – Or Zosma from the Greek language for “girdle,” it refers to this star’s location on the lion’s hip.

Wolf 359 – This star is a red dwarf and is one of the lowest-mass stars discovered to date. After Alpha Centauri and Barnad’s Star, it is one of the closest stars to our Sun. As a result of this, Wolf 359 has enjoyed some claim to fame by being mentioned shows like Star Trek and location of the Battle of Wolf 359 where the Borg destroyed a number of Star Fleet ships. Wolf 359 also has mention made in an episode of The Outer Limits.

Leo Ring

One of the more interesting celestial objects found in the Leo constellation is the Leo Ring is a huge ancient cloud of helium and hydrogen gas that orbits between two galaxies. Astronomers have determined that it is left over material from the event known as the Big Bang. This gas cloud was discovered by radio astronomers in 1983.

Leonids

The Leonids are the meteor showers associated with the Leo constellation. They’re seen in November and peak around November 14-15 with 10-20 meteors per hour. These meteors are known to come from the Tempel-Tuttle comet which orbits the sun every 33 years. Three times a century, this meteor shower will become particularly dense with several hundred to even bursts of 1,000 meteors per hour. These denser showers typically happen in years ending in 33, 66 and 99.

There is another minor January Leonid shower that typically occurs between January 1 and January 7.

Summer Solstice

The constellation Leo had at one time been associated with the Summer Solstice. This has changed over the millennia, with progression of the equinoxes and shifts in the Earth’s axis as it rotates around the sun.

Anciently, it had been believed that the star known as Regulus was responsible for the excessive heat at the height of summer. Around 2,300 B.C.E. the Summer Solstice was located near Regulus and marked the beginning of summer. Nowadays, we’re close to the end of summer and getting to head into autumn. The role of the summer star has changed to that of Sirius and the dog days of summer.

The ancient Egyptians believed the world to have been created during a time with the Sun in Leo and close to the star known as Denebola. On the Temple ceiling in Dendera Temple complex in Egypt, there is a night sky painting depicting the whole zodiac and their constellations. All of which shows a strong Greco-Roman influence.

Zodiac

The constellation of Leo is the fifth sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from July 22 to August 22. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during April around 9 p.m. The Sun is said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Fire, an extroverted sign and is one of four fixed signs.

Those born under the sign of Leo are thought to love taking the spot light and center stage in everything they do as they are very outgoing and enthusiastic. This can cause a seeming appearance and belief that the world revolves around them. Leos are also seen as being rather ambitious and take up a lot of different creative activities. The down side to Leos is that they can be seen as brash and arrogant in their self-confidence. Leos can be rather opinionated about matters and may rub others the wrong way. Leos can be very generous in spirit, fierce in their determination and loyal.

Cancer

Cancer

Etymology – The Crab.

Cancer, the Crab is one of twelve familiar signs of the Zodiac in Western Culture. Surprisingly for all of its importance in the Zodiac, the part it plays in Greek mythology is only that of a bit part.

The modern-day symbol for Cancer is a pair of pincers like those on a crab. The constellation shape for cancer itself looks more like an upside-down “Y” which is interpreted to be the back of the crab. Over the millennia, the Cancer constellation has been used to represent a number of different animals, most often those of an aquatic, shore-dwelling animal with an exoskeleton.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Cancer is one of the oldest recognized constellations and was one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations. It is the 31st largest constellation in the night sky. The Cancer constellation is a rather small constellation and is found between Gemini to the west and Leo to the east. Other constellations bordering with Cancer are Leo Minor, Lynx, Canis Minor and Hydra.

There is a 12th century illustrated astronomical book that depicts the Cancer constellation as a water beetle. In 1489, an Albumasar wrote about Cancer, describing it as a large crayfish. Then in the 17th century, Jakob Bartsch and Stanislaus Lubienitzki describe the constellation as being a lobster.

Chinese Astronomy

In Chinese astronomy, the stars that make up Cancer lie within the Vermillion Bird of the South or Nán Fāng Zhū Què.

The four stars (Delta, Gamma, Eta and Theta Cancri ) surrounding the star cluster known as Praesepe or the Beehive Cluster were known as Gui, meaning ghosts, which referred to the spirits of the dead. The 23rd Chinese Lunar Mansion was also called Gui for this asterism. In China, Praesepe was called Jishi, a group of corpses. This star cluster and the four stars surrounding it were seen as a ghost being carried in a sedan chair on a wagon. For this reason, this group of stars was known as Yugui or Ghost Wagon.

North of Gui was another grouping of stars that formed a figure called Guan, a beacon fire on a watchtower. Sources will differ as to which four groups of stars this was to have been and it may have changed from time to time too. Some sources place Gui as being around Chi Cancri while other sources place Gui around Iota Cancre. A final chain of four stars that crosses into Cancer from Canis Minor was known as Shuiwei or the “water level.”

Egyptian Mythology

In ancient Egyptian records dating back to around 2,000 B.C.E., the Cancer constellation was seen as Scarabaeus or the Scarab and a sacred emblem for immortality. A scarab was also responsible for pushing the Sun across the heavens.

In Coptic Egypt, Athanasius Kircher reports that Cancer was Κλαρια, the Bestia seu Statio Typhonis or the Power of Darkness. The scholar, Jérôme Lalande identified Cancer with Anubis, one of the Egyptian divinities commonly associated with Sirius.

Greek & Roman Mythology

Cancer the crab was known by several names. In Latin, the name Cancer means crab. Manilus and Ovid both referred to this constellation as Litoreus or “shore-inhabiting.” In Greece, it was Karkinos, meaning crab. In the Alfonsine tables, it was called Carcinus, a Latinized form of the Greek word. Aside from being known as a crab, it was also called Asses and Crib.

The famous hero Hercules had to perform a series of twelve tasks or labors as part of his penance for the death of his sons after he had been driven mad by Hera. For the second of these labors, Hercules traveled to the swamps of Lerna where the Hydra dwelt. With Athena’s aid, Hercules was able to locate the Hydra’s lair. The Hydra was a gigantic water snake with nine heads and immortal. The mighty hero found himself at a standoff with the beast as he soon discovered that for every time a head was chopped off, two more would grow back and its breath could kill on contact.

The crab, Cancer enters the story here as either the Hydra called on it for help or the goddess Hera sent it to hinder the hero Hercules. It’s considered a large crab, large enough that it tries to do a number on Hercules’ foot with its pincers. For all its trouble, Hercules simply kills it by crushing it in return with his foot and then turning his attention back to the Hydra and finally succeeds at killing it. A slight variation to this turn of events places Hercules as having kicked the crab hard enough that it flew up into the heavens to become the familiar constellation of Cancer.

With the Hydra’s death, Hercules proceeds to dip his arrows into the beast’s blood. As the Hydra’s blood is poisonous, the slightest scratch from one of these poisoned-tipped arrows would be instant death to his enemies. Instead later, it results in the accidental poisoning and death of either Chiron or Pholus depending on the version of the story of Hercules’ battle with the centaurs being told.

Late addition or down grade of a legend?

Several scholars have come to believe that its very well possible that the crab part of the myth when Hercules battles the Hydra in the Twelve Labors of Hercules, is a latter addition by early astrologers and astronomers trying to connect and relate all the constellations to Hercules’ legends.

Regardless of what the case is, the crab is awarded a place in the heavens as a constellation by Hera. As the crab failed to kill Hercules, it only has faint stars that make it up; no bright stars are found within it.

Cry Havoc And Let Slip The Donkeys of War!

There are two stars, Delta and Gamma Cancri, respectively known as the Northern and Southern Donkey that are part of an old Greek legend. When the gods went to battle the Titans, Hephaestus, Dionysus and several other gods rode in on donkeys. The Titans, having never heard the sounds of Donkeys braying, thought that they were monsters and so fled the field of battle. To commemorate this event, Dionysus placed the donkeys in the night sky as a star next to the star cluster Praesepe, which represented a manger or crib.

Another version from Greek Legend

In another legend, Hera is to have driven the god Dionysus insane. As a result, he ended up wandering through Egypt and Syria in the throes of madness. In an attempt to recover his sanity, Dionysus visited the Oracle of Zeus in Dodona to find a solution. While on his way there, he came upon a swamp where, he encountered two asses or donkeys which he subsequently caught. Dionysus then proceeded to ride the donkeys through the swamp in order to avoid getting wet. Once through and on the other side, Dionysus found that he was cured of his insanity and rewarded the donkeys by placing them up in the heavens as the Northern and Southern Donkey.

And from Roman Legend

In this one, the god Silenus’ donkey that he rode got into a contest with Priapus over the size of their erect manhoods. When the god won, he killed the beast and Silenus taking pity, placed the donkey up into the stars where it can be found in Cancer.

Hindu Mythology & Astronomy

In Sanskrit, Cancer is known by the name of Karka and Karkata. In Telugu it is called Karkatakam. Other dialects from India such as Kannada call Cancer Karkataka or Kataka. In Tamil its Karkatan and in Sinhalese its Kagthaca. Later Hindus would know Cancer as Kuilura. Etymologists believe that all of these word variations have influenced the Greek name for Cancer.

Malaysian Mythology

In Malaysian myths, Cancer was the “First and Only Crab” which existed long ago, the primal or mother crab from which all crabs came. It was a huge crustacean who lived in a deep hole in the sea. This hole was so large that the crab’s coming and goings from it would cause the ocean tides.

Mesopotamian Mythology

In Akkadia, Cancer was known as Alluttu. It marked the location for the Sun of the South during the Summer Solstice. Later on, it became associated with the fourth month of Duzu that roughly corresponds with the modern, western calendar of June-July. Duzu was known too as the Northern Gate of the Sun.

Among the Babylonians, the constellation was known as MUL.AL.LUL, or Bulag a name that can refer to either a crab or a snapping turtle. One source places the meaning of the word Bulag as “the Wicked One.” This is to be an early reference to the stars as having a reputation for being of an unfortunate nature. On boundary stones, the image of a turtle or tortoise is found regularly and thought to be what represents Cancer. A crab symbol has yet so far, not been found on any of the boundary stones.

Gate Of Men

There also seems to be a strong connection linking the ideas of death and passage into the Underworld that may contribute to the Greek myths and legends associated in the story of Hercules and his battle with the Hydra.

In the ancient Chaldean and Platonic philosophies, Cancer was known as the Gate of Men. This was a gateway or portal by which souls descended from the heavens when they were ready to be born. About 2700 years ago, the sun passed through the Cancer constellation during the Summer Solstice. At this point and time, Cancer was the apex of the Zodiac. The symbol of a crab came into use as it was believed that the sun’s seemingly backwards motion through the heavens were much like those of a crab in how they walk; that is sideways and backwards once it reached the Summer Solstice. The symbolism of the crab is also used as it’s a shore creature and represented a bridge between the land and ocean from where all life began. The opposite sign of Cancer is Capricorn, seen as the Gate of the Gods through which the souls of the dead would ascend back up to the heavens.

Stars of Cancer

Alpha Cancri – Also known as Acubens or Al Zubanah, both meaning “the claws.” Another name for this star is Sertan, “the crab.” It is the fourth brightest star of the Cancer constellation.

Beta Cancri – Also known as Al Tarf or Tarf, the name is thought to come from the Arabic “aṭ-ṭarf” which means “the eye,” or “aṭ-ṭarfah” meaning “the glance of Leo.” Beta Cancri is the brightest star found within the Cancer constellation.

Delta Cancri – This star is the second brightest star within the Cancer constellation. An orange giant, it is also known as Asellus Australis or the “southern donkey colt.” Additionally, this star also holds the record for the longest name. Arkushanangarushashutu is from the ancient Babylonian language and means: “the southeast star in the Crab.” This star also marks the location of o Praesepe or the Beehive Cluster.

Gamma Cancri – Also known as Asellus Borealis or “northern donkey colt” is a white A-type star or subgiant.

Both Delta and Gamma Cancri as the Northern and Southern Donkey are associated with a Greek legend in which Dionysus, Hephaestus and several of the gods rode into battle against the Titans riding on donkeys.

Zeta Cancri – Also known as Tegmine, meaning “the shell of the crab” is a star system of at least four stars.

Beehive Cluster

Also known as M44 and better known by its Latin name Praesepe which also means hive or crib, is the brightest star cluster found in Cancer that can be seen by the naked eye at night without the aid of a telescope. The Beehive Cluster is found in the center of the Cancer constellation. It is best seen and observed during the months of February to May on the Northern side of the Equator when Cancer appears at its highest point. There’s well over three hundred stars found in the Beehive Cluster. It thought that over a hundred of these stars are brighter then the Earth’s own Sun.

The ancient astronomer Ptolemy described the Beehive Cluster as “the nebulous mass in the breast of Cancer.” Hipparchus referred to this cluster as a “Little Cloud” and Aratus called it the “Little Mist.” In antiquity, this cluster had often been used to predict the weather. If it wasn’t crystal clear or visible, then inclement weather could be expected. The Beehive Cluster was also one of the first objects that Galileo observed in his telescope in 1609. At that time, he identified 40 stars within the cluster. Nowadays, there are about 1010 likely members with most of them being red dwarfs. Halley’s Comet was discovered in this part of the night sky in 1531.

Both the Greeks and Romans identified the Beehive Cluster as a manager that two donkeys, represented by neighboring stars as Asellus Borealis and Asellus Australis eat from. These two stars represent the donkeys that the god Dionysus and his tutor Silenus rode on during the war with the Titans. The ancient Chinese saw in the cluster a ghost or demon riding in a carriage and called it a “cloud of pollen blown from under willow catkins.”

Cancrids

Cancer has only one meteor shower associated with it and it’s known as the Delta Cancrids.

Tropic of Cancer

The tropic of Cancer is the latitude line on the Earth that marks the northernmost point when the Sun appears to be overhead at noon. Particularly during the Summer Solstice on or roughly around June 21.

Summer Solstice

In ancient times, Cancer marked the location of the Sun’s most northerly position in the heavens and Summer Solstice. With the precession of the equinoxes over the years, the sun is now technically in Taurus come June 21st when its time for the Summer Solstice.

Zodiac

The constellation of Cancer is the fourth sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from June 21 to July 21. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during March around 9 p.m. The Moon is said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Water, an extroverted sign and is one of four cardinal signs.

Those born under the sign of Cancer are thought to have sensitive, shy and caring natures. On the extreme side of things, a Cancer person can be seen as being too emotional, touchy and moody. They can be tough when they need to be. Home is important to a Cancer person. They love all the creature comforts of home and family. A Cancer person may have a strong love for family traditions and certainly family values.

Dark Sign Of The Zodiac

Because it has so few stars and isn’t very bright as a constellation to begin with, Cancer is often seen as the “Dark Sign,” described as being black and without eyes.

House Of The Moon

In Richard Hinckley Allen’s book Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, the constellation of Cancer was considered the House of the Moon as it was believed that the moon was found here at the time of creation.

Gemini

Gemini
Etymology – The Twins

The constellation known as Gemini is one of twelve constellations that form and make up the classical Greek Zodiac. It is associated with the myth of Castor and Pollux, also known as the Dioscuri. It is also one of the few constellations that actually look like its namesake and what it’s to represent.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Gemini is one of the oldest recognized constellations and was one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations. It is the 30th largest constellation of the night sky. The constellation of Gemini is also unique as it’s not just named for two twin heros, but has two stars found within it named for those same heroes. The planets Uranus and Pluto were discovered in Gemini. Bordering constellations to Gemini are Auriga, Cancer, Canis Minor, Lynx, Monoceros, Orion and Taurus.

The constellation of Gemini is one that can be seen with the naked eye. The easiest way to locate the constellation in the night sky is to find its two brightest stars Castor and Pollux. These two stars lay in an easterly direction from the familiar “V” shaped asterism of Taurus and the three stars of Orion’s belt. Another method is to mentally draw a line from the Pleiades star cluster located within Taurus and the brightest star in Leo, Regulus.

Arabian Astrology

Gemini is represented by a pair of peacocks.

Babylonian Mythology

In Babylonian astronomy, the stars Castor and Pollux were known as the Great Twins, MUL.MASH.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL. The Great Twins were minor gods and known as Meshlamtaea and Lugalirra, each meaning respectively: “The One who has arisen from the Underworld” and the “Mighty King.” Both of these names are titles of Nergal, the major Babylonian god of plague and pestilence, who was king of the Underworld.

In some sources, the constellation of the Great Twins is believed to commemorate the friendship of Gilgamesh and Enkidu who adventured together and fought the gods in twelve adventures and a quest for immortality.

Another point of interest is that the symbol for Gemini was a pile of bricks and referred to the first city built and not just the twins. The Sumerian name for the lunar month that fell between May and June is Araḫ Simanu.

Chinese Mythology

In Chinese astronomy, the stars that correspond to Gemini are located in two areas: the White Tiger of the West and the Vermillion Bird of the South. The stars known as Castor and Pollux are seen as Yin and Yang, an important concept and principle in Buddhism on how all things are connected and related.

The largest part of Gemini forms a constellation in Chinese known as Jing, meaning “Well.” It is sometimes called the Eastern Well is comprise of eight stars: Lambda, Zeta, 36, Epsilon, Xi, Gamma, Nu and Mu Geminorum. Together, these stars form the shape that resembles the Chinese character for “well.” Tthe 22nd Chinese lunar mansion is also called Jing after this constellation and is the widest of the 28 lunar mansions. The star known as Eta Geminorum, which is next to the Well is called Yue and represents a battle axe used for decapitating the corrupt and immoral.

The actual stars called Castor and Pollux are not part of Jing. They, along with Rho Geminorum are part of another constellation called Beihe, the Northern River. The Chinese constellation Nanhe that’s the Southern River is found in Canis Minor. Both of these constellations lay on the north and south along the ecliptic and were seen as gates or sentries. To either end of Beihe were Jishui and Jixin, each represented by a single star and represent the supply of water needed for winemaking and brewing and a pile of firewood used for cooking. Sun and Kistemaker identified these stars as Omicron and Phi Geminorum, though Kappa is also a good candidate for the latter.

The star Alhena is known as “the Third Star of the Well.” Another five stars from Theta to Kappa Geminorum and possibly Phi Geminorum were part of a constellation known as Wuzhuhou and represented five feudal lords or princes that acted as the Emperor’s advisors and teachers. Delta Geminorum was one of a triangle of stars along the ecliptic that formed Tianzun, a wine cup or water jar with three feet.

The last Chinese constellation found in or makes up part of the western Gemini is Shuiwei, the “water level.” It is a curved line of four stars, often seen as extending out from Canis Minor into Cancer. In some older versions, Shuiwei will be shown as the stars 68 to 85 Geminorum. All of which shows that over time, the Chinese constellations have changed and been altered.

Egyptian Mythology & Astronomy

The twin stars of Castor and Pollux formed an important part of Egyptian astronomy. They were represented by a pair of goats made mention of in the Ramissede Hour Tables that were used to keep track of time at any point during the night as the two stars followed each other. These two stars were known to rise at the dawn. The constellation Gemini can also represent Horus the older and Horus the younger. Or sometimes just the “Two Stars.”

Greek Mythology

In Greek mythology, the constellation of Gemini represents the twin heroes Castor and Polydeuces. They are also sometimes called Iabal and Ivbal. Together, the two are also known as the Dioscuri. In Latin, the twins are known as Gemini or Castores. And finally, they are also sometimes called the Tyndaridae or Tyndarids, in reference to their father and stepfather Tyndareus.

The two were born from an egg laid by Leda after she had been seduced or raped by the god Zeus in the guise of a swan. Slight variations to this story state that Polydeuces was the son of Zeus and that Castor was the son of Tyndareus, the king of Sparta. This explanation of the twins’ parentage is used to explain why Polydeuces is immortal and Castor is mortal. Either way, the two brothers were good friends who became gods, patrons of athletes and the protectors of sea goers and sailors for whom they could appear as St. Elmo’s fire. The two brothers also had twin sisters Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra, working out that the two sets of twins are Polydeuces and Helen and then Castor and Clytemnestra.

As demigods, Castor and Polydeuces held power over the winds and waves. Castor became famous as a horsemanship and Polydeuces was equally skilled and famous at boxing and his fighting prowess in battles. The two were even the students of the centaur Chiron and were raised by him. They would later join Jason and the Argonauts in their search for the Golden Fleece. Other exploits of theirs are joining the hunt of the Calydonian Boar.

In time, the two took wives, two daughters of the King of Sparta. Strangely enough, these two women were already married to the twins’ cousins Idas and Lynceus who are also twins themselves. In some accounts they don’t seem bothered by the fact that Castor and Polydeuces simply take off with the two women and settle down with them else where. Though in other accounts, this does cause a problem and a few years later, the two cousins join the twins on a joint raid for some cattle in Arcadia. They take their revenge on the twins when it came time to divide up the stolen cattle.

Idas had a solution involving cutting one of the cows up into four equal parts and said that whichever two pairs could completely finish their parts first could divide up the spoils. This took the twins off guard as they watched their cousins completely wolf down their quarters of the cow. Once finished, Idas and Lynceus then drove off with the entire stolen herd of cattle.

Tricked by their cousins, Castor and Polydeuces vowed to get even. A few days later they set off after their cousins to claim their share of the cattle. In the fight that followed, Idas killed Castor with a spear. Enraged at the loss of his brother, Polydeuces pursued his cousins. He managed to kill Lynceus in a single blow. Just as Idas was about to hurl a tombstone at Polydeuces, Zeus interceded, hurling a a thunderbolt at Idas and killing him.

His twin dead, Polydeuces, being the immortal son of Zeus, begged for death so he wouldn’t be separated from his brother. Not able to do such a thing, Zeus did the next best thing that he could and placed them together up in the heavens to form the Gemini constellation. In another variation to this ending, Polydeuces was given a choice by Zeus of spending all of his time on Mount Olympus or giving up half of his immortality to his brother Castor. Polydeuces choose the latter and thus enabled the twins to alternate between being on Olympus or in Hades. As symbols of immortality and death, the twins, like Hercules are also said to have been initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries.

Apollo and Heracles – Alternate Identification

Of course, not everyone identified the constellation of Gemini with Castor and Polydeuces. The ancient writer Aratus does refer to the constellation of Gemini as the twins but he doesn’t say who they were. A century later, Eratosthenes named them Castor and Polydeuces. Some like Hyginus and Ptolemy identified the stars with Apollo and Heracles, both half-brothers and sons of Zeus, though they aren’t twins. Ptolemy referred to the stars Castor and Polydeuces as “the star of Apollo” and “the star of Heracles” respectively. A reference found in Ptolemy’s more obscure Tetrabiblos that is about astrology. Additionally, several ancient star maps portray the constellation of Gemini as Apollo and Heracles. One example is Bode’s Uranographia which shows Apollo carrying a lyre and arrow while Heracles is shown carrying a club.

Hindu Mythology – Rigveda

In the texts of the Rigveda, a Hindu text that dates back more than 6,000 years, the two main stars of Gemini, Castor and Pollux are known as twin horsemen who appear at dawn. They were members of the Ashvins, known as Sahadeva and Nakula. Back during this time, the stars were only visible at during Spring. This in turn lead to linking the twins to the Spring Equinox. Mithuna is the Sanskrit name for this pair of twins and they nearly match the same meaning as the Gemini constellation in terms of the Zodiac.

Norse mythology

In Norse mythology, Gemini is strongly associated with the god Loki.

A constellation called Þjazi’s eyes (augu Þjaza) is one of the few known Norse constellation. It’s not certain which stars in the sky made up this constellation. One idea put forth is that they are the stars Castor and Pollux in the constellation Gemini.

In Norse mythology, Þjazi is a giant who kidnapped Idun. When he didn’t return home after chasing Idun and her rescuer Loki, Þjazi’s daughter Skadi realized he must be dead and took up arms, swearing vengeance for her father’s death.

As she marched upon Ásgarð, Heimdall sounded the alarm and several of the gods went out to meet her. As they had no desire to continue the feud, the gods asked Skadi if she would accept wergild, basically gold as payment for her father’s death.

Skadi said she would only accept or settle instead for a husband of her choosing from among the gods. They agreed, saying in turn that she must choose her husband by looking only at his feet.

She agreed and Odin arranged for all the gods to gather. With her eyes shield so that she could only see their feet, Skadi made her choice of the most good looking feet, believing that they belonged to Baldur. To her surprise and horror, the feet belong to the god Njord an elderly god of the sea as well as fertility.

The next part to this bargain was for the gods to make Skadi laugh, something she thought that they would be unable to do. Odin called for Loki to come make her laugh. He came and told a story of taking a goat to market and how he had tied one end of rope to the goat’s beard and the other to his own testicles. The description of the tug-of-war that followed between Loki and the goat caused Skadi to laugh in spite of her self.

In an effort to try and please Skadi further, Odin brought out two liquid orbs that Skadi immediately recognized as her father’s eyes. Odin threw them up into the sky where they became two stars, presumably the stars Castor and Pollux that form part of Gemini.

The two gods Njord and Skadi decided to live for half of the year in Skadi’s frozen hall in the mountains of Þrymheim and the other half in Njord’s hall in the sea at Nóatún. Neither liked the other’s hall, Njord didn’t enjoy the cold or the howling wolves and Skadi couldn’t tolerate the motion of the sea and the noise of crashing waves. They eventually agreed that they would live apart.

Roman Mythology

For the Romans, the constellation Gemini can represent the twins Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome.

As the Romans were famous for absorbing and taking many of the Greek myths and legends into their own mythology, the previous story of the two twin heroes mentioned under Greek mythology is still very much so the same, only the Romans refer to them as Castor and Pollux instead of Castor and Polydeuces.

Stars of Gemini

The two brightest stars found within Gemini are Castor and Pollux. Castor also holds another designation as Alpha Geminorum even though it is second brightest to Pollux or Beta Geminorum. The problem in their naming with brightness and designations is owed to a mistake made by Johann Bayer in 1603 when he was cataloging the stars.

Castor – Castor is also a sextuplet star system In Arabic culture, Castor is known as “The Head of the Foremost Twin,” or Al-Ras al-Taum al-Muqadim. To the Chinese, Castor represents Yin, one of two fundamental principles and concept on which all things depend, are connected and related to.

Pollux – This star is also known as “The Head of the Second Twin,” from the Arabic Al-Ras al-Tau’am al-Mu’akhar. To the Chinese, Pollux represents Yang, one of two dundamental principles and concepts on which all things depends, are connected and related to.

Geminga – Geminga is a neutron star found within the Gemini constellation. It is the decaying core of an old massive star that went supernova some 300,000 years ago. The name Geminga comes from the Italian gh’è minga, meaning “it’s not there.” At the same time, the name is also short for “Gemini gamma-ray source.” It has the distinction of being the first unidentified gamma-ray source to be discovered and the first example of a radio-quiet pulsar.

Mebsuta – Also known as Epsilon Geminorum, it marks Castor’s outstretched right leg. In Arabic, the name Mebsuta means “the outstretched paw.”

Mekbuda – The star known as Mekbuda is a super-giant star with a radius about 220,000 times the size of the Sun.

In Arabic culture, both Epsilon and Zeta Geminorum are called Melboula or Melucta as they represent a lion’s outstretched paws.

Eskimo Nebula

The Eskimo Nebula or Clown Face Nebula is a planetary nebula located about 4,000 light-years away from Earth. For those using amateur telescopes, its central star that’s 10th in magnitude can be seen and has a blue-green elliptical disk. The name comes from its resemblance to the head of a person wearing a parka. It was discovered in 1787 by the German-born British astronomer William Herschel.

Jellyfish Nebula

The Jellyfish Nebula is the remnant of a Galactic supernova that can be found near the star Eta Geminorum. The supernova that created this Nebula is thought to have happened some 3,000 to 30,000 years ago.

Medusa Nebula

The Medusa Nebula or Sharpless 2-274 and Abell 21 is a planetary nebula found within the Gemini constellation near the border with the Canis Minor constellation. It gets its name from the filaments of glowing gas that look like the snake hair of the monster Medusa. It was first discovered by the UCLA astronomer George O. Abell in 1955. Until the 1970’s it was thought to be the remnant of a supernova when Soviet astronomers stated it was more likely a planetary nebula. The Medusa Nebula is rather large and old, formed when a red giant turned in a hot white dwarf and shed its outer layers.

Geminids

The Geminids are a bright meteor shower that peaks around December 13th to 14th with roughly 100 meteors per hour.

Another is the Epsilon Geminid that peaks around October 18 to October 29, they overlap with the Orionid meteor shower and are hard to distinguish from the Orionid. The difference though is that the Epsilon Geminid meteor shower has a greater velocity than the Orionid meteor shower.

Summer Solstice

As information on the exact Zodiacal calendars can change each year (and by sources) along with the precision of the equinoxes over the year, the Summer Solstice is falling more and more into Gemini. The Summer Solstice of course is when the days are at their longest and the nights at their shortest.

Zodiac

The constellation of Gemini is the third sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from May 22 to June 22. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during February around 9 p.m. The planet Mercury and the Moon are said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Air, an extroverted sign and is one of four mutable signs.

Gemini people are said to be lively, versatile, intellectuals, adaptable, communicative, observant, fickle, inconsistent, cunning, inquisitive, two-faced, gossipers, expressive, quick-witted, clever, changeable, ungrateful, scatterbrained, restless and scheming. Those born to this sign seem to need a lot of stimuli, they like doing and taking on a lot of projects and can move from one topic to another easily during conversations. A Gemini seems to have duality to their nature and can seem like yin and yang with how they appear to others as it can seem as if you’re not sure if you’re dealing with the good twin or the bad twin with how mercurial their natures are.

It’s easy for a Gemini to become a jack-of-trades person, learning a little bit about everything, but if they’re not careful, they’re not masters of a particular area, knowledge, trade or skill. A lack of focus can make a Gemini seem fickle, uninterested or have an uncaring attitude. A Gemini aware of their nature is more than capable of multi-tasking and taking care of multiple tasks and challenges. With their love for talking, a Gemini can also make a good diplomat when tensions are high and people need to communicate, to listen as much as say what needs to be said. As great communicators, a Gemini is able to see both sides of a situation. The Greek myth of Castor and Pollux explores the inherit duality of life – of mortality and immortality forever intertwined and perpetually in conflict.

The ancient writer Ptolemy has commented that the star Pollux, as it’s a fiery red star, has a nature similar to Mars and that Castor, a bright white star has a nature similar to Mercury. On more specific notes, Pollux is thought to denote a more spirited nature and encourages violence, rashness and a love for sports. Pollux is renowned for strength and ferocity. Castor though is then believed to be more intellectual and aids in the success of all studies. Castor is also thought to pass on a skill of natural horsemanship for those born under the sign of Gemini.

Taurus

Taurus
Etymology – The Bull

Taurus is a familiar zodiac symbol to many representing power and strength. It is considered and believed that Taurus is one of the oldest constellations known to man, dating back to the Bronze Age and depictions found on cave walls.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

The Taurus constellation is Latin for “Bull.” This constellation is one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. It is the 17th largest constellation found in the night sky of the northern hemisphere. In modern times, Taurus is one of 88 known constellations and is bordered by the constellations of Aries, Auriga, Cetus, Eridanus, Gemini, Orion and Perseus.

The constellation of Taurus is formed from two star clusters, the Hyades and Pleiades. When looking for the Taurus constellation in the night sky, the pattern of stars depict only the front half of a bull. The reasoning given is that the bull’s hind quarters are underwater as this image shows the Greek story of the white bull carrying Europa to Crete.

Further, it’s only in the imagination that the front quarters of the bull can be seen. The Hyades, a V-shaped grouping of stars form the face of Taurus, which have their own mythological story.

If you can find Orion in the night sky, follow his familiar three star belt pattern to the right. You should be able to spot Alderbaran, the Bull’s Eye and then find the rest of this constellation.

The Taurus constellation has been called Al Thaur by the Arabs, Il Toro by the Italians, Le Taureau by the French, Taura by the Persians, and Shor by the Jews all of which mean the Bull in their respective languages.

Bronze Age

The Taurus constellation is believed to be one of the oldest constellations, known since at least the Early Bronze Age. It has been placed as dating to the Chalcolithic and possibly even the later Paleolithic eras. During this time, Taurus had marked the Spring Equinox between 4,000 B.C.E. to 1,700 B.C.E. which is also known as the Age of Taurus.

A Michael Rappenglück believes that depictions of the Taurus constellation and the Pleiades stars have been found in a cave painting at Lascaux, France. These paintings date back to 15,000 B.C.E. That both Taurus and the Pleiades are and have been known in many cultures as a bull and seven sisters gives cause for many paleontologists and astronomers to believe in a common origin and myth for their names.

Babylonian Mythology

In Babylonian astronomy, the Taurus constellation was listed in the MUL.APIN as GU4.AN.NA, meaning “The Heavenly Bull.” As Taurus marked the Vernal Equinox, it was the first constellation in the Babylonian zodiac and was referred to as “The Bull in Front.” The Akkadian name for Taurus was Alu.

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, an early literary work from Mesopotamia, Gilgamesh faces off against the Bull of Heaven after it was sent by the goddess Ishtar to kill him for spurning her advances. Gilgamesh is associated with the constellation of Orion. The two constellations of Orion and Taurus are often shown as being Gilgamesh and the Heavenly Bull in combat.

In early Mesopotamian art, the Bull of Heaven is connected in myths to Inanna, the Sumerian goddess of sexual love, fertility and warfare. One of the oldest depictions of the Heavenly Bull shows it standing in front of Inanna’s standard. It had three stars on its back; the cuneiform symbol for the “star-constellation” and archaeologists use this as good evidence that Taurus constellation is connected to Babylonian myths.

Buddhist Mythology

In Buddhist legends, Gautama Buddha had been born during a Full Moon in the month of Vaisakha, which coincides about the time of Taurus. The Buddha’s birthday is held and celebrated with the Wesak Festival or Vesākha. This happens during the first or second Full Moon while the Sun is in Taurus.

Druidic Mythology

The druids held an important religious festival involving bulls when the Sun passed through the Taurus constellation.

Egyptian Mythology

The Heavenly Bull of Babylonian myth is also found on the Dendera zodiac, an Egyptian bas-relief carved into the ceiling of a temple. In these early depictions, the bull’s horns are shown facing upward or backwards. Later Greek depictions of Taurus show it pointed forwards.

For the Egyptians, the constellation of Taurus represented Osiris, a Sun god and in some accounts, his sister Isis. Both were represented by a bull and cow. As a bull, Osiris became known as the Bull-God Apis; seen as an aspect of the Sun god. Though worship of the Bull-God, Apis was worshipped in ancient Egypt at a much earlier time than Osiris. The priests of Apis would find a bull bearing the marks that would prove it embodied the soul of the deity. This bull was worshiped and cared for by the priests until it died and another bull was found bearing the marks of Apis.

Archaeologists in Memphis, Egypt found the ancient tomb of the Apis-bull. Inside the tomb is a broad paved avenue lined on either side by stone carved lions. On entering the tomb, a person passed through a long, high arched corridor with recesses carved into the rock wall on either side. Within the recesses were the entombed remains of the Apis-bulls.

Springtime is when the festivals honoring the Apis-bulls would occur. This was also the time of year when the Nile River has overflowed its banks, leaving the life-giving waters and silts behind for farmers to till and plant. The constellation of Taurus as a sacred bull was associated strongly with the renewal of life during Spring.

During this point and time of history, around 4,000 B.C.E., the Sun’s position in the heavens along the Zodiac rested on the first day of Spring, in the constellation we recognize now days as Taurus, the Bull. For many centuries, Taurus was the first constellation in the Zodiac and some scholars suggest that Taurus may have been the first Zodiac constellation invented.

Greek Mythology

Zeus and Europa

In Greek mythology, Zeus in many of his various affairs; had fallen love with Europa, the daughter of Agenor, a King of Tyre in ancient Phoenicia. The problem with Zeus getting close to show his affection is that Europa was always guarded by her father’s servants. Being a god and a shape-shifter, Zeus changed himself into the form of a handsome white bull with golden horns.

That accomplished, Zeus in his white bull form then mingles with the King’s royal herds grazing in a large field near the sea. While a walk along the beach, Europe noticed the handsome white bull and couldn’t resist going up to feed it. The bull was so very friendly and gentle, that Europe climbed up on its back when it lay down; taking hold of the golden horns.

Once she was on the bull’s back, it stood up and the white bull wandered closer and closer to the sea and then when they approached the beach, took off running for the water. Once in the sea, the bull starts swimming towards the island of Crete. And for Europa, it was too late to get off now.

When they arrived in Crete, Zeus changed back into his own form, revealing himself to Europa. As he’s already married to Hera, Zeus gives Europa instead in marriage to Asterius, the King of Crete.

In slightly different versions of this story, Zeus and Europa have three children together. One of whom is Minos who grows up and goes on to be a famous king of Crete. He had the palace in Knossos built where bull games were held and is more infamous for the sacrifice of fourteen youths (seven boys and seven girls) to his Minotaur in a labyrinth every year. In either event, Zeus is said to have commemorated the white bull he turned into by placing it up among the heavens as a constellation.

Io

An alternate story of the myth of Taurus holds that it the nymph Io, whom Europa is descended from. In this story, Io was changed into a cow in order to hide her from Hera during an affair with Zeus.

Cretan Bull

The Greek mythographer Acusilaus indentified the constellation of Taurus as being the Cretan Bull, which was one of the Twelve Labors of Heracles.

Hebrew Mythology

For the Hebrews, Taurus was also the first constellation in their zodiac. It was represented by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet as Aleph.

The Bull’s Eye and other Stars in Taurus

Aldebaran

The brightest star found in the Taurus constellation is Alpha Tauri or Aldebaran, from the Arabic language meaning: “The follower” (of the Pleiades). It is part of the group of stars known as the Hyades that form the Bull’s face. Aldebaranm being a giant red star, is seen as being the Bull’s bloodshot eye. This eye is often said to be glaring at the constellation of Orion the Hunter. Incidentally, Alderbaran is the 13th brightest star in the night sky.

The Chinese refer to Alderbaran as the Fifth Star of the Net. The Inuit call it the Spirit of the Polar Bear. The Seris of Mexico believe that Alderbaran provides light for seven women giving birth (the Pleiades). The Dakotas of North America saw Alderbaran as a hero chasing a white buffalo, again the Pleiades.

El Nath

The second brightest star in Taurus is Beta Tauri or El Nath, from the Arabic language meaning “the butting,” in reference to a bull butting someone with their horns.

Crab Nebula

A rather familiar nebula known as M1 (NGC 1952) or more popularly the Crab Nebula is found within the constellation of Taurus. The Crab Nebula is roughly 5,000 light years away from Earth. Astronomers say it is the remnant of a supernova that happened on July 4, 1054. This supernova was so bright it could be seen during the daytime and even has mention in Chinese historical records. The people of North America also saw this event and there is a painting of it on a canyon wall in New Mexico along with various pieces of pottery showing this event. Those archaeological finds weren’t discovered until 1731 by John Bevis.

The name of this nebula comes from its resemblance to a crab. The Crab Nebula is one of the most studied and well known Nebulas in the night sky. In 1968, a pulsar that emits radio waves at regular intervals was discovered. It’s figured the that this radio energy is the result of a dense neutron star.

Other famous nebulas found in Taurus include: Hind’s Variable Nebula (NGC 1555), the colliding galaxies NGC 1410 and NGC 1409, the Crystal Ball Nebula (NGC 1514), and the Merope Nebula (NGC 1435).

Crystal Ball Nebula

The Crystal Ball Nebula is found in the northern part of Taurus and to the northwest of the Pleiades. It gains significance as it was discovered by the German-born English astronomer William Herschel in 1790. Before this time, astronomers believed that nebulae were merely unresolved groups of stars. With Herschel’s discovery, he found that there are stars in a nebula’s center and that it is surround by a cloud of some sort. In 1864, the astronomer William Huggins figured out that this nebula is a luminous gas, not stars as previously supposed.

Hyades

The Hyades are a V-shaped group of stars that form the face of the Taurus constellation. The Arabs called to this group of stars the “Little she-camels.” In Greek mythology, the Hyades were five sisters of Atlas and thus, half sisters to the Pleiades. The Hyades also had a brother, Hyas who was a great hunter. When he was killed by a wild boar, the sisters grieved. The sisters were later chosen by Zeus to care for his son, Dionysus, the god of Wine when his mother died. In a mixture of gratitude and pity, Zeus placed the sisters up into the night sky and despite their reward, the sisters still mourn for their dead brother.

Pleiades

The stars known as the Pleiades are another group of famous stars found in or associated with the Taurus constellation. They are known as the “Seven Sisters,” the daughters of Atlas and Pleione. In one myth, they were the companions of Artemis and when their father Atlas was given the task of holding the world on his shoulder, they became so grief stricken that Zeus placed them up in the stars. A closely related myth to this, the hunter Orion fell in love with the seven sisters and pursued them endlessly. In order to save them, Zeus placed the sisters up in the Taurus constellation.

Astronomers have shown there to be many more stars then the initial seven. The star known as Aldebaran is considered the lead star of this group or cluster. It is estimated by astronomers that there may be 500-1000 stars in the Pleiades cluster, all of which are roughly 100 million years old. The stars though vary by size and only the largest stars in Pleiades typically represent it.

Taurids

There are a couple of meteor showers that radiate from the Taurus constellation. They are the Taurids that occur in November and the Beta Taurids that occur in June to July during the day.

Zodiac

The constellation of Taurus is the third sign of twelve signs that form the Greek Zodiac. In more current and modern zodiacs, Taurus is the second sign of the zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be sometime from April 21 to May 20. The best time of year to see this constellation in the northern hemisphere is during the month of January at about 9 p.m. The planet Venus rules Taurus and the element of Earth is associated with this zodiac.

Taurus people, those born during the time of Taurus, are said to be both practical and stubborn. A Taurus tends to plod along at a steady pace when getting their goals and agendas done. So stubbornness can mean a great determination to get a job done right or a failure to see things any other way and seeing only one way to get their objectives done. When it comes to games, Taurus people love the rewards a game offers, they are also viewed as interested only in physical pleasure and material possessions. In that sense, Taurus people do enjoy a lot of physical contact and love creature comforts. With a Taurus’ love for the material, they can also be very sentimental in why they keep some items or the amount of affection they show on their loved one.

Aries

Aries Constellation

Etymology – The Ram

Aries is a familiar constellation that is part of the Western or Greek Zodiac and symbolized by a Ram. Like many of the constellations, Aries has ancient origins that date it as far back as the ancient Babylonians. The constellation of Aries is often shown as a crouched, wingless ram with its head facing towards the constellation of Taurus.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Aries is Latin for ram and is one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations and is located in the Northern Hemisphere between the constellations of Pisces and Taurus. It is a mid-sized constellation, about 39th in size among the other recognized constellations. Other constellations close to it are Cetus, Perseus, Pisces, Taurus, and Triangulum.

Reportedly, in May of 1012 C.E. a nova was seen within Aries constellation.

For a time, the Aries constellation wasn’t recognized and had been divided up into other constellations that are now considered obsolete. These included: Musca Borealis, Vespa, and Apis constellations. It wasn’t until 1922 that the International Astronomical Union decided to officially recognize it. And it wasn’t until 1930 when it was fully outlined and defined by the astronomer Eugène Delporte.

Musca Borealis consisted of the stars: 33 Arietis, 35 Arietis, 39 Arietis, and 41 Arietis.

In 1612, the astronomer, Petrus Plancius introduced Apis, a constellation representing a bee. In the year1624, the same stars were used by Jakob Bartsch to create another constellation called Vespa, representing as a wasp. Neither of these constellations became widely accepted. And a Johann Hevelius renamed the constellation to “Musca” in 1690 in his book Firmamentum Sobiescianum.

To differentiate this constellation from Musca, the southern fly, it was later renamed to Musca Borealis but it still didn’t gain acceptance and its stars ultimately went back to being known as Aries.

Arabic Astronomy

Among Muslim astronomers like al-Sufi, they saw a ram in the Aries constellation as set forth by Ptolemy. Other astronomers showed the Aries constellation as an unknown four-legged animal with antlers instead of horns. Al-Sufi’s depiction of a ram differed from other Arab astronomers in that his ram is shown running while looking behind itself.

Other early Bedouin astronomers did see a ram, but placed it as being elsewhere in the night sky. This ram constellation had the Pleiades as its tail. Most though generally accepted an Arabic formation of the Aries constellation that had thirteen stars and five “unformed” stars, four of which were to be the ram’s hindquarters and one over the ram’s head.

The brightest star in the Aries constellation is Hamal, from the Arabic phrase: “Al Ras al Hamal,” meaning “the Head of the Sheep.” The star, Beta Arietis is known as Sharatan, that along with Gamma Arietis, in Arabic meaning “two signs” that marked the start of the Vernal Equinox. Gamma Arietis is known as Mesarthim, thought to be the result of a series of mispronunciations over the millennia.

Hebrew Astronomy

Among the Hebrews, Aries was called: “Teli” and signified either Simeon or Gad. This constellation was typically thought to symbolize the “Lamb of the World”. The nearby Syrians called the constellation “Amru”, and the Turks referred to it as “Kuzi”.

The Jewish month of Nisan that roughly corresponds to March-April was associated with Aries for it is believed that during this time, the Hebrew people had been freed from slavery in ancient Egypt. The same month of Nisanu in Assyria, the constellation Aries represents the Alter and Sacrifice, usually of a ram.

Hindu Astronomy

In a similar system to the Chinese, the first lunar mansion in Hindu astronomy was called “Aswini”, after the traditional names for Beta and Gamma Arietis, the Aswins. Because the Hindu new year began with the vernal equinox, the Rig Veda contains over 50 new-year’s related hymns to the twins, making them some of the most prominent characters in the work. Aries itself was known as “Aja” and “Mesha”.

Polynesian Astronomy

Among the Marshall Islands, several stars in Aries along with stars from other constellations such as Cassiopeia, Andromeda and Triangulum form a porpoise.

The Marquesas islanders called Aries: Na-pai-ka. The Maori constellation of Pipiri may be modern Aries as well.

South American Astronomy

Among the indigenous Peruvian, a constellation with many of the same stars as Aries was recognized. It was called the “Market Moon” as well as the “Kneeling Terrace”, it was a reminder for people of when to hold the annual harvest festival, Ayri Huay.

Babylonian Mythology

Although Aries came to represent specifically the ram whose fleece became the Golden Fleece of Ancient Greek mythology, it has represented a ram since late Babylonian times. Before that, the stars of Aries formed a farmhand.

The Babylonian clay tablets known as the MUL.APIN, was a comprehensive list and table of stars marking an agricultural calendar. The constellation we know today as Aries, was known as MULLÚ.ḪUN.GÁ, meaning “The Agrarian Worker” or “The Hired Man.” It was depicted as being the last or final constellation on the ancient Babylonian’s agricultural calendar.

It’s thought by scholars that the MUL.APIN was compiled in either the 12th or 11th century B.C.E. At this point in time, during the Middle Bronze Age, with the procession of stars, the Pleiades marked the Vernal Equinox.

The clearest and earliest reference to depicting Aries as a constellation come from some boundary stones dating between 1350 B.C.E. to 1000 B.C.E. Several of these boundary stones clearly show a ram figure that is distinct from any other characters shown.

The identification of the Agrarian Worker to the Ram as the image for this constellation is thought to have happened in later Babylonian traditions due to the increased association of Dumuzi the Shepard. When the MUL.APIN was created around 1000 B.C.E., the constellation we know as Aries was associated with both Dumuzi’s ram and a hired laborer. Exactly when this change and shift of association for the Aries constellation was to have happened is difficult to determine due to the lack of surviving records for archaeologists to look at it.

Another source lists a Sumerian name LU.HUN.GA, which may be a pun. The name, taken at face value refers to hired workers for bringing in the Spring harvest of barley. However, in the Akkadian language, the word LU can also mena “sheep” and may mean something like “The Sheep of Appeasement.”

Chinese Mythology

In traditional Chinese astronomy, the stars of the Aries constellation are part of several other constellations. The Aries constellation along with Taurus and Gemini are part of The White Tiger of the West, Xī Fāng Bái Hǔ. It is also known as the Lake of Fullness, the Five Reservoirs of Heaven, and the House of the Five Emperors.

The stars known as Alpha, Beta and Gamma Arietis from a constellation called Lou, which has been translated to mean “bond,” “lasso,” and “sickle” and has been associated with the ritual sacrifice of cattle. The name Lou has been used for the 16th lunar mansion and the location closest to the Autumn Equinox. This lunar mansion represented the place where animals would be gathered and held before they were sacrificed. The constellation has been associated too with harvest-times and may also represent a woman carrying a basket of food on her head.

The stars 35, 39 and 41 Arietis form part of a constellation known as Wei, representing a fat abdomen and the name of the 17th lunar mansion which symbolized the granaries. Causing for some confusion, two other lunar mansions are also called Wei. One is located in Scorpius and the other in Aquarious and Pegasus, though their Chinese characters are different. The Wei in Aries represents the granaries for storing cereals and grains.

The stars Delta and Zeta Arietis form part of the constellation Tianyin (“the celestial yin force”) and is thought to represent the Emperor’s hunting partner. North of Tianyin is a solitary star called Tian’e or Tianhe, meaning “celestial river” For modern astronomers, this is the star known as HR 999.

Another constellation known as Zuogeng (Tso-kang) represents a Forestry manager or Ranger. This constellation is composed of the stars Mu, Nu, Omicron, Pi and Sigma Arietis. Zuogeng is also accompanied by Yeo-kang, another constellation representing an official in charge of pasture distributions.

Other names for Aries have shown it as a dog, Heang Low or Kiang Leu. In more modern times with Western influence, the constellation is known as Pih Yang, “the White Sheep.”

Christian Mythology

Under the influence of many English writers during the 14th through as late as the 17th century, the constellation of Aries was Anglicized to Ariete. There were many efforts to rewrite the stories of the constellations along biblical terms. Aries was to represent the ram caught in a thicket during the story of Abraham and Isaac. Saint Peter, a bishop of the early Christian church saw the constellation known as Triangulum become associated with his Mitre. And Caesius saw in Aries the Lamb sacrificed on Calvary Hill for the redemption of all mankind.

Egyptian Mythology

Among the ancient Egyptians, the constellation of Aries was associated with the god Amon-Ra, often depicted or shown as a man with a ram’s head. Amon-Ra represented fertility and creativity for the Egyptians.

With the Aries Constellation being close to the Vernal Equinox, it was called the “Indicator of the Reborn Sun.” During this time of the year when Aries was said to be in the heavens, the priests would dedicated statues of Amon-Ra in temples. This practice would be modified later by Persian astronomers later on. The constellation of Aries also gained the title of “Lord of the Head,” indicating an important symbolic and mythological meaning in Egyptian theology.

Greek Mythology

Ancient Temples

Between 1580 B.C.E. to 360 B.C.E., the ancient Greek built and oriented many of their sacred temples in alignment to the star Hamal.

The Golden Fleece

The story of the Golden Fleece is perhaps the most well known and famous story linked to the Aries constellation.

In Greek mythology, King Athamas of Orchomenus (a region of Boetia) had married the cloud nymph Nephele after the incidents and her involvement with Ixion and the resulting birth of the Centaur race. By her, Athamas had twin children; a son, Phrixus and a daughter, Helle.

Due to the previous baggage of Nephele’s from the incident with Ixion and that she wouldn’t stop crying, Athamas eventually got fed up with Nephele and divorced her for another woman, Ino, the daughter of Cadmus and Queen of Thebes. Being a jealous woman and rather ambitious, Ino conspired and plotted to kill Athamas’ children so any children of hers could inherit the throne.

To do this, Ino created a famine throughout Orchomenus wherein she had roasted all of the town’s crop seeds so they couldn’t grow. Scared of the idea of starvation, the local farmers went to the nearest Oracle for help. Ino had already beaten them to it and had bribed the men of the Oracle of Delphi to tell the farmers that in order to avoid the famine, that Athamas’ son Phrixus needed to be sacrificed.

Reluctantly, Athamas agreed to the sacrifice his son Phrixus. But before that could even happen, a golden, flying ram arrived at the top of Mount Laphystium, where the sacrifice was to take place, and rescued both Phrixos and Helle. In one source, this ram was sent by the god Hermes, but it makes far more sense when looking at other sources, that this ram was sent by Nephele, the twin’s own mother Another source says the ram’s name is Chrysomallus and that he was the son of the sea god Neptune and Theophane. That same source also says that Ino’s whole plot to kill Phrixus is because he refused to have sex with her. His step-mother. I don’t blame him, not when she’s to be married to his dad.

From there, the twins flew towards the land of Colchis where King Aeetes, the son of the Sun God Helios ruled. Unfortunately during this flight, Helle fell off of the ram’s back and drowned in the Dardanelles, also known as the Hellespont to honor her.

Once they arrived in Colchis, the golden ram instructed Phrixus to sacrifice it to the gods. In one version of this tale, this god is Zeus and in others it is Poseidon. Phrixus did the sacrifice and removed the ram’s Golden Fleece, presenting it to King Aeetes who then arranged for a marriage with his daughter Chalciope.

King Aeetes hung the Golden Fleece in a sacred Grove of Ares, the God of War, where a dragon that never slept guarded it. In a later myth of Jason and the Argonauts, the title character Jason steals the Golden Fleece in order to claim and restore his own rightful claim to his throne in Iolcos.

For its sacrifice in helping Phrixus, the golden ram was placed up in the heavens to become the constellation of Aries.

Zeus

In the story where the Greek gods were down by the Nile River and they were attacked by the monster Typhon. When the Gods all changed themselves into various animals to escape, Zeus is said in some accounts to have changed into a ram before turning to do battle with Typhon. And that it is for this battle, the constellation of Aries is commemorated as a constellation in the heavens.

Roman Mythology

When the god Bacchus (frequently identified by his Greek name Dionysus) and his entourage were wandering through the Liberian desert, they ended up being rescued from death by a ram. This ram showed them the way to a well and as a reward, Bacchus placed the ram up in the heavens to become the Aries constellation and mark the beginning of Spring when the sun passes through it annually.

The First Point of Aries – The Beginning of Spring

With the precession of the Equinoxes and the Earth’s “wobble” as it rotates around the Sun, the exact timing of the Vernal Equinox has been changing over the millennia. The ancient peoples used the constellation of Aries at one time to mark the beginning of Spring. Around 1800 B.C.E., this point of time was indicated by the constellation of Aries and was known as the First Point of Aries.

With the changes of the Equinox over the millennia, the First Point of Aries now occurs in Pisces and will later move into Aquarius around 2600 C.E. Despite these changes, Aries is still associated with the beginning of Spring.

Arietids

Like many constellations, Aries does have several meteor shows that originate from it. The Daytime Arietid meteor shower is considered one of the strongest meteor showers that happens between May 22nd to June 2nd. It is an annual meteor shower that sees its peak around June 7th with the Marsden comets and up to 54 meteors per hour. The rest of the time, these “earthgrazer” meteors can sometimes be seen just before dawn at a rate of about 1 to 2 per hour. However, it’s usually only using the radio spectrum that these Arietids can be seen and not with the naked eye.

There are several meteor showers such as the Daytime Epsilon Arietids (between and the Northern and Southern Daytime May Arietids. These meteor showers were discovered by the Jodrell Bank Observatory in 1947 when the World War II radar systems were adapted for meteor observations.

These only name a couple of the more notable Arietids as there are several meteor showers that radiate or come from Aries.

Zodiac

In the Greek Zodiac, Aries marks the second spot of the Zodiac Calendar of which there are twelve Zodiac signs in all. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from March 21 to April 19, right about the time that many Pagans celebrate Ostara. Under the old Roman calendar, March 21 marked the beginning of the New Year and the start of Spring. This carries on as in modern astrology, Aries is the first sign of the Zodiac The best time of year to see this constellation is during December around 9 p.m.

In Astrology, Aries is associated with the head and can indicate someone who has a strong temper. Those born under this sign are believed to have strong leadership skills, assertiveness, optimism, to be bold and independent. All said to be the very spirit of Spring. Aries people are believed to very dexterous and like to be the center of attention in many social settings. Though they can be rather stubborn, it’s a stubbornness and head butting that Aries learn to use rather well. In addition, Aries is associated with the planet and Roman God Mars. The element of fire is also associated with this zodiac.

Pisces

Pisces

Etymology – Latin “Fishes”

The constellation of Pisces, while familiar to many as part of the Greek or Western Zodiac is also one of the earliest known signs. This constellation lies between Aquarius to the west and Aries to the east. While fairly large, Pisces is a faint constellation that can be difficult to spot in the night sky. Pisces is often seen as a pair of fish swimming in opposite directions and connected either at the tails or by a piece of cord or rope. Despite being a constellation that heralds the Spring, Pisces is a constellation best seen during Autumn and as such, it has the nickname of the Autumn Dipper.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Or who influenced who regarding the stories and myths behind the constellations. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

The Pisces constellation is Latin for “fish,” referring to the plural form of the word. This constellation is one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, Pisces is one of 88 known constellations and it lies between the constellations of Triangulum, Andromeda, Pegasus, Aquarius, Cetus and Aries. It is used to mark the end of the zodiac calendar and the Vernal or Spring Equinox. Many of the constellations bordering with Pisces are water-related and are located in an area of the sky known as the Sea or Water.

Babylonian Mythology

The constellation we know as Pisces is made up of two Babylonian constellations Zibatti-meš (or Šinunutu4 “the great swallow”) that’s the eastern part of Pisces and KU6 (“the fish, Ea,” Piscis Austrinus), presumably the western part. In the first Millennium B.C.E. texts known as the Astronomical Diaries, part of the Pisces constellation was called DU.NU.NU (Rikis-nu.mi, “the fish cord or ribbon”). There’s some speculation on the part of others that this constellation may have been misinterpreted and turned around so that the northern fish borders with Andromeda instead of being part of Piscis Austrinus.

There’s some thought that this constellation may have represented the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, major landmarks of Mesopotamian maps.

Chinese Mythology

In Chinese Astrology, the constellation of Pisces is actually “broken up” to be part of several constellations. There is Wai-ping, the “Outer Enclosure” that is seen as a fence that keeps a pig farmer from falling into some marshes or cesspit and kept the pigs where they belong. This constellation is represented by the line of stars: Alpha, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta, Mu, Nu, and Xi Piscium. Five stars which include Eta Piscium formed Yougeng, representing the farmer. The marshes or cesspit are represented by the four stars designated Phi Ceti found in the constellation Cetus.

Another constellation called Pili, representing a thunderbolt is formed from a zig-zagging chain of stars from Beta to Iota to Omega Piscium. To the south of this is the constellation Yunyu, formed of four stars representing a cloud and rain. These are just over the western constellation of Pegasus.

In the north part of Pisces, the seven stars that include: Chi, Phi, Upsilon and Tau Piscium the bottom part of a loop-shaped figure known as Kui, after the 15th lunar mansion, the House of the Sandal or Koui-siou. The majority of Kui rests and is found in what westerners know as Andromeda.

Another series of stars, 27, 29, 30 and 33 Piscium, mark the end of another constellation known as Leibizehn, representing a series of fortifications that cross through the Aquarius and Capricornus constellations.

Other names for the Pisces constellation or the ones it is part of are the Dark Warrior, the Northern Emperor and the Pig. After Christian Missionaries made their way to China, the constellation has been known by its western name and called the Two Fishes.

Egyptian Mythology

The ancient Egyptian knew of Pisces, seeing in it a creation story and the “fish of the Nile.” The symbol of Pisces’ two fish has been found on the lid to an Egyptian sarcophagi dating back to 2300 BCE.

German Folklore

A story from Germany tells the story of greedy humans and a wealth-giving fish. It’s a story I remember reading back in grade school. In this story, a man named Antenteh, who was very poor and his wife lived in a small cabin by the sea. Their only possessions they had were the cabin and a tub that they filled with feathers to at least have somewhere to rest and sleep.

One day, Antenteh caught a fish that struggled to get free as he pulled it up in his fishing nets. To Antenteh’s amazement, the fish spoke to him, telling Antenteh that he is actually an enchanted prince. The fish told Antenteh that if he released him, he could have anything that he wanted. In the story I read back in school, the fish gives Antenteh three wishes.

Antenteh whose needs are simple and feeling honored at having rescued such an important person, refused to accept anything from the enchanted prince. On getting home, Antenteh found that wasn’t to be the case. His wife became very angry for not taking advantage of the opportunity and Antenteh found himself returning to the sea shore and called for the fish.

Luckily for Antenteh, the fish came and an embarrassed Antenteh told the fish how the wife wanted a house and furniture for it. The fish told him not to worry and that he would take care of everything. Returning home, Antenteh found that his cabin was now a fine house. Now if Antenteh’s wife hadn’t been so greedy, everything probably would have been fine.

As time progressed, Antenteh’s wife demanded more. She wanted to be a queen and to have a palace and this wish was granted. Still not satisfied, she demanded to become a goddess. That was the straw that broke the camel’s back in this case and the fish now angry at the increasing demands, made everything that Antenteh had been given and wished for vanish and he and his wife were back to having their old cabin and tub full of feathers to sleep in.

In the version of the story that I had read, everything vanishes when the wife makes a fourth wish beyond the third one. It’s still a good cautionary tale about not being too greedy and to learn to be happy with what you’ve got.

Greek Mythology

The Grecian story of Pisces has some relation to the story of Capricorn.

Typhon, a monstrous god attacked the Gods when they were down by the Nile River. In some tellings of the story, the Gods where there in exile or that just happens to be where they were at for one of their many battles with Typhon. In either eventuality, Aphrodite and her son Eros were among the gods along the Nile River’s banks when Typhon appeared to do battle. While Zeus and a couple of other gods fought it out with Typhon, Aphrodite and Eros had leapt into the river, changing into a pair of fish so they could make their escape. In other accounts of the story, Aphrodite and Eros tied themselves together with a rope so they wouldn’t get separated.

Another account of this story places the riverbank that the gods were walking along as being the Euphrates River and not the Nile River. There is also a very similar story found in a Manilius’ five-volume poetic work Astronomica in which the fish that become the constellation of Pisces carried Aphrodite and Eros away to safety.

Keeping with the Euphrates River connection, when an egg fell into this river, a pair of fish pushed it to the shore where doves then sat on the egg to hatch it. When it hatched, Aphrodite came out of the egg. In a show of gratitude, the goddess placed the fish up into the sky to become the constellation Pisces. Through these connections of the myth, Pisces is also known as “Venus et Cupido,” “Venus Syria cum Cupidine,” Venus cum Adone,” “Dione,” and “Veneris Mater.”

Where the constellation of Capricorn was set in the sky to commemorate the humorous half goat, half fish form of Pan when he tried to escape; the constellation that has come to be known as Pisces also commemorates this event of Aphrodite and Eros’ forms as the now familiar Pisces. Also, for those keeping track of the different stories and legends, the Greek story of Pisces came about a hundred years before the Christian account and use of the Pisces constellation.

Judeo-Christian Mythology & Religion

The Jewish holiday of Purim happens around this time. By the Jewish Calendar, Purim happens at the full moon in Adar. For those following the Gregorian Calendars, this is sometime around February and March and the exact date can vary from year to year.

Among Christians, the story of the birth of Christ is said to have happened at the Spring Equinox entering into Pisces and why the “Savior of the World” is known as the Fisher of Men. And this is to parallel the entering into the Age of Pisces.

For those who study astrology, the astrological age is a period of time that is indicative of the kinds of major events of history on the Earth, showing the level of progression or development overall of cultures, politics and people. You determine the astrological ages by the progression of the equinoxes and one complete cycle of processions is called a Great Year or Platonic Year which takes about 25,920. If you remember the so called Mayan End Times and date of December 21st, 2012, that was merely the end of their long count Calendar. There can also be a lot of confusion as to just when an Astrological Age is to begin or end as a few different people such as Neil Mann, Heindel Rosicrucian and Shephard Simpson who all have different interpretations to when they begin or end.

This gains significance when you look at the age of Pisces as beginning in 1 C.E. and that it will end in 2150 C.E. The story of Christ’s birth coincides with this time and there are a number of early Christian symbols that use the Pisces symbol of fish. For some, they will point out how Christ is said to have the traits of a Pisces. Then you have the twelve apostles who were told, “Come with me and I will make ye fishers of men.” Early Christians are said to have called themselves “little fishes” and even either the name of the early church or a code name for Jesus was the Greek word for fish, “Ikhthues.” Even Saint Peter is seen as the apostle of the Piscean sign.

Pisces has also been referred to as the “dying god.” Its opposite sign on the Zodiac is Virgo and among Christians, this is the Virgin Mary. Some scholars have gone further with making a connection of Pisces and Christ in scripture, citing Luke 22:10 in which Jesus tells his disciples: “Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you bearing a pitcher of water… follow him into the house where he entereth in.” that the age to come after Pisces is the Age of Aquarius as the constellation of Aquarius is a man carrying a vase or pitcher of water.

The connection of Pisces to the early Christian religion and symbolism has a stronger tie with the famous story for the “Loaves and Fishes Miracles” where Christ was able to feed the large group of people who followed him.

It’s an interesting look and view point of matching Christianity to the Zodiac.

Syrian Mythology

Many scholars believe that the Greek and Roman versions of the story regarding Pisces come to us from Syria. Here, fish were seen as divine beings and the reports differ if they refused to eat fish altogether or just the ones from Chalos River.

In the Syrian myths, two fish known as Ikhthyes are the ones who rescue Aphrodite and her son Eros. Another myth tells how a large, mysterious egg appeared on the Euphrates River and two fish or half-fish, half-men named Aphros and Bythos brought the egg ashore and hatched it. Once it hatched, out came Ataratheh, whom the ancient Romans and Greeks would have identified with their respective goddess of Venus and Aphrodite.

Ataratheh is the Syrian goddess of love and fertility. She was often portray and known as the mermaid goddess. Looking at her origin story and that of Aphrodite’s, they are very similar and it could have been easy for the myths of this goddess to move northward into Greece and then Roman where those two cultures adapted her to their pantheons.

A Fish By Any Other Name Is Still A Fish

Pisces was known by the Babylonians as Nunu, by the Persians as Mahik, and the Turks as Balik, all of which mean “Fish” in their respective languages.

The Arabs also knew of Pisces as Al Samakatain, or “the Two Fishes.”

The Syrians viewed fish as sacred animals and refused to eat them.

Originally, only one fish was referred to by many of the older languages for this sign.

The Pisces constellation was also known by the Mayans who saw in it’s shape a bat instead of fish.

Alpha Piscium

Alpha Piscium is the name of one star found within the Pisces constellation. In Arabic, it is known as “Al-Rischa,” meaning “the well rope” or “the cord.” The astrologer Ptolemy described Alpha Piscium as the point where the cords holding the two fish were knotted together. The astrological symbol of Pisces shows the two fish as being caught on string either by the mouth or tails. The fish are often shown as swimming in opposite directions and for those who look as Astrology and the Zodiac, this is seen to represent a duality with Piscean personalities.

Beta Piscium

Beta Piscium is known as Fum al Samakah, an Arabic phrase meaning: “mouth of the fish.”

Omicron Piscium

The star or asterism known as Omicron Piscium is also called Torcularis septentrionalis. This name is Latin, meaning “the northern press.” There is some suggestion that this press is to be a grape or olive press. If that were the case, it is no longer certain.

In Chinese astronomy, this star is part of a group of stars known as Yòu Gèng, meaning “Official in Charge of Pasturing.”

Piscids

There are two annual meteor showers that happens every year between the end of Augst and mid-October. The Piscid meteor shower has about 15 meteors per hour and they have been clocked up to 28 kilometers per hour. The other is the Gamma Piscid meteor shower. Of course, successful watching of these meteor showers depends on having a dark night sky.

Vernal Equinox

The constellation of Pisces is considered in the heavens during the Vernal Equinox which is generally around March 21st. The Equinox is the time of year when day and night are at equal lengths of time.

In the Northern Hemisphere, with the Spring Equinox, we see the days begin to get longer and longer until the Summer Solstice before the yearly rotation around the sun and axel tilt makes them appear to grow shorter again.

For the Southern Hemisphere, it is the opposite for them, it is the Autumn Equinox and the days will be getting shorter and shorter until the Winter Solstice and the Earth’s rotation and Axel tilt changes.

Zodiac

In the Greek Zodiac, Pisces marks the first spot of the Zodiac Calendar of which there are twelve Zodiac signs in all. Though many Zodiac Calendars that place Pisces as the twelfth and last sign of the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from February 20 to March 21, right about the time that many Pagans celebrate Ostara. Under the old Roman calendar, March 21 marked the beginning of the New Year. The best time of year to see this constellation is during November about 9 p.m.

Before the discovery of the planet Neptune in 1846, the planet Venus had been the ruling planet. Neptune is now the ruler due to the association of it’s name with the Roman god of the sea, Neptune. In current, modern times, the planets Jupiter and Neptune are said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Water, an introverted sign and is one of four mutable signs.

Pisces people can be seen as having a duality to their lives. This duality is due the perception or belief that Pisces people are seekers of enlightenment and tend to pursue matters of an intellectual and spiritual nature. They are generally viewed as being perceptive, emotional and reasonable. While they can be sensitive and sympathetic, they can also become over sensitive towards others or be very self indulged in the pursuit of their own pleasures. A Pisces person is thought to be someone who likes to sit on the edge of social gatherings and not get in the middle of things. They can be viewed as being indecisive, passive, weak-willed as they don’t want to offend anybody, over-talkative, possibly confused about issues and this is just due to their flexible natures as they like to hear both sides of an issue and at the same time, they don’t want to offend anyone by taking “too harsh of a stance.” A good point about Pisces is their artistic natures, which again can get them into trouble if they seem to be drift-less and not well grounded.

Aquarius

Aquarius
Etymology – “water-carrier” or “cup-carrier”

Aquarius, like many of the constellations that make up the familiar Western or Greek Zodiac is an old constellation sign. It is known as the Water-Carrier and depicted as a youth carrying a vessel of water. This constellation is located between Capricorn and Pisces. As the 10th largest constellation, Aquarius doesn’t have very many bright stars, so for those out stargazing, they will need a dark sky during the month of October in order to pick it out.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Aquarius is one of the oldest recognized constellations and was one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations found in an area of the of the night sky known as the Sea or Water due to the number of other constellations with aquatic associations such as Cetus, Delphinus, Pisces and Eridanus.

Greek Mythology

Aquarius is depicted in Greek astronomy as a young man pouring water from a vase or urn into the mouth of Piscis Austrinus, the southern fish. There are a couple of different myths regarding the constellation of Aquarius in Greek Mythology.

Ganymede

Ganymede was the son of King Tros of Dardania and the basis for the kingdom of Troy in Greek mythology. An exceptionally beautiful youth, Ganymede had caught the attention of Zeus when he was out watching over his father’s flock of sheep. Now, depending on the versions of the story being told, Zeus, either in the guise of an eagle or sending the eagle Aquila, came and carried him off to Mount Olympus. As compensation to King Tros, Zeus gives him some horses.

Once there, Ganymede faced the wrath of Hera, the wife of Zeus, who was angry and very likely jealous that her husband had taken such a fancy for a young boy. In addition to this, she was also angry that Zeus intended for Ganymede to replace Hebe, Hera’s daughter as the cup-bearer after an incident where Hebe had accidentally spilled some nectar of the gods. And it couldn’t have set well with Hera that Zeus immortalizes Ganymede in the constellation of Aquarius in addition to immortality and eternal youth.

Another version of this myth says that it was Eos, the goddess of the Dawn who carries off Ganymede to Mount Olympus and then Zeus took him from her to be the cup-bearer.

Regardless of the versions of the story told, Ganymede does become the cup-bearer to the gods and basically serves them their wine. Further variations of this story tell how Ganymede would ride Zeus’ eagle Aquila, accompanying this god on his travels. Both the Aquila constellation near Aquarius and the constellation of Crater, said to be Ganymede’s cup are near Aquarius to complete this story.

Ganymede also becomes deified as he was given immorality and eternal youth by Zeus and ends up being the one responsible for the annual Nile River flooding and the life-giving waters of rain. Some scholars have pointed out that like the story of Capricorn, the Greeks are borrowing from other older stories and cultures as well as coming up with their own stories to explain the images and what the constellations mean.

In Roman times, the name Ganymedes was sometimes used for handsome slaves who served as cupbearers. Furthering this, many have pointed out that the story of Ganymede is a clear indication and precedence for homosexuality in Greek culture. Others, like in Plato’s writings of dialogues between him and Socrates say that it wasn’t homosexuality; point out the meaning of the name Ganymede for “taking pleasure of the mind.” That Zeus loved Ganymede non-sexually for his mind. Still, other sources point out that this is where the Latin word for catamite originates.

The story of Ganymede seems to be related or taken from a Sumerian story of Etana, who descended to the heavens with the help of an eagle while looking for a plant of birth that in turn leads to the birth of his son, Balih.

Grecian Flood Myth

Aquarius, sometimes identified as the god Zeus is the one who causes a great flooding of the earth. A man by the name of Deucalion and his wife, Pyrrha who survived a great flood that washed over the earth. Deucalion had been told by his father, Prometheus in some versions of this story, to build a boat and to fill it with provisions. The two did and they floated in the boat over the sea for nine days and nights before coming to ground on Mount Parnassus.

Safe now, the two found that they were the only survivors and began to wander more as the flood waters receded. Deucalion and his wife couldn’t have been the only survivors of this flood if they were able to consult an oracle who told them to “throw over your shoulders the bones of your mother.”

The solution seemed pretty easy to Deucalion who guessed that the bones of Mother Earth must be stones and so he and Pyrrha began picking up stones to toss over their shoulders. After a bit of this, they looked back and saw that there were now people. The stones thrown by Deucalion had become men and the stones thrown by Pyrrha had become women.

In this myth, Aquarius is seen or becomes a taker as well as giver of life. This myth of a world flood and the rebirth of life on Earth is a very common myth that can be found in numerous cultures around the world.

Sometimes in an effort to have the Grecian Flood myth story parallel the Biblical Flood story of Noah and the Ark, it is Zeus himself who tells Deucalion to build a boat and not Prometheus.

The Death Of Hyas

Hyas was a mighty hunter who ended up being killed while out hunting by either a lion or a boar. On his death, his sisters, known collectively as the Hyades for their brother, were so grievous and weeping for their brother’s loss, that the god Zeus took pity on them and placed them up into the heavens, forming the Hyades asterism and the “V-shape” of the Taurus constellation. The tears of their grief would become associated with the coming of rain.

As for Hyas, the gods placed him up in the heavens to become the Aquarius constellation and the lion that killed him became the Leo constellation. Both were placed on opposite ends of the heavens in order to protect Hyas. Making for the ancient Greeks explanations of why neither constellation appears together in the night sky, so that as one constellation sets in the west, the other is rising in the east.

Arabian Mythology

The Arabs depicted the constellation of Aquarius as a bucket due to their religion forbidding the depiction of humans in art. Sometimes a mule was used in place of showing a human as being the one carrying the buckets or urns of water.

Some of the stars that make up Aquarius also have alternative names in the Arabic language. There is beta Aquarri known as Sadalsuud, from an Arabic phrase “sa’d al-suud,” meaning “luck of lucks.” Then there is alpha Aquarri or Sadalmelik and comes from the expression “sa’d al-malik,” meaning “luck of the king.” As well as, gamma Aquarii or Sadalachbia from another Arabic expression “sa’d al-axbiyah,” meaning “luck of the homes.” And finally there is zeta Aquarri, known as Sadaltager, from the Arabic phrase “sa’d al-tajir,” meaning “luck of the merchant.”

Why is there so much luck? In the Middle Eastern world, when the sun enters Aquarius, that marked the beginning of the New Year and Spring was on it’s way. This would be a time of the life-giving rains that so many depend on, especially the farmers.

Babylonian Mythology

The constellation of Aquarius was well known to the Babylonians who identified it as GU.LA, “The Great One.” There are many Babylonian entitlement stones and cylinder seals dating to the second millennium marked with the astrological symbol of Aquarius, saying it represented the god Ea shown to be pouring water from an urn or holding an overflowing vase. In Babylonian astronomy, Ea is the ruler of the southern quarter of the Sun’s path, the “Way of Ea” and corresponds to a period of 45 days to either side of the winter solstice.

For the Babylonians, the time of Aquarius marks a time of destructive flooding and rainfall, so they often viewed this constellation unfavorably.

The Sumerians viewed Aquarius as responsible for a great flood that covered the earth. The Sumerians also have the story of Etana, a legendary hero-king whose story has been found on several Akkadian seals. According to the Sumerian king list, Etana is one of the kings who ruled the city of Kish after a great deluge or flood. This king’s list also refers to Etana as “the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries.”

The Legend of Etana

In this story there is a tree with the eagle’s nest at the top and a serpent at its base. Both creatures have promised the sun god Utu that they will be civil with each other and share their food with their children.

One day, the eagle eats one of the serpent’s children and the serpent cries over this. Utu tells the serpent to hide inside the stomach of a dead bull. When the eagle flies down to eat the dead bull, the snake is able to capture the eagle and throws him in a pit to die of hunger.

Utu then sends a man, Etana to help the eagle and saves it. Etana asks the eagle to help him find the “plant of birth” so that he can sire a son. In gratitude, the eagle helps carry Etana up to the heavens where the god Anu presides. Fearful, Etana has the eagle take him back to the ground. Once he’s gotten his courage up, Etana makes another attempt to go up to the heavens and is successful this time in getting the “plant of birth” and is able to sire his son Balith.

Chinese Mythology

In Chinese astrology, the constellation of Aquarius is found in the northern part of the heavens and symbolized by the Black Tortoise of the North.

In modern Chinese, Aquarius is known as bǎo píng zuò, meaning: “the precious pitcher constellation”. The stream of water flowing out of the Water Jar is depicted as the “Army of Yu-Lin-Kjun,” where “Yu-lin” means “feathers and forest” that represent numerous light-footed soldiers seen in the fainter stars of Aquarius. The stars 88, 89 and 98 Aquarii represent the portion of the constellation called Fou-youe, representing the axes used for weapons and hostage executions. Also found in the constellation of Aquarius is Loui-pi-tchin that represents a rampart stretching out and depicted with the stars 29 and 27 Piscium and 33 and 30 Aquarii through Phi, Lambda, Sigma, and Iota Aquarii to Delta, Gamma, Kappa, and Epsilon Capricorn.

Egyptian Mythology

For the ancient Egyptians, the god Hapi, the god of the Nile River was often identified with Aquarius. He was depicted as carrying a tray of food or pouring water from two large urns. With these urns, Hapi distributed the waters of life as the urns represented good fortune. Sometimes Hapi is shown holding a rod called the Norma Nilotica, that was used for measuring the depths of the Nile River. The time of Aquarius marked the annual flooding of the Nile when the life giving waters from Hapi would be poured out and the people could till their farms along the river’s borders. This annual flooding of the Nile for the ancient Egyptians marked the beginning of spring.

Hindu Mythology

The name of Aquarius in the Hindu zodiac is kumbha meaning: “water-pitcher.” Some feel that this is proof or shows that the influences of the Greek zodiac reached as far as India from Grecian travelers. That might be a bit of a stretch as it may be that the Indian or Hindu story of Varuna, god of the sky and waters is who is represented by the constellation of Aquarius.

This is the dawning of the Age of Aquarius

The constellation of Aquarius will be forever immortalized by the counterculture of the 1960’s with the Hippies and their proclamations for the Age of Aquarius and the musical Hair. Truth be told, they were a bit premature by about 600 years for when this time will actually begin.

The astrological age is determined by the name of the constellation in which the Vernal or Spring Equinox occurs, which is close to around March 21st. Right now, we’re still in the Age of Pisces, which will continue until about 2600 C.E. depending on the source.

Sadalsuud

Or beta Aquarri, mentioned up above in the Arabian Mythology section, is the brightest star in the Aquarius constellation. That it is a supergiant star probably helps.

Other notable mentions are some globular clusters of stars of Messier 2 and Messier 72, the asterism Messier 73, along with the Aquarius Dwarf Galaxy. There is also the Saturn Nebula, known as the Waterbearer

Aquariids

There are a series of four meteor showers associated with the constellation of Aquarius. These are the: the March Aquariids, Eta Aquariids, Delta Aquariids, and Iota Aquariids.

Zodiac

The constellation of Aquarius is the eleventh sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from January 20 to February 18. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during October around 9 p.m. The planets Saturn and Uranus are said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Air, an extroverted sign and is one of four fixed signs.

Aquarius people are said to be inquisitive, unpredictable, independent, friendly, outgoing, artistic, intellectual, social, stubborn, altruistic and even progressive. At their best, Aquarians are great humanitarians, thinking of others and how to help them. They have an easy with people and are able to interact with a lot of people and relate well with them. At their worst, Aquarians can come across as know-it-alls and become argumentative when trying to get others to see their viewpoints and ideas as correct instead of listening to others or realizing they may have been incorrect.

Aquila

Ganymede