Category Archives: Demon
Pleiades Star Lore Around The World
For many tribes in the African continent, the Pleiades mark the beginning of the agricultural season.
East Africa – In the Swahili language, the Pleiades are called: “kilimia” which means to “dig” or “cultivate.” The Pleiades appearance in the heavens is seen as being time to start digging or the arrival of rain.
North Africa – The Tuareg Berbers call the Pleiades by the name of: Cat ihed, pronounced as: shatt ihedd or Cat ahăḍ, pronounced as: shat ahadd. The name means “daughters of the night” in the Berber language. Other Berber tribes have called the Pleiades star cluster by other names such as: Amanar “the guide” and Tagemmunt “the group.”
The Tuareg Berber have a proverb that translates into English as:
“When the Pleiades fall, I wake up looking for my goatskin bag to drink. When the Pleiades rise, I wake up looking for a cloth to wear.”
It is a proverb that takes note of the changing of the seasons to prepare for the heat of summer and the colder weather that the rainy season brings.
South Africa – The Basotho call the Pleiades “Seleme se setshehadi” meaning the “female planter.” When the Pleiades leave the night sky around April, the Basotho’s tenth month, along with the appearance of the star Achernar marks the beginning of their cold season. Like many South African cultures, the Pleiades are associated with agriculture and plenty. The Khoikhoi tribe call the Pleiades by the name of Khuseti, the stars of rain or rain bearers.
The Pleiades star cluster is known by several names among many tribes.
Karatgurk – In the stories told by the Wurundjeri of Victoria, Australia, the Pleiades represent a group of seven sisters known as the Karatgurk. They were the first to hold the secrets of fire and each of the sisters carried live coals on the end of their digging stick. The sisters refused to share the coals with anyone and eventually were tricked into giving up the secret of fire to Crow who in turn brought the gift of fire to the rest of humanity. As to the sisters, they were taken up into the night sky where their glowing fire sticks became the stars of the Pleiades cluster.
Kidili – A moon god of the Mandjindja from Western Australia, he had tried to rape some of the first women on Earth. In retaliation, the lizard men, Wati-kutjara attacked and castrated him using a boomerang before leaving him to die in a watering hole. As for the women, they became the Pleiades star cluster.
Kungkarungkara – They are the ancestral women in the lore of the Pitjantjatjara tribe.
Makara – According to the Adnyamathanha tribe, the Makara (The Pleiades) are the wives of stars within the Orion constellation.
Napaltjarri – From Central Australia, they were seven sisters being chased by Jilbi Tjakamarra. He had attempted to use love magic on one of the sisters. She refused Jilbi’s advances and she and her sisters fled from him. They fled all the way to Uluru where they searched for honey ants. While there, the sisters again saw Jilbi and they went to Kurlunyalimpa and the other spirits of Uluru who transformed the sisters into stars. In response, Jilbi transformed himself into the Morning Star seen in Orion’s Belt where he continues to chase after the seven sisters.
The Seven Sisters And The Faithful Lovers – In this story of the Koori’s Dreamtime, the Pleiades or the Seven Sisters were a group of seven beautiful ice maidens. Their parents were huge mountain whose peaks were hidden by the clouds and an ice-cold stream who flowed from some snow covered hills. The Seven Sisters would wander the land, their long hair flowing out behind them like storm clouds. Their beauty was so great, that many men loved them, but the sisters were always cold in returning any affections.
One day, a man by the name of Wurrunnah, caught two of the sisters and forced them to live with him while the others continued on their journey home to the sky. Wurrunnah soon found that the sisters he caught were ice-maidens and took them to his camp fire in order to try and melt the ice off of them. This only served to put out his fire and dimming the brightness of the two sisters.
The two sisters were very lonely and sad by their captivity and every night, they would look up to the night sky where they could see their sisters calling for them. One day, Wurrunnah told the two sisters to go out and gather some pine bark. After a short trip, the two came to a big pine tree where they began with stripping the bark off of it.
As they stripped bark off the pine, whose totem was the same totem as the sisters, it began to extend upward towards the sky. The two sisters saw their opportunity and climbed up the tree to their home in the sky with their sisters. The two sisters never did regain their full brightness in the heavens and is why two of the Pleiades are dimmer than the others. The journey of the seven sisters is remembered every time it snows.
The Berai Berai Brothers And The Seven Sisters – Another story told of the Seven Sisters is that when they were on earth, of all the men in love with their beauty, the Berai Berai or two brothers were the most devoted. They always brought all the choicest catches from their hunts to the Sisters as an offering and token of their love. This love was not returned and when the Sisters wandered away, up to the mountains, the Berai Berai followed after them.
After the Sisters left for their journey to the sky, the Berai Berai mourned. A grave depression fell upon them that they eventually died. The spirits of the Dreamtime took pity on the brothers and placed them up in the sky, up where they could hear the Sisters sing. On clear nights, the Berai Berai can be seen, represented by the stars that form Orion’s Sword and Belt.
The name for this constellation in Lithuanian is Sietynas and Sietiņš in Latvian. Both of which have a root word: sietas meaning “a sieve.” In both Latvian and Lithuanian folk talks, the Pleiades constellation is shown as an inanimate object, a sieve that is stolen by the devil from the god of thunder or it is used to bring light rain by the thunder god’s wife and children. In some Lithuanian folk songs, Sietynas is depicted as a benevolent brother who helps orphaned girls to marry or he helps walk soldiers across fields.
Ben Raji Mythology
Living in western Nepal and northern India, the semi-nomadic Ban Raji refer to the Pleiades as the “Seven Sisters-In-Law and One Brother-In-Law” or “Hatai halyou daa salla.” For the Ban Raji, when the Pleiades rise up over the mountains at night, they see their ancient kinfolk. The timing for the appearance of the Pleiades over the Nepali mountains along the Kali River, marks when it is 8 p.m. local time.
Bronze Age And Celtic Mythology
In Bronze Age Europe, the Celts and possibly others may have associated the Pleiades with grief, mourning and funerals. At this period of time and history, the time of the Autumn Equinox and Solstice would have occurred around the time that the Pleiades star cluster rose in the eastern skyline as the sun set. The precession of the constellations over the centuries and millennia would have since changed for the timing of the Equinox and Solstice celebrations. This Solstice celebration is possibly a predecessor to the modern Halloween, Samhain and All Souls Day celebrations. While a good many Pagan and Wiccan sites are quick to point out such a connection, more secular sites don’t necessarily see a connection. What seems more plausible is that it does have connections as a Harvest Festival and the end of the harvest season before winter comes.
An artifact discovered in 1999 called the Nebra Sky Disc, due to where it was found in Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt in Germany, shows the Pleiades star cluster on it along with the Sun and Moon. Two golden arcs on the disk mark the solstices. It has been dated to somewhere around 1600 B.C.E. and part of the Bronze Age Unetice culture. Unlike the megaliths of much of Europe, the Nebra Sky Disc is a portable astronomical instrument.
Aztecs – The Aztecs based the beginning of year on the appearance of the Pleiades asterism when it rises in the east before the sun’s morning light became too bright. They called this star cluster by the name of Tianquiztli, meaning “marketplace.”
The Aztecs were very good astronomers and kept careful track of the heavens. Their calendar was based on a 52-year cycle. The Pleiades were carefully watched to make sure the world wouldn’t end. At the end of each 52-year cycle, the Aztecs held a religious ceremony to ensure the rebirth of the sun and continued movement of the heavens. The Aztecs strongly believed their ceremony would prevent demons of darkness from coming to the Earth and devouring mankind. For this, they offered up to the gods human sacrifices.
Mayan – During colonial times, the Pleiades were used to track the time by diving up the night.
An epic legend tells the story of the Pleiades star cluster. There had been a long standing feud between the heavenly twins Hun-Apu and Xbalanque and a giant named Zipacna. With the help of several other youth, the twins pretended that they were building a house. They started with digging a large hole in the ground. As they were digging, Zipacna came along and asked what they were doing.
The twins told Zipacna they were building a house but were having trouble with digging a hole for the foundation deep enough. Zipacna was persuaded to help and he went down into the hole. Once he was at the bottom of the hole, the twins and their helpers began to throw stones, dirt and tree trunks down on him. When the hole was completely filled in and everyone was certain that Zipacna must be dead, they continued to build a house over the spot marking his grave.
Unknown to the twins, Zipacna was still alive. Yes he had been knocked out by the weight of everything piled and thrown on him. Once he had regained consciousness, he lay there and waited, pretending to be dead until the house was completed.
With the house completed and everyone inside celebrating, Zipacna made his move. Throwing up his shoulders, Zipacna’s great strength allowed him fling the house up into the sky towards the heavens. There, the twins and everyone with them became the Pleiades, unable to get back down to the earth.
Monte Alto Culture – This also includes other cultures such as Takalik Abaj and Ujuxte who are known to have made early observatories. They used the Pleiades stars and Eta Draconis as references in the night sky. The Pleiades are called “The Seven Sisters” and thought to be where they originated from.
To the Chinese, the Pleiades are known as Mao, the Hairy Head of the White Tiger of the West. The Pleiades seem to be the first stars mentioned in astronomical literature, appearing in the Annals of 2357 B.C.E. Aside from the name Mao, the Pleiades are also known as The Blossom Stars and Flower Stars.
The ancient Egyptians recorded seven stars within Pleiades. Some scholars believe that the seven chambers of the Great Pyramid represent the seven stars of Pleiades.
The goddess Hathor has an interesting take in her role and aspect as a Mother goddess for it was believed by the ancient Egyptians that “Seven Hathors” would appear at the birth of a new baby, foretelling his fate. The reason they’re mentioned is that during the Ptolemaic Period, when Egypt was under Greek rule, the Seven Hathors became identified with the Pleiades star cluster.
Aside from Hathor, the Pleiades also represented the goddess Net or Neith, the “Divine Mother and Lady of Heaven.”
French History And Literature
La Pléiade is a post-Renaissance literary movement that references the Pleiades constellation and seven poets from the Alexandrian period during the reign of Ptolemy II. The La Pléiade title has been used by two groups of poets from Toulouse during the beginning of the 14th century and another group founded by Pierre de Ronsard in 1553. Their goal was to promote the classical literature of Greek and Rome with translations rather a perceived, outdated use of Latin. While the group were not known for being innovators, they did provide the foundations of French Classicism.
The Pleiades were considered by some ancient Greek astronomers, such as Eudoxus of Cnidos to be a distinct constellation separate from Taurus. This asterism is mentioned of by Hesiod and Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey. The ancient Greek text Geoponica mentions the rising of the Pleiades cluster. The Greek temples of Hecatompedon, built in 550 B.C.E. and Parthenon, built in 438 B.C.E. are oriented to the rising of the Pleiades.
For the Greeks, the setting of the Pleiades around October and November was a time to bring their ships in to port and to plow and sow their lands. Hesiod makes mention of the Pleiades numerous times in his “Works and Days,” alluding to their importance as a time of stormy weather and planting. Greek sailors were known to consult the heavens for the appearance of the Pleiades before setting sail.
Orion And The Pleiades
The Greek story is perhaps the most well known to many Westerners about the Pleiades star cluster.
The Pleiades is a group of seven sisters whose father is the titan Atlas. As their story goes, the Pleiades were traveling with their mother Pleïone, through Boeotia when they encountered the Greek hero Orion. He expressed such a deep infatuation and interest in them that he relentlessly pursued the sisters and even their mother. And with their father Atlas now holding the earth up on his shoulders, this very likely encouraged Orion in his antics as he thought no one could stop him.
After running from Orion for seven years, the sisters became tired of such extreme harassment and pursuit. In their desperation, they appealed to Zeus who in response, placed them up in the heavens, specifically in the Taurus constellation where they would be protected by the mighty bull from Orion’s unwanted advances. In the accounts that include Pleïone being chased by Orion, she too is placed up in the heavens, this a further punishment for the titan Atlas to be separated from not only his wife, but daughters.
In the end, being placed up in the heavens doesn’t seem to have helped them much, for when Orion died, he too was immortalized up in the heavens as a constellation. He can be seen up there still chasing after the Pleiades.
Variations to this story say the Pleiades committed suicide after the death of their brother Hyas. Other versions say that when the sisters pleaded to the gods for mercy from Orion, they were changed first into doves and then later into stars.
If the Pleiades weren’t getting chased by Orion, then they became stars after committing suicide over the fate of their father Atlas. Or the loss of their siblings the Hyades and Hyas. After their death, the god Zeus placed the sisters up into the heavens to become the famous star cluster.
Companions Of Artemis
This version of the myth follows closely the more well-known story of the Pleiades being chased by Orion. The Pleiades were the companions of the virgin goddess Artemis. She wasn’t too happy with Orion when he came upon the Pleiades while playing. In his lust and infatuation, he chased the Pleiades. On their behalf, Artemis pleaded with Zeus to intervene and he did so by transforming the sisters into doves and then into stars, becoming out of reach of both Artemis and Orion. Zeus, not to be completely without compassion for his daughter, the path of the Moon passes between the Pleiades and Orion so that she has a chance to be reunited with her friends on a regular basis.
Contrarianism – Daughters Of An Amazon Queen
While many variations of the Greek myths regarding the Pleiades are similar, especially in regards to names and parentage; Theocritus’ Idylls, using references from Callimachus differs greatly from the more familiar myths. In the Idylls, the Pleiades are the daughters of an Amazon queen. Their names are: Coccymo, Glaucia, Lampado, Maia, Parthenia, Protis and Stonychia. The sisters are supposed to have created ritual dances and nighttime festivals.
Ancestors Of Dionysus
In Nonnus’ Dionysiaca, the Pleiades appeared as an omen of victory for Dionysus’ war against India. There is further mention that the pleiad Electra was the foster-mother of Harmonia, the grandmother of the Greek god Dionysus. And thus in a way, Electra can be seen as Dionysus’ ancestor.
Indian Astronomy And Mythology
The Pleiades are known by a number of different names such Karttikeya, Kṛttikā, Kārtikā, Kumara or Subrahmanya. In both Indian astronomy and Hindu astrology, the names Krttika and Kartika translate into English as: “the cutters.” Like the ancient Greeks, India has a number of different, varying and often conflicting stories of Kṛttikā.
Hindu Mythology – A story associated with this star cluster tells how the war-god Skanda was raised by six sisters known as Kṛttikā, making it so that one of his names he is known as is Kartikeya or “Son of the Kṛttikā.” Skanda or Kartikeya was born to Agni and Svāhā after the Kṛttikā had impersonated themselves as six of the seven wives of the Saptarshi in order to make love with Agni. When the Saptarshi learned of this incident, they began to doubt their wives’ chastity and divorced them. Since then, the wives were known as the Kṛttikā.
As the six Kṛttikā, they are seen as the mothers of Skanda, his six faces represent them. Slight variations to this say that Skanda developed his six faces in order to drink the milk from his six mothers.
Hindu Astrology – Kṛttikā is the third nakṣatras or lunar mansion out of twenty seven other naksatras. The Pleiades are known as the Star of Fire and one of the most prominent of nakshatras associated with anger and stubbornness. They are ruled by the Hindu god of war, Kartikeya. Another deity associated with Kṛttikā is Agni, a god of sacred fire. Additionally, it is ruled by the sun or Surya and has the symbols of a knife or spear. There is a Hindu tradition of naming children according to the naksatra they’re born under. Each naksatra will have four syllables associated with it that is used for that start of a child’s name.
Kumarasambhava – “The Birth of the War God”
In an epic poem written by Kalidasa from the 4th and 5th centuries C.E., the gods had wished for a god to born in order take on and kill the demon Taraka who had a geas or boon that he could only be killed by a son of Shiva.
The problem, is that Shiva was deep in his meditations and not at all interested to his wife Parvati. That is, at least not until Kama, the god of love struck Shiva with an arrow. Now, after having practice abstinence for so long, Shiva’s virility was incredibly potent and the other gods fear what would happen. So they took Shiva’s seed and dropped it into a fire. It is from this, that the god Skanda, whose name means: “Spurt of Semen.”
Tamil Mythology – The Pleiades are known as Karthigai, they were the six wives of six Rishis, represented by the stars of Ursa Major. The seventh was known as Arunthadhi, associated with the star Alcor. She is the wife of Vasistha, the seventh Rishi or Sage. He is associated with the star Alcyone. Another name of the Karthigai is Saptha Kanni, meaning the “Seven Virgins.”
A variation to this story is that the Krttika had all lived together up in the heavens. One day, Agni, the god of fire fell in love with the seven Karthigai or Krttika. In trying to forget his love for them, Agni wandered the forest until he met Svaha, the star Zeta Tauri.
Svaha was immediately infatuated with Agni and disguised herself as one of the Krttika in order to seduce him. Agni truly believed he had made love with one of the Krttika. Svaha became pregnant and gave birth to Skanda.
As soon as Skanda was born, rumors began to circulate that one of the wives of the Rishis was his mother. This caused the Rishis to divorce their wives. Of them all, only Arundhati remained married. The other Krttika went on to become the Pleiades.
The Pleiades are known as Lintang Kartika in Javanese, it is a name that is from the Sanskrit word Kṛttikā, one of the nakṣatras in Hindu astrology.
In Japan, the Pleiades star cluster is known as Subaru, meaning “coming together,” “cluster” or “united.” The name and image are also the same name for a car manufacturer, Subaru.
Another name for the Pleiades is Mutsuraboshi, meaning “six stars.” This name dates from the 8th century Kojiki and Manyosyu documents. The Pleiades have also been called the Hoki Boshi, meaning “dab of paint on the sky” or “brush stars.”
A story found among the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, tells the story of Dümur, the eldest son of Ligedaner who is the mother of all the stars. Ligedaner is identified as being the star Capella in the Auriga constellation, Dümur is identified as the star Antares and the youngest son is identified as Pleiades.
Ligedaner’s sons came down from the vault of Heaven to visit with her where she lived on the atoll Alinablab. While there, a contest was proposed that who ever was the first to reach a certain island somewhere out in the East would be named the King of Stars.
The contest was agreed to and the sons prepared themselves to take off to claim the title of King. Ligedaner asked Dümur to take her with him in his canoe. Dümur refused as he saw that his mother wanted to take as many things with her as she could and thereby slow down the canoe with its weight.
Ligedaner asked each of her sons in turn to take her with them in their canoes and each in turned refused. Until she got to her youngest son, Pleiades who finally accepted her request to go with him. Ligedaner had seven objects she was taking with her and as she got into the canoe, she instructed Pleiades where to load and place each object.
When they were finally loaded up, Pleiades took his place to start rowing. He was surprised to find that instead of being weighed and slowed down by all the objects, that his canoe shot out into the water with great ease nor did he have to use his oars. The seven objects it turned out, had been previously unknown sail rigging and with his canoe driven by the wind, it took no time at all to catch up with his brothers.
As Pleiades’ canoe caught up with Dümur’s canoe, Dümur demanded, on his rights as the first-born son that his youngest brother hand over his canoe to him. Dismayed, Pleiades complied with the demands. Ligedaner proceeded to play a rather mean trick on Dümur by turning the canoe around and then when she jumped with Pleiades into the sea, she took with her the yardarm. Together, Ligedaner and Pleiades swam on towards the island to the East.
Dümur found that in order to sail Pleiades’ canoe, he had to fasten the sail to his shoulders, causing him to become bent over. By the time Dümur reached the island, he found that his youngest brother Pleiades and Ligedaner had beaten him there already and that Pleiades now claimed the title of King of the Stars. Angry, Dümur desired to never see his brother Pleiades again. This separation fo Dümur and Pleiades can be seen in the night sky of the Southern Hemisphere as when Pleiades rises in the East, Dümur (as the star Antares) sets in the West. The bent back of Dümur is also seen represented by the curved line formed by the stars outlining the bent body of Scorpius.
The story of “Aunty Greenleaf and the White Deer” is one that I found while looking up another article on an American Folklore site. The imagery that came to mind while reading the story caught my imagination and I set it to the side while I worked on other projects for Brickthology before coming back to it.
Now, sometime later as I began working on this post, I find that the story of “Aunty Greenleaf and the White Deer” is one of several stories from S.E. Schlosser’s “Spooky New York” which is a collection of ghost stories and folklore from around New York State.
Further, is that many of the sites that mention and reference this story, merely reprint it. Only one additional mention is of Aunty Greenleaf appearing as a character in Fables’ “The Wolf Among Us” game. It does leave me to question the validity of Aunty Greenleaf as an actual folkloric figure or if she can be considered a newer folkloric and literary character who first makes her appearance in 1995.
Even if Aunty Greenleaf doesn’t appear before Schlosser’s “Spooky New York,” this is how new mythological characters find their place. Enough people who want to view the story of Aunty Greenleaf as a literary source and new piece of folklore will certainly succeed.
The story of Aunty Greenleaf goes as follows: she is your typical elderly woman who lived alone in a small house outside the town of Brookhaven. She was known as a witch who people avoided except for when they needed her knowledge of herbs and healing. Like many suspected and accused witches, the townspeople accused Aunty Greenleaf of being in league with the devil.
Typical accusations against Aunty Greenleaf included claims that she had hexed a farmer’s pigs so that they all died after he had spoken ill of her. Another accusation involved a prominent townswoman who claimed to have dreamt of Aunty Greenleaf and the next morning, her daughter fell deathly ill. Another wild claim placed Aunty Greenleaf and her fellow witches crossing the Atlantic Ocean in an egg shell for a Sabbath in England before returning at sunrise.
This is typical of people during Colonial times in the Americas or even in Europe. Superstitions and fear when anything bad happens or a streak of misfortunes and it’s easier to blame the town outcast or someone who doesn’t quite fit in.
Aunty Greenleaf’s story picks up and get more interesting one year during early fall when people started talking about a large, white deer that has been seen in the surrounding forest of Brookhaven. Several large hunting parties were organized by the townsfolk to hunt down this white deer. It soon became clear that this white deer was impervious to bullets and people started to believe this deer to be supernatural in nature.
It wasn’t long after, that the women of Brookhaven also began having problems with churning their butter and a number of livestock sickened and died. It wasn’t too difficult for the people to blame the presence of the white deer. Added to this, those people affected had had run-ins with Aunty Greenleaf at one point or another during the past month.
Finally, a hunting party was put together in earnest and the people of Brookhaven really began hunting the white deer. They had gone all day and most of the night hunting the deer before it was finally spotted. It was the largest and fastest that anyone has seen. The hunting party was hard pressed to keep up. Several people fired at the deer, but it kept on running and the hunting party soon return empty-handed.
One farmer became rather obsessed with hunting the white deer, every chance he had when he wasn’t busy with his farm. It was this farmer who decided there must be some connection between the white deer and witchcraft. The farmer took some silver and melted it down to make bullets.
Ah! But aren’t silver bullets only for werewolves? Yes and no. Silver is a sacred metal, connected to the moon and there is folklore silver to harming other supernatural creatures such as vampires and witches who turn into rabbits.
Anyhow, rifle in hand, the farmer went hunting the white deer. This time he succeeded in hitting the deer with one of his shots. The farmer managed to track the deer close to Aunty Greenleaf’s house before it vanished in the growing darkness of night.
The next day, the farmer learned that Aunty Greenleaf was ill. From the moment she took to her bed, the local farm animals stopped dying and the families who were having trouble with their churning were back to normal. Less than a week later, Aunty Greenleaf died and the doctor who cared for her told the minister he found three silver bullets in her spine.
After the death of Aunty Greenleaf, the phantom white deer was never heard of or seen again in Brookhaven.
Other names: “Lord of the Black Magic,” “God of the Danger that Lurks in the Gloom”
Etymology – “of the night” or “He of the night”
There’s a lot of ancient Basque mythology that didn’t survive the arrival of Christianity between the 4th and 12th centuries C.E. Most of what is known and has survived is from the study of place names and the scant historical references of pagan rituals practiced by the Basques.
In Basque mythology, Gaueko is often depicted as a great black wolfhound who sometimes walks upright like a human. He is also known to appear as a bull, monster or a gust of wind. Gaueko is also known for eating shepherds and their flocks. Gaueko’s howls can often be heard on cold winter nights.
Gaueko is the male personification of the Night and all of its dangers. In Basque cosmology, the day is for humans and the living and that the night is for the spirits of the dead. As a spirit of the night, Gaueko would appear to people at night, uttering the words: “Gaua Gauekoarentzat, eguna egunezkoarentzat” or “The night for Gaueko, the one of the night, the day for the one of the day.” The idea being that he would urge a person to return home until morning came.
A slight variation to this sentence goes: “The day for the people of the day and the night for the night creatures.”
Now this is where it gets murky; later Christian influences tend to demonize Gaueko as a demon who is quick to punish those who don’t heed his warning to return home at night and stay there.
In trying to place Gaueko in a more positive light, he can be seen as more of a guardian or protector. He warns people to go home so that any wandering spirits of the dead won’t take out revenge or anger upon the living. Now, if the person goes home and stays where they’re safe, then it seems that Gaueko can protect them from the wrath of the spirits of the dead. And if a person chooses not to remain home where they’re safe, likely any “punishment” is the result of running afoul of vengeful, wandering spirits.
This is one of those…. what on earth Deities I came across while researching and looking up information regarding Egyptian Gods at one point.
Interestingly, Dua is a very minor ancient Egyptian god of Toilets. The information on him is very sparse and what little bit I found isn’t much.
In being a God of Toilets, it means that he is a god of sanitation and the cleanliness of lavatories. One more minor source mentions he is a god of shaving.
There is the word dua that’s found in ancient Egypt. The hieroglyph for it shows a figure with outstretched arms that are raised up. The image represented worship and adoration as it was a gesture made before all images of the gods and before approaching the Pharaoh.
That’s about all she wrote…
There was mention of Dua as a god of the stomach and protector of the dead. That lead seems to be a mistaking of Dua’s name with that of another deity, Duamutef, one of the four sons of Horus and protector god for organs kept in Canopic Jars after they’ve been removed during mummification.
Also known and spelled as: boogerman, boogeyman, boogieman, boogie man, boogyman and bogyman
Pronounced – boo g-ee-man, boh-gee-, boo-
The term or name bogeyman is often used to describe an entity or monster that causes an irrational source of fear. The bogeyman’s appearance is frequently nebulous and vague, leaving much to the imagination. This has led some people to believe that it may be a shape shifter that can reflect what a person most fears.
Stories of the Bogeyman vary by culture and even from home to the next as it is a creature often used by parents to keep children from misbehaving. For many children, that irrational fear of the unknown, that unknown terror under the bed, in the closet, lurking just outside a window, coming through unlocked doors and down chimneys is very real. Even if parents didn’t tell stories to frighten children, there would still be this irrational fear of the unknown for many. Many though, outgrow this irrational fear as they grow up and often find there truly is nothing to fear.
Possible Historical Connections
Tracing the name and origins of the name bogeyman is a bit murky and there have been many ideas and theories put forward.
A few sources place the appearance of the word bogeyman in the English language from the Scottish word bogle, which means “ghost” or “hobgoblin” which dates to around 1505. Other sources will place the word bogeyman to around 1836 as another name for the Devil. It certainly seems to have become popular with the works of Scottish poets such as Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott.
Another idea is that the word comes from the Middle English word bugge, meaning a “frightening specter.” Other similar words to this are boggard, bogy, bugbear, the Welsh bwg, the Scots Gaelic bòcan and the German word bögge; all of these words refer to a goblin or frightening creatures.
This idea is a rather interesting source for the Bogeyman as a “boggy man.” Bog men can be found periodically preserved in peat bogs. In these stories, the bog men arise from the dead much like zombies to attack the living.
The name bogeyman may come from the Bugis people who were pirates from Indonesia and Malaysia. Its likely that English and French sailor brought home stories of the bugis where it becomes anglicized to bogeymen. They would tell their children “if you’re bad, the bugisman will come and get you!” Eventually, the word bugis changes into the word bogey. Etymologists tend to disagree on the Bugis being the source for the Bogeyman as the word and term had been in use long before the Europeons started exploring and colonizing Southeast Asia.
There’s a claim that Bogeyman is a reference to Napoleon Bonaparte who had been nicknamed “Boney” by the British. He was used as a threat for British children of the time and that somewhere along the line, Boney becomes Boneyman and further becomes Bogeyman.
Snot Your Friend
The most interesting connection of the bogey man is the relationship of its name as a slang term for snot and boogers.
A Monster By Any Other Name….
Nearly every culture around the world has its own version of the bogeyman. Some faceless monster used to keep unruly children in line and from misbehaving.
There’s a long list of them that can be given too.
Afghanistan – The Bala or Newanay Mama, which means “The Monster or Crazy Person”, is used to scare children when they won’t sleep or take their medicine.
Albania – In South Albania, there is the Katallani “the Catalan” a monster which relies on the historical Catalan occupation of the region centuries ago used to scare children. In South Italy, there is the Gogoli, “the Mongol” another historical use of the Golden Horde that is used to frighten children into behaving.
Algeria – The H’awouahoua is a chimerical monster made up of many different animal parts with eyes that are blobs of flaming spit and a coat made from the clothes of those children it eats.
Azerbaijan – A monster called Khokhan (“xoxan”) is used for scaring children into behaving.
Bahamas – The “small man” is the name given to an entity who rides in a cart that pulls itself. He picks up any child found outside after sundown. Anyone taken by the small man becomes a small person and rides with the small man forever. The term “rollin’ cart” has been used to scare children into behaving themselves.
Belgium – Oude Rode Ogen (Old Red Eyes) is known throughout the Flanders region, it is believed to have originated in Mechelen and is a cannibalistic shape-shifter that is able to change from a human to a black dog. Oude Rode Ogen later becomes a children’s story in the 1900’s called “The Nikker” who eats children that stay up past their bedtimes.
Belize – The Tata Duende is a small wrinkled goblin with a beard, no thumbs and backwards feet who wears a large brimmed hat. He is described as a protector of the forests and animals who scares children from going out to play at night or in the jungle.
Bosnia, Croatia, Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia – In these countries, the Bogeyman is called Babaroga. Baba means “old woman” and rogovi means “horns.” So the name literally means “old woman with horns.” The specifics of Babroga vary from household to household. In one household, Babaroga will take children and put them in her sack where she will take them to her cave to eat. In another household, she will take children, pulling them up through small holes in the ceiling.
Brazil – The “Bag Man,” called “homem do saco” in Portuguese, “hombre de la bolsa,” “hombre del costal” or “del saco” in Spanish is one such monster or man-like creature who is known for carrying off misbehaving children in a sack. There is also another very similar creature the “Bicho Papão” or Eating Beast who will carry off children. Bicho Papão is also known as Sarronco, the “Deep-Voiced Man”. Another monster is the Cuca, a female humanoid with an alligator head. Parents will sing a lullaby to their children at night about how Cuca will come take them away if they don’t go to sleep. Cuca appears as a character in Monteiro Lobato’s Sítio do Picapau Amarelo book series that uses a lot of Brazilian folklore. The difference between Bicho Papão and the Bag Man is that the Bag Man comes during the day and Bicho Papão comes during the night.
Bulgaria – The Torbalan or “Man-with-a-sack” is the name of the local bogeyman. In some places, a dark, hairy ghost-like creature called a Talasam who lives in the shadows of barns or in attics is what will come to scare children into behaving.
Czech Republican – A creature known as the Bubak, a scarecrow is used to frighten children into behaving. It will hide along riverbanks, making a crying noise like an infant to draw victims to it.
Congo – The Dongola Miso or “Creature with Scary Eyes” is used to scare children into going to bed on time. It is also used to warn children and adults alike about the dangers of dealing with and speaking to strangers.
China – The Ou-Wu is a witch or scary looking woman who kidnaps children that misbehave. She is popular in the southern regions of China and Hong Kong. The term is the origin for “monster” and has become used as a synonym for ugly or hideous.
Cyprus – In the Cypriot dialect, Bogeyman is known asd Kkullas.
Denmark – Here, the Bogey Man is known as busseman or Bøhman and is known for hiding under the bed where it grabs children who won’t sleep. Much like in the English language, the name has become a slang term for snot or nasal mucus.
England – In Yorkshire, children are warned that if they steal from orchards, they might get eaten by a fairy in the form of a giant caterpillar known as Awd Goggie. Another similar monster is “The Gooseberry Wife” who guards gooseberries on The Isle of Wight.
Egypt – The Abu Rigl Maslukha, “Man With Burnt/Skinned Leg,” is a particularly scary story told by parents to children who misbehave. The Abu Rigl Maslukha is a monster who got burnt as a child as he wouldn’t listen to his parents. He will grab children and cook them to eat.
Finland – Here, the Bogeyman is known as Mörkö. In the Moomin stories, the Mörkö or Groke is a frightening, dark blue and big ghost like creature.
France – Here the Bogeyman is called “le croque-mitaine” which means “The mitten-biter.” Another translation of the name is “the hand-cruncher.”
Georgia – In addition to a “Bag Man,” there is also the “Bua” used by parents to scare children who have misbehaved. No real description of Bua is given and its suspected there’s a link between it and the the Georgian word bu which means owl.
Germany – There is the black man or Der schwarze, called so for his preference to hiding in dark places like closets, under the bed or out in the forests. There is a children’s game called Wer hat Angst vorm schwarzen Mann (Who is afraid of the Bogey Man). There is also an old traditional folk song “Es tanzt ein Bi-Ba-Butzemann in unserm Haus herum” that translates as: A Bi-Ba-Bogeyman dances around in our house. Another name for the Bogeyman is Buhmann or Butzemann. And finally there is also the Grossman.
Greece – The Baboulas is said to hide under the bed, though parents will tell stories of this creature in other ways to frighten children into behaving.
Guyana – The Jumbi is the name for the Bogeyman and like many other variations, it too lives in the dark, staying in closets and under the bed. It is used to scare children to eat their food so that they can defend themselves against him.
Haiti – A tall man, with legs two floors high is believed to walk around the towns at midnight, catching and eating those people who stay outside. He called Mètminwi which seems to be a contraction of the French “maître,” for master and minwi, the French word minuit” for midnight. So his name translates to “Master of Midnight.” There is also Tonton Macoute or Uncle Gunnysack who would trap misbehaving children and eat them for breakfast. The MVSN, a secret police force in Haiti used this myth as a form of control as many so called Tonton Macoutes were followers of Voodoo.
Hejaz, Saudi Arabia – The Dojairah and Umna al Ghola, which means “Our mother the Monster” is used to scare children when they misbehave or outside alone at night.
Hungary – Stories of the Mumus is used to scare children. There is also the Zsákos Ember, a man with a sack. A final monster is the Rézfaszú bagoly or “Copperpenis Owl” and whose description is that, a giant owl with a copper penis.
Iceland – The Grýla, is a female troll who would take misbehaving children and eat them during Christmas Eve. Fortunately, she has been dead for quite some time. She is the mother of the Yule Lads who are Iceland’s version of Santa Claus.
India – There are a number of different names for the Bogeyman in India. In North India, the Bori Baba who carries a sack is used to frighten children. There is also the Chownki Daar, a night security guard who will come and take children away if they won’t go to sleep. In South India there is the Rettai Kanna (the two-eyed one) or Poochaandi who used to threaten children in the state of Tamil Nadu. There is also the Buchadu or Boochodu is used similarly in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Bihar parents use the demon Bhakolwa for scaring children. In Karnataka, there is the demon Goggayya, the “terrible man,” central Kerala has the Kokkachi who will take away disobedient children. More bogeymen like creatures are the Oochandi of South Kerala, the Gongo of West Coast India, a male ghost called Buva or Bagul Buva among the Marathi speaking people is used for scaring children and finally there is the Kaan Khowa used by Assamese parents who will eat children’s ears if they don’t go to sleep.
Indonesia – The Wewe Gombel is a ghost that kidnaps children who are abused by their parents. She takes them to her nest on top of a palm tree where she cares for the children until the parents realize what it is they have done. If the parents decide to change their ways, the Wewe Gombel will return the children. The Wewe Gombel’s story originated with an event that took place Bukit Gombel, Semarang.
Iran – The Lulu is used in Persian culture to frighten children into behaving. The Lulu is also sometimes called the Lulu-Khorkhore or “bogeyman who eats everything up.”
Iraq – There is the Saalua from ancient folklore. She is a half-witch, half-demon ghoul used by parents to scare their children. Saalua is mentioned in a story found in the 1001 Arabian Nights. She is known too in other Gulf countries.
Italy – The “L’uomo Nero” or The Black Man is used, he is a tall man wearing a heavy black coat and either a black hood or hat to hide his face. Alternately, he is a ghost with no legs. Parents are known for knocking under the table and pretending someone knocked on the door as they say: “Here comes l’uomo nero! He must know that there’s a child here who doesn’t want to drink his soup!” Unlike other monsters, L’uomo Nero doesn’t actually harm or eat children, he just take them away to a strange, frightening place. There is a lullaby used with L’uomo Nero who keeps a child with him for a whole month. Black is also used as a pun in politics in Italy as the color is associated with fascism. Unfortunately it also has negative, derogatory racial puns and slurs associated with the color black. Other places in Italy, the name babau is used for the Bogeyman.
Japan – The Namahage are demons that warn children not to be lazy or cry. During the Namahage Sedo Matsuri or “Demon Mask Festival,” villages wear demon masks pretending to be these spirits.
Korea – The Dokebi is a monster used against misbehaving children. Other variations to Dokebi are the Mangtae Younggam, an old man who carries a mesh sack to carry away kidnapped children in. Other places they have the Mangtae Halmum, an old woman with a mesh sack.
Macedonia – Aside from the Babroga, there is also the Strasilo (the “frightener”) who comes out at night, hides under beds, in forests, caves and basements. It is said to grab and eat children.
Mexico – El Cucuy is an evil monster that hides under children’s beds at night. He will kidnap and eat any child who disobeys their parents. He is described as being a small humanoid with glowing red eyes. Sometimes he is believed to have been a child who was a victim of violence that has come back to life.
Myanmar – The Pashu Gaung Phyat is used to threaten children with. The name means Malayu Headhunter. In Burmese, the Malays were called “Pashu,” which may have come from Bajau or Bugis. Many ethnic groups in Eastern Malaysia were notorious for being headhunters right up until the 1970’s with the Wa tribe.
Nepal – There is the “Hau-Guji” in Nepali. The Newars tell of an ape-like monster called Gurumapa who enjoys eating children. There is a story told of this creature found at Itum Bahal in the inner temple of Kathmandu.
Netherlands – The bogeyman is known by many names, some of these names are: Boeman, Boezeman, Boezehappert, Jan Haak, Mannetje met de haak, Bullebak, Boevent, Beukèl, Haantje Pik, Tenensnijder, Boelekerel, Nekker, Krolleman, Heintje Pik, Okkerman and so on. Many of these are known for hiding in the water. As Boeman, it is depicted as a creature that resembles a human, dressed all in black with sharp claws and fangs and will hide under the bed or in closets. It too will take those children who have misbehaved and won’t go to sleep and lock them away in his basement for a period of time.
Norway – The Bogeyman is called Busemannen, much like the Boeman of the Netherlands, it is depicted as a creature that resembles a human, dressed all in black with sharp claws and fangs and will hide under the bed or in closets. It too will take those children who have misbehaved and won’t go to sleep and lock them away in his basement for a period of time.
Pakistan – The Bhoot or Jin Baba is used by parents to scare children into behaving. This creature is a ghost Djinn. In other places it is known as Kathu Ki Maa.
Philippines – There are a number of different bogey man like monsters. The Pugot, Sipay, Mamu and Mumu. Among the Kapampangan people, there is the Mánguang Anak or Child-Snatcher.
Poland – Places like Silesia or Great Poland use the bebok (babok or bobok) to scare children into behaving. Another creature is the Hastrman, a scarecrow that much like the Czech Republican Babuk also hides along riverbanks, making noises like an infant to draw people to their doom.
Portugal – The Portuguese brought Bicho Papão (the Eating Beast) or Sarronco (Deep-Voiced Man) to Brazil. They also have an “homen do saco” or Bag Man. The difference between Bicho Papão and the Bag Man is that the Bag Man comes during the day and Bicho Papão comes during the night.
Quebec – In this province of Canada, the “Bonhomme Sept-Heures” or 7 O’clock Man is used to scare children into behaving if they won’t go to bed or else he takes them to his cave to eat them.
Romania – The Bau-Bau is used by parents to scare children into behaving.
Russia – The Babay is said to hide under the bed. The Babay is described as an old man with a bag or a monster who will come take them away if they misbehave. Similarly spelled, is the Babayka who comes at night for misbehaving children.
Serbia – The Bauk is an animal-like creature from Serbian mythology, it is described as hiding in dark places such as holes or abandoned houses where it waits to grab and carry of its victim to eat. It can be scared away with light and noise. It is known for having a clumsy gait.
Singapore – The local bogey man stories here are of Ah Bu Neh Neh or Matah who will snatch up misbehaving children. Matah is a variation off the Malay word Mata-Mata which means spy or spies and is used as a nickname for the police.
Spain – El Cuco, El Coco or El Bolo, a shapeless figure or hairy monster who eats children that misbehave when they won’t go to bed is used in place of the Bogeyman. Parent will sing lullabies or tell rhymes to their children about the dangers of refusing to go to sleep or else El Coco will come eat them. The nursery rhyme for El Coco is thought to have originated in the 17th century and has since changed over the years. El Coco has also traveled overseas to the Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. There is also the El roba-chicos or child-stealer who is used in many Spanish speaking countries. Incidentally, Coconuts received their name from El Cuco due their resemblance to the Spanish bogeyman. Another shapeless monster is El Ogro or Ogre that is also described as being hairy and will hide in closets and under beds where it will eat misbehaving children if they don’t go to bed. There is also the El Sacamantecas or “Fat Extractor” who is used for scaring children into good behavior by killing people to take their fat.
Sri Lanka – The Sinhalese people tell stories of the Gonibilla, “the sack-kidnapper” who will come day or night to carry off misbehaving children.
Sweden – The Bogey man is known as the Monstret under sängen or “Monster under the bed.”
Switzerland – The Bogeyman is called Böllima or Böögg and is an important figure in Springtime ceremonies as he or it symbolizes winter and death. In the Sechseläuten ceremony held in the city of Zürich, the effigies of Böögg are burnt.
Trinidad and Tobago – Many use folklore as a means of scaring misbehaving children into obey. The most common word used is the Jumbie. Many of their “Jumbies” are the Soucouyant, Lagahoo, La Diables and Papa Bois to name a few. The name Bogeyman will also be used in many urban areas. It can also be called “The Babooman.”
Turkey – The Gulyabani is a gigantic and strange monster that scares both children and adults alike.
Ukraine – The Babay is also present here just as it is in Russia.
United Arab Emirates – The Om Al- Khadar wa Alleef, meaning Mother of green and leef “bark” is used to scare children. She take the appearance of a tall woman who long hair flows in the wind. She is often used by parents as a means of getting children to stay indoor after sunset and go to bed. What’s interesting is that the Palm tree is used as the inspiration for this figure due to the scary sounds it can make when the wind blows, its height and how in the dark, it can resemble a woman.
United States – Aside from the classic Bogeyman, there is also the Jersey Devil used to scare travelers and the old British stories of Bloody Bones or Rawhead and even Tommy Rawhead told in the U.S. South. During the Cherokee Corn Festival, young men will wear caricature masks making fun of politicians and using them to scare children or chase after young women. This was known as a Booger Dance and the dancers are referred to as Booger Man. In areas of the Pacific Northwest, the bogey man will appear as a green fog. Other places the Bogeyman will scratch at windows, hide in closets or carry them off in a sack. Warts in some children’s stories are said to be transmitted to someone by the Bogeyman. Among the Pennsylvania Dutch, the term “der Butzemann” is used for male scarecrows and female scarecrows are Butzefrau.
Yukon – In this province of Canada, the Quankus take and puts misbehaving children into a large sock, carrying them away at night. Quankus too is used by many parents to scare children into going to bed.
Etymology – “bull demon king”
The character of Niu Mo Wang is a figure who features in the story of Journey to the West, a classic Chinese novel written and published anonymously by Wu Cheng’en during the 16th century.
Niu Mo Wang is a yaoguai, similar to the Japanese Yokai and from where the term originates. In the story of Journey to the West, Niu Mo Wang is the Master of the “Mountain of Fire” (Huoyanshan) that burns constantly, causing a lot of dryness and an unbearable heat in a volcanic region that blocks the passage of Tang Sanzang and his troop.
The Monkey King, Sun Wu Kong tries to steal the magical bajiaoshan from Tiě shàn gōngzhǔ, better known in English translations as Princess Iron Fan, the wife of Niu Mo Wang. The bajiaoshan is a large palm-leaf fan capable of creating whirl-winds and would be capable of causing the volcanoes in the area to become inactive, allowing Tang Sanzang and company to pass through.
Here it gets a bit confusing, as when reading the accounts given under Niu Mo Wang, Sun Wu Kong is able to defeat the Bull King with the help of a Buddhist deity, Nezha. When looking at entries under Princess Iron Fan, Sun Wu Kong is able to trick her into giving him the fan or to outright steal it.
Sun Wu Kong is able to help Tang Sanzang and his friends get past the volcanoes of Niu Mo Wang’s territory and the fan is returned. Again, in the account under Princess Iron Fan, Niu Mo Wang tricks Sun Wu Kong into giving the fan back by being the pig Zhu Bajie.
It’s mentioned that Niu Mo Wang and Tiě shàn gōngzhǔ have a son named Hong Haier, “Red Child.”