Category Archives: Deity

Cloacina

Etymology: From the Latin cloaca meaning “Sewer” Other meanings are Cleanser and Purifier.

Epitaphs & Other Names: Mistress of the Great Sewer, “The Cleanser,” Venus Cloacina (Venus the Cleanser)

Cloacina is the Roman Goddess of Sewers, Filth, and Purity. Before you laugh, the Romans had a spirit or deity for nearly everything. Naturally, when it comes to taking care of sewage and drainage, the Romans also have a deity for this. Enter Cloacina, the goddess responsible for purifying filth and whatever nasty things are in the sewers that we don’t want to think about.

Attributes

Element: Water

Plant: Myrtle

Sphere of Influence: Cleansing, Purification, Rivers, Sewers

Tool: Incense Burner

Etruscan Origins

It is generally accepted that Cloacina was an Etruscan goddess first before being adopted by the Romans. The Etruscans lived in the northern and central part of Italy called Tuscany where they were called Tusci or Etusci by the Romans.

Not much is known about the Etruscans, a few words have survived into the Latin language. What little we do have and know, shows that many deities were adapted and adopted by the Romans into their belief systems.

Plus, the whole story of the founding of Rome by the brothers Romulus and Remus comes to us from Etruscan stories. It’s also interesting to track history meeting myth and where things get muddled. Titus Tatius for example is credited as being the Sabine King co-ruling with Romulus and erecting a statue honoring Cloacina and the Great Sewer. Traditionally, Romulus is said to have ruled between 753 and 717 B.C.E., and Lucius Tarquinius Priscus’ rule from 616-579 B.C.E. and when the sewer’s construction is done. Which would put Titus Tatius about a century ahead of schedule.

Back to Cloacina, when we look at Rome’s foundation myth, we see that the king of Sabine, Titus Tatius commissions the statue where the Sabines and Romans meet to end the conflict following the rape of the Sabine women. It is Tatius who instituted the lawful marriage between Sabines and Romans to unite them as one people. This new peace between the Sabines and Romans would be noted by a cleansing ritual using myrtle performed near an old Etruscan shrine to Cloacina by a small stream. The same stream that would become part of the Cloaca Maxima.

Side Note: Myrtle is also one of Venus’ symbols, the Romans would later equate Cloacina with Venus in her function as a goddess of peace, union, and reconciliation. In this sense, Cloacina would be known as Venus Cloacina or Venus the Cleanser as she also presided over the purification of sex during marriage.

Goddess Of Water

In her early Etruscan origins, Cloacina began as a goddess of water and in that aspect, her attributes were that of Cleanser and Purifier. The stream that Cloacina was originally associated with was part of a marshy region that would empty out to the Tiber River. This region was also prone to flooding by the Tiber as well.

Goddess Of The Sewers

And thus filth, in this respect Cloacina is responsible for purification and cleansing to keep the streets and City of Rome clean.

Despite this seemingly unsavory position, Cloacina was greatly revered and respected by the Romans as they had statues of Fortuna in their latrines, shrines, art, and even prayers for her.

We’re talking that Roman sewers were well maintained to keep the streets and City of Roman free from flooding, diseases, and vermin such as rats.

Cloaca Maxima

This is the vast sewer system in Rome that kept the city clean and relatively free of excrement. At its peak, Rome had over a million people living in the city and it was very important to keep the place disease-free. Even today, the Cloaca Maxima still functions and works, which speaks a testament to the engineering abilities of the ancient Romans, notably Tarquin as one of the building projects he overtook for Rome. What we know, is that the Etruscan king, Tarquinius Priscus is credited as beginning the work on the Cloaca Maxima which would be completed by Tarquinius Superbus.

The Cloaca Maxima was originally built as an open-air canal that ran through the main Forum, collecting water from streams and emptying it into the Tiber River. Over time, it came to be built over and enclosed with later sections and branches being tunneled out as the city grew. In Ovid’s Fasti, it is mentioned that the Forum had been built on an area with swamp-like conditions.

Sacrum Cloacina

This is the name of the shrine that Romans built in the Forum to petition Cloacina’s aid to keep the streets and City of Rome clean. The Forum is where one could expect to find statues and shrines to all the major Roman gods like Jupiter, Saturn, Juno, and Minerva. From there, there was a manhole access cover to the sewer below. Today, the foundations of this shrine can still be seen. There are a number of layers of stonework that show how ancient this shrine is as the entrance had been raised many times and upkeep by the Romans. There is a set of stairs with a railing that leads down to where a pair of small statues stand that are either both Cloacina or Cloacina and Venus. Each statue holds an incense burner and a flower.

As a side note, Cloacina’s image can be found on the backside of Roman coins, opposite that of Julius Caesar dating from 44 B.C.E. These coins were likely tossed into the water as offerings to Cloacina for her favor and to be free from diseases. Another interesting note to this is that the Hall of Curia, where Julius Caesar was assassinated was turned into a public toilet and the waste from this hall would flow into the Cloaca Maxima.

There are even prayers and poems written to Cloacina as the Mistress of the Great Sewer.

A couple of these poems and prayers are as follows:

“Then Cloacina, goddess of the tide,

Whose sable (black) streams beneath the city glide

Indulged the modish flame, the town she roved,

A mortal scavenger she saw she loved.”

“O Cloacina, Goddess of this place,

Look on thy suppliants with a smiling face.

Soft, yet cohesive let their offerings flow,

Not rashly swift nor insolently slow.”

Venus – Roman

This one is somewhat surprising as Venus is the Roman goddess of Love and Beauty. This does make sense that one of Venus’ functions is that as a purifier and that’s also what Cloacina does too. Though if you ask some historians like Pliny the Elder why Cloacina is identified with Venus, he couldn’t tell you. But it makes sense when you look at one of Venus’ functions as a unifier, peace, and reconciliation, and that where the ancient Sabines and Romans made peace is right on the same location for Cloacina’s shrine. Plus, Rome had this thing for Pax Romana for trying to keep peace and stability within their empire that would extend to trying to appease every god that they had, even if it meant some becoming epitaphs or another name for a deity to try and keep the list down and simplified.

Dea Dia

Etymology: Latin “Bright Goddess,” “the Celestial Goddess” or “Goddess of Daylight”

Pronunciation: d̪e-a ˈd̪i-a

In ancient Rome, Dea Dia is the goddess of fertility and growth. By herself, she is a relatively minor goddess and as such, she is frequently equated with Ceres or her Grecian counterpart Demeter.

Attributes

Element: Earth

Month: May, December

Sphere of Influence: Growth, Crops, Fields, Planting

Ancient Origins

Dea Dia’s worship is very ancient, she was a goddess of the plowed field, concerned with the fertility and growth of crops, particularly grain and the earth.

It’s thought that Dea Dia’s worship extends back to ancient Sabine. The first part of her name, Dea simply means goddess and the second part means “light” or “bright” in reference to the sky. There is thought that Dia may be related to the goddess Diana as there is certainly an etymological root there with “dia.”

Since there’s a lot of getting into the Indo-European root words and languages. There are lines of thought that Dia Dea is an honorific and the actual goddess’ name was so sacred as to be forbidden to be spoken out loud as seen with another goddess known as Bona Dea. Additionally, one of Jupiter’s archaic names as a Sky-God is “Dies Pater” so there is another idea that Dea Dia may be the consort of an early form of Jupiter’s.

Ambarvalia

This is a three-day festival that would be held every May from the 27th to the 29th in honor of Ceres and where Dea Dia would be an epitaph to Ceres. Dea Dia’s priests, the Fratres Arvales presided over this festival. During this time, the priests would bless the fields and make offerings to the Underworld.

May of course, is the time of year when the days are getting longer and ideal for planting and growing crops. There was a minor festival held in December.

Lucus Deae Diae – This is the name of the sacred grove dedicated to Dea Dia where her festival was held. It’s about five miles south of Rome. Archeological evidence shows that this grove and temple have been used since the third century B.C.E.

Syno-Dieties

Acca Larentia – Roman

A mythical woman later turned fertility goddess. It is thought that her twelve sons became the priests associated with the first Arval priests.

Ceres – Roman

Ceres is the Roman goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility, and motherhood and is equated with Dea Dia or attached as an epitaph.

Mana Genita – Roman

An obscure goddess mentioned by Pliny, Plutarch, and Horace. The mother of the Manes or spirits known as Lares would also be associated with the Ambarvalia festival and the Underworld.

Demeter – Greek

A fertility and earth goddess, Dea Dia is often equated with Demeter or attached as an epitaph.

Fortuna – Roman

The Roman goddess of luck and fate, she held a connection to the Lucus Deae Diae grove and thus to Dea Dia. Fortuna sharing a temple here comes about with Augustus’ reforms and has caused several scholars to debate the precise connection between Fortuna and Dea Dia.

Larunda – Roman

A nymph and Underworld goddess, she is the mother of the Lares associated with the Ambarvalia festival. Incidentally, the only myths come from Ovid’s Fasti and are seen as a latecomer to the overall Roman myths and beliefs.

Ops – Roman

Another fertility goddess and goddess of the fields, Dea Dia would also be equated with Ops.

Haumea

Pronunciation: həuˈmɛjə

Epitaphs: Honua-mea (“of the sacred earth”), Hanaumea (“sacred birth”)

In Hawaiian beliefs, Haumea is the mother goddess of fertility and childbirth, having given birth to many of Hawaii’s major deities or akua.

Attributes

Element: Water

Month: April

Plant: Leis, Fresh Flowers, Polynesian Food

Planet: Venus

Sphere of Influence: Childbirth, Rejuvenation, Energy

Akua

This is the Hawaiian word for any god, deity, spirit, devil, any entity that is of divine or supernatural origins. When capitalized, Akua refers to the Christian god.

Family

Consort

Mulinaha

Kanaloa

Siblings

Brothers – Kāne and Kanaloa

Children

With Kanaloa, Haumea is the mother of the war god Kekaua-kahi, Kauakahi, the volcano goddess Pele, as well as Pele’s brothers and sisters, including Hi’iaka.

With Mulinaha, Haumea is the mother of Laumiha, Kahaʻula, and Kahakauakoko.

These are the other children of an unknown father, Kāne Milohai, Kāmohoaliʻi, Nāmaka, Kapo,

Grandchildren

Kauahulihonua,Haloa, Waia, Hinanalo, Nanakahili, Wailoa and Kiʻo who is the last born.

Arrival Of The Gods

According to the Hawaiian scholar, Samuel Kamakau, Haumea along with Kane and Kanaloa are among a group of gods to arrive at the Hawaiian islands during a period between the rule of Paumakua and La’a.

When the group landed at Keei on South Kona, they were met by a pair of fishermen Ku-hele-i-po and Ku-hele-i-moana who quickly began worshiping them. With Ku-hele-i-po, Haumea gave birth to daughter, Mapunaia-aala.

Mother Goddess

As the akua of fertility and childbirth, Haumea is the mother of several important Hawaiian akua. In addition, Haumea is the progenitor of the Hawaiian people, notably their chieftains

As a mother goddess, Haumea is also the guardian and patron goddess of the Big Island of Hawaii.

Never Ending Food – There are stories of Haumea increasing the food supply for a man whom she marries and has children with. Haumea has a stick or tree called Makalei that is used to attract fish and thus create a never-ending supply of food.

First People

In Hawaiian genealogy known as Kumulipo, La’ila’i is the first woman born of the gods Kane and Kanoloa. Her husband is Ke-alii-wahi-lani, “The king who opens the heavens.”

Ki’i is the first man.

Childbirth & Midwifery

In Hawaiian stories, Haumea is to have given humans the ability to give childbirth naturally. Haumea was able to do it herself naturally but she was surprised to learn that humans didn’t. Something she discovered when she visited the chieftain’s daughter Muleiula who was in the midst of some very painful labor pains. By modern standards, Haumea saw that humans did c-sections to cut a mother open to deliver the baby.

Seeing this dilemma and the difficult birth, Haumea went to create a potion from Kani-ka-wi tree, allowing Muleiula to push the baby out and have a more natural birth. According to the book Hawaiian Mythology by Martha Beckwith, Haumea received a reward from the chieftain of a “tree of changing leaves” from which gods are made.

Unusual Births

If you ask me, Haumea has an unusual way of giving birth overall. Of all of Haumea’s children, only Pele is born the normal way. Though there are a couple of varying accounts, one that says Pele came from Haumea’s armpit and another that says she came from a flame from Haumea’s mouth. Everyone else came from various parts of her body. One prominent example, Laumiha, Kahaʻula, Kahakauakoko, and Kauakahi were all born from Haumea’s head.

All of Haumea’s children are said to have been born in the mythical lands of Kauihelani (Kuaihelani), or Hapakuela, or Holani-ku.

Even today, children who drool at the mouth are said to be “born from the brain of Haumea.” So it is likely these being born from different body parts of Haumea holds a lot of symbology.

Eternal Youth

From a place called Nu‘umealani, Haumea has a magic stick called Maklei that she could use to rejuvenate herself from an old woman back to a young girl. After doing this, Haumea would return to her village and marry one of her offspring and by doing that, have a continuous lineage of children.

Eventually, people found out that she was doing this and an angry Haumea stormed off, leaving her descendants and humanity behind.

I can see it, people are concerned about potential inbreeding. What would happen? Especially with any local island groups, you want to be careful of who you’re marrying.

When Haumea Became Kamehaikana

In this story, Haumea has taken another human form as Walinu’u and becomes the wife of Makea. Together, the two live on the hill Kilohana in the Kalihi valley of Oahu. They have all the food they could want with wild bananas, taro, yams, shrimps, and fish. One day Haumea decides she wants some crab and seaweed and heads over to Heeia. As she is filling her container, she has a feeling that something is wrong and rushes home. There, Haumea finds that Chief Kumuhonua has sent his men to capture Makea for poaching.

Haumea catches up with and overtakes the group at a breadfruit tree near the bridge crossing the Nu’uanu stream. She begs Kumuhonua’s men to be allowed to embrace her husband for a final time. When she touches Makea, the ropes binding him to fall away and the breadfruit tree opens up like the doorway to a house, and the two slip away inside. The men try to cut down the tree but only end up dying in the process. From Haumea’s skirt as she fled up the valley is said to come the akala or Hawaiian raspberry vines.

Another version of this story with Haumea as Papa, sees the men rub themselves with coconut oil and carve the tree into a statue they call Kamehaikana that they worshiped in Oahu until it is taken to Maui where it becomes the god of Kamehameha, a god of winning land, power and the ability to preserve the government.

Death Of A Goddess

Haumea was eventually killed by Kaulu.

Synodeity

Papahānaumoku – Or Papa for short, some Polynesian traditions identify Haumea with Papahānaumoku, the goddess of the Earth and the wife of Wākea, the sky god.

Dwarf Planet!

On September 17 of 2008, the International Astronomical Union named the fifth known dwarf planet found in the Solar System after Haumea. It was first discovered in 2004 by the Keck Telescope, one of the world’s best optical telescopes on the Big Island of Mauna Kea. There is a bit of controversy over who discovered it first, an American team or a Spanish team. If the Spanish team had their choice, this planet would have been named Ataecina, the Iberian goddess of the underworld. This dwarf planet has two small icy moons named after Haumea’s daughters, Hi’iaka, the goddess born from Haumea’s mouth, and Namaka, the water spirit born from Haumea’s body.

Argo Navis – Vela

Etymology – The Sails (Latin)

Pronunciation: VEE-luh or VAY-luh

Also known as: Sails

Argo Navis – Obsolete Constellation

The name Argo Navis is the name of a now-obsolete constellation, it had long been known and observed by the ancient Greeks and other stargazers. For the Greeks and much of the Western World, the Argo Navis is associated with the story of Jason and the Argonauts

Early modern astronomers simply referred to this constellation as Navis. This constellation was rather large, taking up much of the southern sky. By the time we get to 1752, French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille decided to divide the Argo Navis into three smaller constellations of Carina, Puppis, and Vela. The final, breaking up Argo Navis into smaller constellations came in 1841 and 1844 by Sir John Herschel.  In 1930, the IAU officially acknowledged this break up with the formalization of the 88 modern constellations used. Vela is the second largest of the three newish appointed constellations, it does represent the sails of the ship, The Argos.

The constellation Pyxis, the compass, locates an area of the night sky near the mast of the Argo Navis. Some scholars will include and say it was part of the Argo Navis, others will point out that magnetic compasses were not known or used by the ancient Greeks. Lacaille thought of Pyxis as separate from the Argo Navis. Herschel proposed Pyxis be formalized as part of a new constellation, Malus in 1844 to replace Lacaille’s Pyxis.

Had Argo Navis not been divided up, it would be the largest constellation in the night sky. Nowadays, Hydra claims that spot as the largest constellation.

The First Ship?

Going by Greek mythology and history, Eratosthenes said that Argo Navis represented the first-ever ocean ship built. Even the later Roman writer Manilius agreed with that idea. Those paying attention to the mythology are quick to point out that this distinction belongs to the myth or story of Danaus as building the first ship. Danaus is the father of the 50 Danaids and with the help of the goddess Athena, set sail to Argos from Libya.

Western Astronomy

The constellation known as Vela is one of three constellations that make up the Argo Navis and once one of 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy in his book, Almagest. Ptolemy describes the Argo Navis as sitting in the night sky between Canis Major and Centaurus. He goes on to describe asterisms for the “little shield,” the “steering-oar,” the “mast-holder,” and the “stern-ornament.” With the appearance of moving backward through the heavens, the Greek poet and historian Aratus calls the Argo Navis as “Argo by the Great Dog’s tail drawn,” referring to Canis Major. Today Vela is one of the 88 current or modern constellations. The Vela constellation is found in a region of the sky called “The Sea” with other water-based constellations of: Aquarius, Capricornus, Eridanus, Piscis Austrinus, and Pisces.

As Argo Navis, Vela would appear along the southern horizon in the Mediterranean during winter and spring when the ship appears to be sailing along the Milky Way. Due to the equinox precessions over the millennia, Carina, Puppis, and Vela are no longer easily seen from the northern hemisphere. It is the 32nd largest constellation found in the night sky and is best seen during the month of March. Bordering constellations to Vela are Antlia, Carina, Centaurus, Puppis, and Pyxis.

Nowadays, only the stern of the Argo can be seen in the night sky. Cartographers have tried explaining this by saying that’s because the prow has vanished into a bank of mist or the other half has passed through the Clashing Rocks. Mythographers like Robert Graves say the missing prow is due to when Jason returned to Corinth and while sitting beneath the rotting ship, the prow fell off, killing the hero. That’s when Poseidon is to have placed the ship up in the heavens.

Chinese Astronomy

Dong’ou – Two to three stars from this constellation in the northern part of Vela bordering Antlia. This constellation represents a place along the Chinese coast where barbarians are said to live.

Ji – Five stars form this constellation that represents a temple to Hou Ji, the god of cereals. The name Ji refers to millet, the main crop of ancient China. Which five stars formed this constellation are uncertain though.

Qifu – This constellation represents a storehouse for musical instruments and consists of 32 stars, most of which are found in Centaurus before overlapping into Vela.

Tianji – This star represents an assessor who would decide if an animal were old enough for sacrifice. This star has been identified as being either Lambda Velorum or 12 Hydrae. The star 12 Hydrae seems more likely with Waichu, the kitchen located in Hydra where animals would be slaughtered.

Tianshe – The celestial altar. There is a Chinese fable where Tianshe represents the altar used to make offerings to the Earth god Julong. One version of this fable identifies the six stars of Gamma, b, Omicrons, Delta, Kappa and N. Velorum forming this constellation. Another version states that Tianshe is found fully in the Puppis constellation. According to Sun and Kistemaker, Tianshe forms a zigzagging pattern from Chi Carinae to Gamma Velmorum and then spreads into Puppis.

Stars Of Vela

It’s of note that neither Puppis or Vela have stars designated as Alpha or Beta as those stars are found within the Carina constellation.

Delta Velorum – Also known as Alsephina, from the Arabic word for “the ship.” It is also known as Koo Shee from the Chinese phrase for “bow and arrows.” It is the second brightest star in the Vela constellation.

Gamma Velorum – Also known as Regor, it is the brightest star in the Vela constellation. The other name is Suhail or Suhail al Muhlif from the Arabic phrase suhayl al-muhlif meaning “the glorious star of the oath.”

Lambda Velorum – Also known as Suhail in Arabic or Pinyin in Chinese. In Chinese, the name Pinyin means “judge for estimating the age of animals. It is the third brightest star in the Vela constellation.

Kappa Velorum – Also known as Markeb from the Arabic word Markab meaning “something to ride.” There is a similarly named star Markab or Alpha Pegasi. The two stars have slightly different spellings to distinguish them. Kappa Velorum is a binary star.

Phi Velorum – Also known as Tseen Ke in Chinese meaning “record of heaven” or “star chart.”

False Cross

This asterism is named as it is often mistaken for the Southern Cross constellation used in navigation. It comprises the stars Alsephina (Delta Velorum), Markeb (Kappa Velorum), Aspidiske (Iota Carinae), and Avior (Epsilon Carinae) from the Carina constellation.

Eight-Burst Nebula

Also NGC 3132, Caldwell 74 or Southern Ring Nebula, it is a bright planetary nebula that is only half a light year in diameter. It received the name Eight-Burst Nebula due to the figure 8 appearance seen in amateur telescopes.

The Gum Nebula

The Gum Nebula spans between the Puppis and Vela constellations. The nebula is named after the Australian astronomer, Colin Stanley Gum who discovered it in the 1950’s. The Gum Nebula is thought to be the remnants of a million-year-old supernova. Also within this nebula is the Vela Supernova Remnant, just as the name states, is the remains of a younger supernova that is thought to have gone nova about 11,000 to 12,300 years ago. This remnant overlaps with the Puppis Supernova Remnant found within the Puppis constellation. The Pencil Nebula is also part of the Vela Supernova Remnant. In 1998, another supernova was observed in the same area of the Vela remnant and called RX J0852.0-4622. Another object and point of interest are the Vela Pulsar where a series of radio waves have been detected.

Pencil Nebula

Or NGC 2736 is a nebula located close to the Vela Pulsar within the Vela Supernova Remnant. This nebula was discovered by the English astronomer John Herschel in 1835.

Heavenly Waters Family

The constellation of Vela belongs to the Heavenly Water Family. Other constellations included in this group are Carina, Columba, Delphinus, Equuleus, Eridanus, Piscis Austrinus, Puppis, and Pyxis.

Velids

There are three meteor showers associated with the Vela constellation. These are the Delta Velids, the Gamma Velids, and the Puppid-Velids that occur between December 1st and December 15th.

Jason & The Argonauts – Part 3

The Dragon’s Teeth!

As the field was plowed, Jason sowed the dragon’s teeth from which an army of Spartoi rose up from the earth, fully armed and ready for battle. Jason took and threw a stone into the middle of the newly sprung up Spartoi. Just as expected, the Spartoi fought each other over who threw the stone. In some instances of this story’s retelling, Jason has the help of Medea, who uses salves, herbs, and charms to protect him from the spears and weapons of the Spartoi. As this new-sprung group of Spartoi rose and fought each other, the hero Jason slew and attacked many of them in order to fulfill his task

The Golden Promise Jason Was Fleeced

King Aeetes was furious that Jason had successfully completed the tasks. The next morning Jason asked for the Golden Fleece from Aeetes who responded that Jason and his men should stay awhile. After all, it wasn’t every day that such people of high esteem came to visit. Jason agreed to a longer stay and that night, Medea awoke him, warning Jason of her father’s wrath and to get his men ready to flee.

While the Argonauts ran to ready the ship for departure, Jason and Medea headed down to the grotto where the Golden Fleece was kept. There, a dragon, sacred to Ares guarded the fleece as it hung on a tree.

Knowing the dragon’s weakness and fondness for sweets, Medea had made some honeycakes that when dipped in a specific juice, put this dragon to sleep. Taking the honeycakes, Jason and Medea threw them towards the dragon who promptly ate them all and fell asleep shortly after. It was easy enough then for Jason to grab the golden fleece off the tree and for him and Medea to escape to the Argonaut.

Now the crew was home free to sail home to Pelias and present the Golden Fleece.

The Sirens

Not quite, while some accounts and retellings want to end the story here, there were still more obstacles for the Argonauts to overcome.

One such obstacle is that of the Sirens. These half-women, half-fish beings lived on the rocks and would sing beautiful, enchanting songs that any man who heard them would wreck their ships on the rocks trying to get to them if they didn’t jump overboard, drowning in the process.

It would be Orpheus’ time to shine as he pulls out his lyre and played his music much louder than the Sirens, drowning out their voices so that the crew could bypass the danger. One account has the Sirens changing into rocks.

However, one Argonaut, Boutes is mentioned as still being affected by the Sirens’ call and leaps overboard when the Argo started sailing further away. Lucky for Boutes, the goddess Aphrodite saves him and takes him to Cape Lilybaeum. Though other accounts will have the Argonauts hauling their companion back up to safety.

Scylla & Charybdis

There was still more trouble and danger to come when the Argo reached the Strait of Messina. Here, Scylla, a giant sea serpent with six long necks and heads would attack passing ships, seizing six sailors from them. Helping Scylla, was another sea monster, Charybdis who would suck in vast amounts of water, creating massive whirlpools.

Ships passing through this strait would frequently encounter one monster while trying to avoid the other one. Thanks to orders from Hera, the sea goddess Thetis and several sea nymphs or Nereids aided the Argonauts to lead them through these treacherous waters.

Homeward Bound, Marriage & A Storm

When the Argo arrived in Phaeacia, Jason and Medea were married. Continuing on, the Argo sailed past Peloponnesus. It is off the coast of Lybia that they were caught in a storm.

From out of the sea, a golden steer rose up, upon which rode three goddesses. Just who these goddesses were, isn’t mentioned, they told the Argonauts that if they wanted to escape the storm, they would need to listen to them. For a period of twelve days, the goddesses said, the Argonauts would need to carry their ship across Lybia.

Following those instructions, the heroes carried the ship. During this trek across the land, one of the crew was stung by a scorpion and died. Finally, they reached the sea and lowered the Argo back into the water. I would assume if Orpheus is still part of the crew, that his music made things easier.

Homecoming?

Now the Argonauts could finally complete their return home. When they arrived, Jason discovered that his uncle, King Pelias had put Jason’s entire family to death. Okay, so not all, just his male cousins as Pelias had thought to prevent the oracle’s prediction from coming true. Pelias was surprised to see Jason again, thinking that they would die on the journey.

Reunion With Aeson & Sweet Revenge

In the account I found in Bulfinch’s Mythology, Jason’s father Aeson is still alive and the two do enjoy a joyous reunion. Medea goes and brews a rather gruesome potion in a large cauldron that requires all of these animals and the lifeblood of a man. That done, Medea bids Aeson drink from what she has brewed to restore his youth and vitality.

Seeing Jason’s anguish over the death of his cousins, Medea took matters into her own hands. Medea approached Pelias’ daughters, telling them that she could rejuvenate their father just as she had done for Aeson. To prove she could do such, she again brewed her potion in the cauldron and show how she could restore a goat back to life as a young kid after killing it.

Pelias’s daughters were excited, the idea of their father youthful again. Medea instructed the daughters they would need to kill their father in order for this potion to work. Unbeknownst to the girls, Medea tricked them all into killing Pelias or in some versions, cutting him up into pieces only to find when placed into the cauldron, nothing happened.

The End Of A Long Epic

As we finally near the end of this epic, Medea flees in a snake-drawn chariot to escape the wrath of Pelias’ daughters. It also didn’t help that Jason had decided he loved another and married the Princess Creusa of Corinth.

Hell, hath no fury like a woman scorned and Medea calls upon the gods for vengeance. Medea sends a poisoned robe as a wedding gift to Creusa, then kills her own children and sets fire to the palace.

After all that, Medea rides her chariot back home to Colchis.

As for the ship, the Argo, it was dedicated to the sea god Poseidon where it would be placed up in the heavens. Sometimes Athena is who places the Argo up in the heavens.

Finis

Argo Navis – Carina for Part 1

Argo Navis – Puppis for Part 2

Argo Navis – Carina

Etymology – The Keel

Pronunciation: kuh-REE-nuh

Also known as: Ἀργώ (Greek for the Argo Navis)

Argo Navis – Obsolete Constellation

The name Argo Navis is the name of a now-obsolete constellation, it had long been known and observed by the ancient Greeks and other stargazers. For the Greeks and much of the Western World, the Argo Navis is associated with the story of Jason and the Argonauts

Early modern astronomers simply referred to this constellation as Navis. This constellation was rather large, taking up much of the southern sky. By the time we get to 1763, French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille decided to divide the Argo Navis into three smaller constellations of Carina, Puppis, and Vela. This final, breaking up Argo Navis into smaller constellations came in 1841 and 1844 by Sir John Herschel.  In 1930, the IAU officially acknowledged this break up with the formalization of the 88 modern constellations used. While Carina is the smallest of the three newish appointed constellations, it does represent the bulk of the ship, The Argo.

The constellation Pyxis, the compass locates an area of the night sky near the mast of the Argo Navis. Some scholars will include and say it was part of the Argo Navis, others will point out that magnetic compasses were not known or used by the ancient Greeks. Lacaille thought of Pyxis as separate from the Argo Navis. Herschel proposed Pyxis be formalized as part of a new constellation, Malus in 1844 to replace Lacaille’s Pyxis.

Had Argo Navis not been divided up, it would be the largest constellation in the night sky. Nowadays, Hydra claims that spot as the largest constellation.

The First Ship?

Going by Greek mythology and history, Eratosthenes said that Argo Navis represented the first-ever ocean ship built. Even the later Roman writer Manilius agreed with that idea. Those paying attention to the mythology are quick to point out that this distinction belongs to the myth or story of Danaus as building the first ship. Danaus is the father of the 50 Danaids and with the help of the goddess Athena, set sail to Argos from Libya.

Western Astronomy

The constellation known as Carina is one of three constellations that make up the Argo Navis and once one of 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy in his book, Almagest. Ptolemy describes the Argo Navis as sitting in the night sky between Canis Major and Centaurus. He goes on to describe asterisms for the “little shield,” the “steering-oar,” the “mast-holder,” and the “stern-ornament.” With the appearance of moving backward through the heavens, the Greek poet and historian Aratus calls the Argo Navis “Argo by the Great Dog’s tail drawn,” referring to Canis Major. Today Carina is one of the 88 current or modern constellations. The Carina constellation is found in a region of the sky called “The Sea” with other water-based constellations of Aquarius, Capricornus, Eridanus, Piscis Austrinus, and Pisces.

As Argo Navis, Carina would appear along the southern horizon in the Mediterranean during winter and spring, where the ship appears to be sailing along the Milky Way. Due to the equinox precessions over the millennia, Carina, Puppis, and Vela are no longer easily seen from the northern hemisphere. Carina is the 34th largest constellation found in the night sky and best seen during the month of March. Bordering constellations to Carina are Centaurus, Chamaeleon, Musca, Pictor, Puppis, Vela, and Volans.

Nowadays, only the stern of the Argo can be seen in the night sky. Cartographers have tried explaining this by saying that’s because the prow has vanished into a bank of mist or the other half has passed through the Clashing Rocks. Mythographers like Robert Graves said the missing prow is due to when Jason returned to Corinth and while sitting beneath the rotting ship, the prow fell off, killing the hero. That’s when Poseidon is to have placed the ship up in the heavens.

Chinese Astronomy

In northern China, the constellation of Carina can barely be seen.

The star Canopus is identified as the south polar star and the Star of the Old Man. This Old Man of the South Pole is the deified version of the star in Taoism, the symbol of longevity and happiness. This star is also associated with the Vermilion Bird of the South or Nán Fāng Zhū Què. With access to Western star charts, the rest of the stars were classified by Xu Guanggi during the Ming Dynasty and placed with The Southern Asterisms or Jìnnánjíxīngōu.

The star Eta Carinae is sometimes called Tseen She or “Heaven’s Altar”

Egyptian Astronomy

It is thought perhaps that the ancient Greeks got their constellation of Argo Navis from the Egyptians circa 1000 B.C.E. Plutarch makes mention of the “Boat of Osiris” that the god Osiris would travel in as he traveled the lands of the dead.

Mesopotamian Astronomy

Other scholars had suggested that the Greeks got the myth of the Argo Navis from Sumerian myths, specifically the Epic of Gilgamesh. Due to the lack of evidence, this idea is discarded.

Polynesian Astronomy

The Maori of New Zealand called this group of stars by several names. Te Waka-o-Tamarereti or “canoe of Tamarereti,” Te Kohi-a-Autahi, an expression meaning “cold of Autumn settling down on the land and water,” and Te Kohi.

The star Canopus is called Ariki or “High-Born” by the Maori and Ke Alii-o-kona-i-ka-lewa” or “The Chief of the Southern Expanse” by the Hawaiians. Due to Canopus’ seeming solitary nature and being the last star seen before sunrise, it is also known as Atutahi, “First Light” or “Single Light, the Tuamotu Te Tau-rari. Marere-te-tavahi or “He who stands alone” by the Maori. There are also the names Kapae-poto for “Short horizon” and Kauanga for “Solitary.”

Vedic Astronomy

In India, people saw this constellation as “the Boat.”

Stars of Carina

Alpha Carinae – Also known as Canopus, it is the second brightest star in the night sky behind Sirius. It is a white supergiant star located some 313 lightyears from the Earth. The name Canopus is the Latinized spelling for the Greek Kanobos who the pilot of King Menlaus’ fleet of ships. This star is seen as the rudder, steering the ship across the night sky. Canopus is also the namesake city for where he died along the northern coast of Egypt on their way home from Troy. Menelaus founded the city there in his pilot’s honor. It was known as the star of Osiris was worshipped by many ancient cultures. It is the star used by Posidonus in Alexandria, in 260 B.C.E. to plot out the degrees of the Earth’s surface. Additionally, Canopus is the star that modern spacecraft use for celestial navigation.

Beta Carinae – Also known as Miaplacidus is a blue-white star. It is the second brightest star in the Carina constellation. The name Miaplacidus means “placid waters” and comes from the Arabic word miyah for waters and the Latin word placidus for placid.

Epsilon Carinae – Also known as Avior, it gained this name in 1930. It is published in a navigational almanac that the British Royal Air Force uses for navigating.

Eta Carinae – Also known as Foramen and Tseen She (“Heaven’s Altar” in Chinese). A prominent variable star has approximately 100 solar masses and is 4 million times as bright as the Sun. It was discovered by Edmond Halley in 1677. Eta Carinae is located inside the Carina Nebula. Eta Carinae is also a binary star. Because of the activity or outbursts that this star has shown, it is expected to go supernova or hypernova in the next million years or so.

Iota Carinae – Also known as Aspidiske, Turais, and Scutulum, all meaning “shield” in Greek, Arabic and Latin. Iota Carinae is part of the False Cross asterism.

Theta Carinae – This star forms part of the Diamond Cross asterism. It is also part of a cluster of stars sometimes called the Southern Pleiades as they look very similar to the Pleiades asterism found in Taurus.

Upsilon Carinae – Also known as Vathorz Prior from the Old Norse-Latin words meaning “Preceding One of the Waterline.” It is part of the Diamond Cross asterism.

Diamond Cross

This is an asterism found within Carina, that while larger than the Southern Cross constellation, is fainter. The stars Beta, Theta, Upsilon, and Omega Carinae form this asterism.

False Cross

This is an asterism often confused for the Southern Cross constellation. The stars Iota Carinae and Epsilon Carinae along with two stars each from Kappa, Vela, Velorum, and Delta Velorum make up this asterism.

The Southern Pleiades

Also known as the Theta Carinae Cluster. The brightest star within this cluster is Theta Carinae. This cluster is called the Southern Pleiades because it resembles the Pleides of the Taurus constellation. It was by Lacaille in 1751.

Carina Nebula

Also called NGC 3372, this is the nebula that Carina got its name from when French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered it in 1751. The Carina Nebula contains several nebulae within it. It covers a region of space that is some 8,000 light-years away and 300 light-years wide. The central region of the Carina Nebula is covered by another, smaller Nebula called the Keyhole Nebula.

Keyhole Nebula

Covering the central part of the Carina Nebula, the Keyhole Nebula or Keyhole appears as a dark cloud with bright filaments of fluorescent gas. The Keyhole Nebula is roughly seven light-years wide. It was described in 1847 by John Herschel and it got its name from Emma Converse who named it the Keyhole in 1873.

Homunculus Nebula

This is a planetary nebula that can be seen by the naked eye and has the erratic Eta Carinae star within it. The word Homunculus means “little man” in Latin.

Wishing Well Cluster

Also known as NGC 3532, this open cluster of stars gets it name as when seen through a telescope, the stars appear like coins tossed into a Wishing Well. Speaking of telescopes, the Wishing Well Cluster was the first object observed by Hubble Space Telescope. This cluster can be found between the Crux constellation and the False Cross asterism.

Heavenly Waters Family

The constellation of Carina belongs to the Heavenly Water Family. Other constellations included in this group are Columba, Delphinus, Equuleus, Eridanus, Piscis Austrinus, Puppis, Pyxis, and Vela.

Carinids

There are two meteor showers associated with the Carina constellation, they are the Alpha Carinids and the Eta Carinids which occur between January 14th and 27th each year. The Eta Carinids was first discovered in 1961 in Australia.

Jason & The Argonauts – Part 1

This is the myth that is identified with the Argo Navis by the ancient Greeks. The constellation represents the 50-oared galley that Jason and his crew sailed when heading off to Colchis to retrieve the Golden Fleece. The kingdom of Colchis was located somewhere near the eastern shores of the Black Sea in modern-day Georgia. This Golden Fleece is the fleece from the Golden Ram forming the constellation of Aries. The same Golden Ram that flew Nephele’s children, Helle (who fell off on the way) and Phryxus to safety in Colchis.

Apollonius Rhodius is the ancient Greek poet and scholar who wrote the Argonautica chronicling the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts that we know this epic from. Apollonius describes the Argo as the finest ship that ever sailed, she would ride before the wind when her crew pulled at the oars.

Now, to start the story proper, it begins with Jason’s grandfather, King Athamas of Boeotia. When Athamas died, his eldest son Aeson was to inherit the throne. The younger son, Pelias held other plans. Aeson was a pacifist and abdicated the throne to Pelias’ ambitions on the condition that when his son, Jason reached his majority, the throne was to be returned to him.

Shortly after ascending to the throne, an oracle approached Pelias and warned him that Aeson’s son would retake the throne by force. This same oracle also told Pelias to beware of the man with one sandal.

Pelias couldn’t do anything about the later prophecy, but he could do something about the former. He sent his soldiers to go kill his nephew. Before the soldiers ever arrived, Athamas had already sent his son, Jason on to learn from the centaur Chiron. So, when the soldiers did come, Athamas informed them that Jason was dead and the soldiers returned to Pelias to relay the news.

Years later, Chiron told Jason of what happened between his father and uncle. Angry, Jason headed home to right some wrongs. Aeson was more than happy to see his son again and after that bit of family reunion, Jason set off to confront his uncle.

While on his way to Boeotia, Jason needed to cross a river. An old woman greeted Jason, asking him to help her across. Jason agreed and as he carried the old woman, he lost one of his sandals. In some accounts, this old woman is the goddess Hera in disguise, aiding Jason on his quest and forcing a prophecy to be self-fulling.

Thus, Jason entered Boeotia with only one sandal. Seeing the youth with only one sandal, reminded Pelias of the prophecy given to him years ago and he became worried. Jason requests an audience with Pelias, demanding that the throne be given back to him.

Seeking to postpone the inevitable, a worried Pelias says that he will give up the throne only if Jason can prove himself by bringing back the Golden Fleece in Colchis. Pelias tells Jason that this golden fleece is rightly theirs. Secretly, Pelias hoped this quest would prove futile. Either Jason would die along the way on the 2,000-mile journey or get lost.

Building The Ship

Such a voyage would require a ship to undertake it. Jason enlisted the services of Argus to construct this vessel. The gods had a vested interest in this journey as well and the goddess Athena supervised Argus as he built the ship with timber from nearby Mount Pelion brought down to the port of Pagasae.

For the prow of the ship, Athena used an oak beam from the oracle of Zeus at Dodona. By the time Argus finished the ship, this oak beam allowed the Argo to speak, calling out for action. Jason would take with him, 50 of the greatest Greek heroes.

The Argonauts

These are some of the more notable crew. Sometimes the names can vary slightly, notably if Atlanta will be listed as part of the crew.

Argus – The shipwright and name’s sake of the Argos

Jason

Atlanta – An archer and the only woman on the crew

Castor & Polydeuces – Twins

Calais & Zetes – The sons of the North Wind

Glaucus – The Argo’s helmsman

Orpheus – One of the greatest musicians of the Greek era.

Heracles – The strongest man alive in ancient Greece, taking a break from his Twelve Labors.

Nestor

Theseus – Slayer of the Minotaur

Launching The Argo

If there was one flaw to Argus’ ability as a shipwright, it is that the Argo was too heavy that they could move the ship into the water. Enter stage right, Orpheus who played his lyre as he sang, that the oak beam of the Argo’s bow began to move, taking the whole ship into the water.

Visiting The Mentor

As the Argonauts sailed, the ship passed near Mount Pelion, where Chiron lived. Jason decided to visit his old mentor and the crew spent a night resting there. To help Jason and the Argonauts on their quest, Chiron placed a likeness of himself up in the heavens. One version of the story says that this constellation is Sagittarius, though scholars will disagree and say that it is the constellation Centaurus that represents Chiron. Either way, throughout his journey, Jason would speak with Chiron through the stars of this constellation.

Hercules’ Departure

As the Argo sailed, they reached a point where they needed to resupply their stores of freshwater. Hercules and Hylas were the two who volunteered to go ashore and get more water. After a bit of searching, the two found a well and as they were pulling water up, Hylas was suddenly pulled down by the naiads living there. It is here that Hercules parted ways with the Argonauts as he decided to try and find a way to rescue Hylas.

Side Note: An old 1963 Ray Harryhaussen movie for Jason and the Argonauts sees Hercules and Hylas encountering a giant statue named Talos that attacks everyone when they take some treasure.

To Be Continued…

Argo Navis – Puppis for Part 2

Argo Navis – Vela for Part 3

Illuyanka

Etymology: Serpent or Snake

Alternative Spelling: Illujanka

Illuyanka is the serpentine dragon that Teshub (Tarhun) slays in Hittite mythology.

What’s In A Name?

It should be of no surprise and interest that the name Illuyanka is likely a compound of two words meaning “snake.” These Proto-Indo-European words are “h’illu” and “eh.” Interestingly, these words appear in reverse order for the Latin “Anguilla,” meaning eel.

Where the word “illu” is a cognate to the English eel, the word “anka” is a cognate to the Sanskrit word ahi.

I think it is interesting the word is doubled up the way some Chinese names will be doubled up to emphasize something being powerful like lung-lung for Double Dragon. Incidentally, the videogame of the same name holds that name for the same reason.

Hittite Description

In the carved relief showing Teshub slaying Illuyanka, they are shown as a massive, coiling serpent.

Chaoskampf

The struggle against Chaos; is a familiar motif found throughout the world in many different regions and mythologies of a culture hero or god going up against a creature of chaos. This creature is often shown as and takes the form of a great serpent or dragon. This is the familiar Knight slaying the Dragon seen in many European mythologies. Parallels to this concept are even found in other cultures.

The contest and fight between Teshub and Illuyanka represent one of these archetypal battles wherein the arrival of Spring and the beginning of the New Year is honored in the Hittite festival of Purulli.

Illuyanka Versus Teshub

This is the story that Illuynak is best known from. It’s pretty much his only appearance in Hittite mythology. This myth was rediscovered by archeologists and historians in 1930 in the Catalogue des Textes Hittites 321. Less than a hundred years ago with this post. An English translation of the text wouldn’t see publication until 1982 done by Gary Beckman. This translation is not yet in the public domain that I am aware of. These cuneiform tablets were found at Çorum-Bogazköy, the old Hittite capital of Hattusa.

In both myths, it is noted that Illuyanka threatens the whole of creation with destruction and why it is that Teshub needs to battle him.

1st Myth – Illuyanka’s Defeat At A Feast

This story begins with one of Teshub or Tarhun’s (Hittite or Hurrian) priests telling the story at the New Year’s festival of Purulli. In the story, Teshub and the serpent Illuyanka fight within the city of Kiškilušša. As they fight, Illuyanka defeats Teshub.

Defeated, Teshub approaches the other gods and asks his daughter Inara for help. Inara sets about to prepare a feast with lots of alcohol, namely wines and beer. That done, Inara traveled to the city of Ziggaratta where she asks the hero Ḫupašiya to help her with a task. Ḫupašiya agrees only if Inara will have sex with him. Since there’s a job to do, Inara agrees and invites Ḫupašiya and his sons to the feast.

At the feast, Inara has Ḫupašiya hide before inviting Illuyanka and his sons to the feast. As Illuyanka and his sons consume all the food and become drunk, Ḫupašiya comes out of hiding and ties up the mighty dragon with some rope.

Teshub enters back into the story by slaying Illuyanka.

Meanwhile, Inara instructs Ḫupašiya to stay within a house on a rock in Tarukka. She tells Ḫupašiya that he is to never look out of the house windows as he is to stay hidden from his wife and children. Eventually, after twenty days, Ḫupašiya looks out a window and on seeing his family, demands to be let go.

Inara asks Ḫupašiya why he looked out the window.

Now, this is where the text for the story is damaged and it’s unclear what we missed and why, where it can be read again, Inara has decided to travel to Kiškilušša to give her house and underground spring to the king.

This event though is where the New Year’s festival of Purulli originates.

2nd Myth –

This section begins with the invocations for strong, heavy rain. Illuyanka defeats Teshub, taking his eyes and heart.

Once more, Illuyanka and Teshub battle it out with the might serpent winning. In the aftermath of this defeat, Teshub marries Hebat, the daughter of a poor man named Arm. Together they have a son, Sarruma who grows up and marries Illuyanka’s daughter.

Teshub continually asks Sarruma to request his eyes and heart back from Illuyanka, saying they would make a good wedding gift. Eventually, Illuyanka relents and gives them to Sarruma to bring back to Teshub.

Restored, Teshub heads down to the sea where he battles against Illuyanka. Sarruma realizes he’s been used and sides with his father-in-law, the dragon. Sarruma begs Teshub to kill him too to which, he obliges with a torrent of rain and lightning.

The text then is unclear what happens next. We know that Teshub was about to do something, but this is where the text is damaged.

The rest of the text that can be read, details the different cults, their priests of the various gods, and their merits and revenues.

A relief showing this battle, found at Malatya dates to around 1050-850 B.C.E. This relief is on display at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, Turkey.

Hedammu – In Hurrian-Hittite mythology, this is the sea-dragon, son of Kumarbi and Šertapšuruḫi. Hedammu is basically the Hurrian version of Illuyanka.

Puruli – Spring Festival

The festival of Puruli was held every spring, celebrating the arrival of the New Year. The feast of Purulli is held to honor Teshub’s defeating Illuyanka and celebrate the prosperity of people and the fertility of the land.

In this festival, Illuyanka is seen as representing winter, and Teshub’s defeat of the serpent is the ending of winter and the coming of spring.

Sea Serpents By Any Other Name….

Cetus – The Grecian sea monster that depending on the translation given, is either a sea monster or monstrous whale.

Jormungand – This is the infamous sea serpent from Norse mythology that encircles the earth.

Leviathan – The name of a giant, monstrous sea serpent mentioned in the Books of Job, Isaiah, Amos, and Psalms. The story of Baal fighting Leviathan has parallels to the story of Teshub and Illuyanka.

Lotan – Originating more in Canaanite mythology, this is a sea creature much older than Leviathan and was just one of Yam’s many sea servants he could call on. Additionally, Lotan is also known by the name Tannanu which is similar to the name Tannin.

Rahab – A sea serpent associated with the Red Sea, Rahab is often equated with Tannin. It is also the more poetic name for Egypt in medieval Jewish folklore.

Tannin – A monstrous dragon or serpent of Canaanite mythology.

Tiamat – The story of slaying Tiamat in Babylonian mythology has a parallel.

Typhon – A monstrous serpent that Zeus battles, this story sees strong parallels to that of Teshub and Illuyanka.

Teshub

Etymology: As Tarhun, the name means “The Conqueror”

Also Spelled: 𒀭𒅎 (cuneiform), Teshup, Teššup, and Tešup

Also Called: Tarhun, Tarhunt, Tarhunzas, Tesheba (Urartian)

Teshub is the Hurrian god of the sky, thunder, and storms. He is best known for his slaying of the dragon Illuyanka.

There are several different storm and weather gods throughout the Anatolian region (modern Turkey) that are all very similar. During the religious reforms of Muwatalli II’s reign in the New Kingdom of the 13th century B.C.E. the various Hurrian and Hittite pantheons and deities were combined and identified with major Hittite deities. Teshub’s worship would carry forward into the Urartu kingdom as Tesheba.

Hurrian Depictions

In the art and reliefs found, Teshub is shown holding a triple thunderbolt and a weapon, often a double-headed ax or mace.

Teshub’s sacred bull is seen in the horns on his crown. His horses, Seri and Hurri would either pull Teshub’s chariot or he rode them. Similarly, this chariot would be pulled by bulls.

With the mixing of Hurrian and Hittite theology, Teshub is indistinguishable from his Hittite counterpart Tarhun. Exceptions to this are when Teshub is shown with his wife Hebat. In the Kingdom of Urartu when he is known as Tesheba, he is shown standing on a bull.

Near Yazilikava, the ancient capital of the Hittites, there is a rock sanctuary that depicts Teshub as the lead god as he steps on the bowed necks of two mountain gods. Other depictions show Teshub holding a lituss or long crook.

Parentage and Family

Grandparent

Alalu – Great Grandfather

Grandparent

Anu – His father and representing the sky.

Parents
This one is s a bit gross, but the genitals that Kumarbi swallowed when he bit them off of either Enlill or Anu.
Spouse

Arinniti – A sun goddess, she is married to Teshub in Hittite texts and myth.

Hebat – The goddess of beauty, fertility, and royalty. She is paired with Teshub in the Hurrian texts and myths.

Siblings

Aranzah, the personification of the Tigris River, Tashmishu – brothers through Kumarbi.

Ullikumm – A stone giant, they can be considered a half-brother.

Šuwaliyat – A Hittite storm or wind god mentioned in the “Ullikummi Song” who accompanies Tarḫunna (Teshub). He is mentioned as the older brother and vizier to Tarḫunna.

Children

With Hebat, Teshub has the following children –

Sarruma, a mountain god, and Inara, goddess of wild animals.

With Arinniti, Teshub has the following children –

Telipinu, a fertility god

Birth Of A God

The Song of Kumarbi or Kingship in Heaven is the title given to a Hittite version of the Hurrian Kumarbi myth, dating to the 14th or 13th century B.C.E. It is preserved on three tablets, but only a small fraction of the text is legible and able to be translated.

In this story, Teshub is born when Kumarbi bites off the genitals to his father, Anu. It is a story that has strong similarities to the succession of Uranus, Cronus, and Zeus in Hesiod’s Theogony.

Overthrowing Kumarbi

Knowing that history repeats itself and how Kumarbi overthrew his father Anu, just as he had overthrown his father Alalu; Kumarbi seeks out the goddess of the Sea (no name given) to see what to do to prevent his own demise.

The Sea tells Kumarbi to copulate with a rather large boulder, which then becomes pregnant and gives birth to a stone giant by the name of Ullikummi.

Once Ullikummi is born, he is taken to the Underworld and placed upon the shoulders of Ubelluris, the giant that holds up the earth. There, Ullikummi rises up like a pillar out of the sea. He is huge, some 9,000 leagues tall and 9,000 leagues in circumference.

Just huge. Worse, Ullikummi keeps on growing.

This worries the other gods who look to the trickster god Ea for advice on what to do. Ea says that Teshub should take the copper knife that had been used to split the heaven and earth at the beginning of time. Using the copper knife, Teshub sunders Ullukummi from Ubelluris, thus defeating him.

With Kumarbi defeated, Teshub then takes his place as the new King of Heaven.

So, what happens next!?!

That we don’t know as the last tablet that the story is written on is broken off. We can maybe guess by looking at similar myths like the Babylonians and the Greeks for how things might have progressed.

Illuyanka Versus Teshub

This is the story that Illuynak is best known from. It’s pretty much his only appearance in Hittite mythology. This myth was rediscovered by archeologists and historians in 1930 in the Catalogue des Textes Hittites 321. Less than a hundred years ago with this post. An English translation of the text wouldn’t see publication until 1982 done by Gary Beckman. This translation is not yet in the public domain that I am aware of. These cuneiform tablets were found at Çorum-Bogazköy, the old Hittite capital of Hattusa.

In both myths, it is noted that Illuyanka threatens the whole of creation with destruction and why it is that Teshub needs to battle him.

1st Myth – Illuyanka’s Defeat At A Feast

This story begins with one of Teshub or Tarhun’s (Hittite or Hurrian) priests telling the story at the New Year’s festival of Purulli. In the story, Teshub and the serpent Illuyanka fight within the city of Kiškilušša. As they fight, Illuyanka defeats Teshub.

Defeated, Teshub approaches the other gods and asks his daughter Inara for help. Inara sets about to prepare a feast with lots of alcohol, namely wines and beer. That done, Inara traveled to the city of Ziggaratta where she asks the hero Ḫupašiya to help her with a task. Ḫupašiya agrees only if Inara will have sex with him. Since there’s a job to do, Inara agrees and invites Ḫupašiya and his sons to the feast.

At the feast, Inara has Ḫupašiya hide before inviting Illuyanka and his sons to the feast. As Illuyanka and his sons consume all the food and become drunk, Ḫupašiya comes out of hiding and ties up the mighty dragon with some rope.

Teshub enters back into the story by slaying Illuyanka.

Meanwhile, Inara instructs Ḫupašiya to stay within a house on a rock in Tarukka. She tells Ḫupašiya that he is to never look out of the house windows as he is to stay hidden from his wife and children. Eventually, after twenty days, Ḫupašiya looks out a window and on seeing his family, demands to be let go.

Inara asks Ḫupašiya why he looked out the window.

Now, this is where the text for the story is damaged and it’s unclear what we missed and why, where it can be read again, Inara has decided to travel to Kiškilušša to give her house and underground spring to the king.

This event though is where the New Year’s festival of Purulli originates.

Second Myth – This section begins with the invocations for strong, heavy rain. Illuyanka defeats Teshub, taking his eyes and heart.

In the aftermath of this defeat, Teshub marries the daughter of a poor man, where they have a son. This son grows up and marries Illuyanka’s daughter.

Teshub continually asks his son to request his eyes and heart back from Illuyanka. Eventually, Illuyanka relents and gives them to Teshub’s son to bring back to him.

Restored, Teshub heads down to the sea where he battles against Illuyanka, only to find his own son having sided with the dragon. The son begs Teshub to kill him too to which, he obliges.

The text then is unclear what happens next. We know that Teshub was about to do something, but this is where the text is damaged.

The rest of the text that can be read, details the different cults, their priests of the various gods, and their merits and revenues.

Hedammu – In Hurrian-Hittite mythology, this is the sea-dragon, son of Kumarbi and Šertapšuruḫi. Hedammu is basically the Hurrian version of Illuyanka.

The Myth Of Telipinu

In this myth, following the pairing of Teshub and Arinniti, they have a son by the name of Telipinu who is a fertility god and storm god like his father before him.

Telipinu was known for having a temper and one day, waking up in a foul mood, one not helped by putting his boots on the wrong feet, he stormed off into the steppes. Eventually, Telipinu wore himself out and he fell asleep in a meadow.

As Telipinu slept, all the plants and trees died from lack of water, and animals and humans alike stopped giving birth. The land had become lifeless and barren. Greatly concerned, the sun goddess, Arinniti sends out an eagle to look for her son. Then Teshub sets out in search of his missing son to no avail, even after trying to smash in the door to Telepinu’s house.

It is the great mother goddess, Hannahanna who sends out a bee to find Telepinu. The bee finds the sleeping Telepinu and sets about stinging him on the hands and feet to wake him. Then the bee smears wax on the hands and feet, causing Telepinu to finally wake. However, Telepinu is still angry.

Arinniti suggests that someone go help Telepinu with moving. The text for this part of the myth is fragmented. We do know that Telepinu is brought back by an eagle and that the goddess of healing, Kamrusepas heals him.

Twelve rams are sacrificed, and torches are lit, then put out. Presumably by the person that Arinniti called for. This man casts a spell, banishing all the evils caused by Telepinu down to the underworld.

Telepinu returns to his house where he takes care of the king and queen. A pole is set up whereon a sheep fleece is hung. This fleece symbolized all the grain, meat, wine, cattle, livestock, numerous children, and long life.

Jason & The Argonauts – Greek Connections

For some background, the Hittite Empire was active in the 18th century B.C.E. Anatolia, modern-day Turkey. After the 12th century B.C.E., Hittite culture began to decline, continuing with smaller city-states to around the 8th century B.C.E.

Scholars know that the Mycenaean Greeks were in contact with the Hittites and interacted with them. The belief is that elements of Hittite mythology found their way into Greek myths. Two scholars, Jan N. Bremmer and Volkert Haas both argue that the story of Teshub slaying the dragon Illuyanka has a strong influence on the story of Jason and the Argonauts. Notably between Jason, Medea, and the Gold Fleece.

Bremmer and Volkert both identify the Golden Fleece with a sacred kursa sack, made of fleece. At every Purulli, the New Year’s festival, the story of Teshub’s slaying the dragon is retold. This annual pageant would include representatives for Teshub and his wife, conducting a sacred marriage.

In this respect, the kursa, among the Hittites held strong symbolisms as representing a deity’s power, protection over a place, and influence such as abundance and fertility.

It is strongly noted that there is no mention of a kursa in Teshub’s myth with slaying the dragon. There is one mentioned in the Myth of Telepinu. It could be that what we see in the story of Jason and the Argonauts could be the merging of two different myths and stories together.

This is merely one idea among many of just exactly what the Golden Fleece is meant to be or represent.

Hesiod’s Theogony – The Greek Connections

Scholars have noted a similarity between the Hurro-Hittite Song of Kumarbi and Hesiod’s Theogony, a Babylonian Creation Epic. Especially between the characters of Uranus, Cronus, and Zeus from the Greek mythos with those of the Hurrian creation myth with Alalu, Anu, and Kumarbi.

Particularly with the progression of successors. Both the deities of Anu and Uranus are noted as having names that mean “Sky.” Likewise, Kumbari was a Grain-Deity and Cronus likely was one as well. It brings the line of succession to Teshub (or Teššub) and Zeus who are both Storm-Deities.

Another similarity is seen in how both Anu and Ouranos both have their genitals cut or bitten off. Either way hurts immensely… This is seen as removing themselves from heaven and the source from where other divinities originate.

Anu also warns Kumarbi that there will be consequences for what he has done. Again, a similar motif is seen in the Greek story where Ouranos tells the Titans that they too will pay a toll for castrating him.

Syno-Deities

Adad – Canannite/Mesopotamian

Also known as Hadad, he is a similar storm and weather god.

Indra – Indian

The leader of the Devas and God of storms, thunder, and war. He was seen as a defender of the people against evil.

Jupiter – Roman

The Roman god of the sky and thunder, he is equated with Teshub.

Tarḫunna – Hittite

The Hittite god of thunder, lightning, and the weather, he is equated with Teshub.

Tarḫunz – Luwian

The Luwian God of the sky, thunder and lightning, he is equated with both Teshub and Tarḫunna.

Taru – Hattian

A similar storm and weather god.

Zeus – Greek

The Greek god of the sky and thunder, he is equated with Teshub. It’s easy to see in Hesiod’s Theogony the strong connection and similarities between the Hittite and Greek myths.

Brigid

Pronounced: BRIJ-id or BREE-id

Etymology: “Exalted” (Old Irish), “High”

Also Spelled: Brigit, Brid, Brig

Also Called: Brigantia, Brid, Bride, Briginda, Brigdu, Brigit, Brighid-Muirghin-na-tuinne, Brighid Conception of the Waves, Brighid-Sluagh (or Sloigh), Brighid of the Immortal Host, Brighid-nan-sitheachseang, Brighid of the Slim Fairy Folk, Brighid-Binne-Bheule-lhuchd-nan-trusganan-uaine, Song-sweet (melodious mouthed), Brighid of the Tribe of the Green Mantles, Brighid of the Harp, Brighid of the Sorrowful, Brighid of Prophecy, Brighid of Pure Love, St. Bride of the Isles, Bride of Joy

Titles & Epitaphs: The Bright One, Fiery Arrow, Fire of the Forge, Fire of the Hearth, Fire of Inspiration, The Powerful One, The High One, Great Mother Goddess of Ireland, Lady of the Sacred Flame, Eternal Flame of Life, Flame of Inspiration, The Mistress of the Mantle

The goddess Brigid is an ancient Irish goddess who pre-dates the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. A member of the Tuatha Dé Danann and the daughter of the Dagda, Brigid’s influence was such that after Christianity’s arrival, she would be adopted as a Saint when Catholicism couldn’t wipe out the old beliefs.

It has to be noted that a lot of early Celtic, Irish history has been lost and what we do have that survives about Brigid is through the filter of Christianity.

Attributes

Animal: Oxen, Boars, Serpents, Sheep, Domestic Animals

Colors: Black, Blue, Green, Red, White, Yellow

Element: Fire, Water

Festivals: Imbolc

Gem Stone: Agate, Amethyst, Carnelian, Fire Agate, Jasper

Metal: Brass, Copper, Gold, Iron, Silver

Month: February (“Mí na Féile Bride” or “The Month of the Festival of Brigit”)

Patron of: Arts & Crafts, Cattle, Domestic Animals, Smithing, Poetry, Healing, Medicine, Sacred Wells, Spring

Planet: Sun, Venus

Plant: Bay, Broom, Chamomile, Corn, Crocus, Dandelion, Heather, Oak, Oat, Pumpkin, Rosemary, Rushes, Sage, Shamrock, Snowdrop, Straw, Thyme, Trillium

Sphere of Influence: Agriculture, Divination, Domesticated Animals, all Feminine Arts, Fertility, Healing, the Hearth, Inspiration, Knowledge, Love, Martial Arts, Poetry, Prophecy, Protection, Smithing, Wisdom

Symbols: Brigid’s Cross, Corn Dolly

There are several aspects attributed to Brigid. Some of these are easily figured out from the myths and stories surrounding Brigid. Others do not appear to be so cut and dry as they vary based on individual Wiccan and modern Pagan traditions.

What’s In A Name

I’m sure there are more than a few who saw the title and immediately popped off how there are other spellings to the name Brigid. And they are correct. The spellings of Brigid, Brighid, and Brigit are all variations of the same name. Notably, the spelling of Brigit is the old Irish spelling with the others representing more modern spellings. A spelling reform in 1948 sees the name changed to a spelling of Brid.

It’s of interest and note the Proto Indo-European word “brgentih” (and I’ve likely got that spelling wrong still) that’s the feminine form of “bergonts” meaning “high.” This is similar to the Proto-Celtic word Briganti meaning “The High One.” This is taken to be a cognate of the ancient British goddess Brigantia. In Sanskrit, there is the word Brhati that also means “high” and is the epithet of the Hindi dawn goddess Ushas. This has caused the suggestion by the scholar Xavier Delamarre that Brigid could be a continuation of an Indo-European dawn goddess.

From there, you can see the potential of how this word has continued in various European languages, the first bit of evidence is pointed towards the Medieval Latin spelling of Brigit for its written form. This connection continues with all the modern English spellings of Bridget and Bridgit, the Austrian Bregenz, the Finnish Piritta, the French Brigitte, the Gallacian Braga and Bragança, the Gaulish Brigindu, the Great Britain Brigantia and Brigantis, the Italian Brigida, the Old High German Burgunt, the Scottish Brighde and Bride, the Swedish Birgitta, and the Welsh Ffraid, Braint or Breint.

The Sanas Cormaic or Cormac’s Glossary gives the name Breo Saighead that’s supposed to mean “fiery arrow.” This etymology is considered suspect by scholars today.

Epitaph Versus Proper Name

Further, one thing I found, focuses on the etymology of the root word or syllable “brig.” The name has been noted to appear in a lot of places with numerous, regional variations. When going back to the ancient Celts, this word “brig” is said evoke a sense of power with just the meaning of “Exalted” or “High.”

Noted too is that there are at least three goddesses with the variation of brig in their names. Brigindo in Gaul, Brigantia in Northern England, Brig of Ireland, and Bricta. This has caused some to come to the conclusion that all of these goddesses are the same one.

Parentage and Family

Parents

Father – The Dagda, an All-Father figure, King or Chief and Druid of the Tuatha Dé Danann.

Mother – Danu, the Mother goddess of the Tuatha Dé Danann.

Other sources will list the Morrigan as Brigid’s mother.

Siblings –

Cermait, Aengus, Aed, Bodb Derg, Brigid the healer, and Brigid the smith, Midir

Consort

Bres – A Fomorian, appointed King by Nuada in order to bring peace.

Tuireann – Another story places Brigid having married him.

Children

Ruadán – Brigid’s son with Bres, he would later be killed by Goibniu.

Brian, Iuchar, and Irchaba – Brigid’s sons with Tuireann. These three sons slew Cian, the father of Lugh of the Long-Arm while transformed into a pig.

Tuatha Dé Danann

Or the people of Danu, they are considered the original inhabitants and gods of Ireland. It should be of little surprise that Brigid is from this lineage of deities. In some sources, Brigid is identified as being Danu herself.

Birth Of A Goddess

Brigid is an ancient goddess worshipped throughout much of Ireland. The few legends that survive, hold that Brigid was born at the exact moment of dawn. That Brigid rose up into the sky with the rising sun with rays of fire or light coming from her head. Wherever Brigid walked, flowers and shamrocks would grow. As an infant, Brigid was fed milk from a sacred cow of the Otherworld.

Otherworld – Liminal Boundaries

As a goddess of the dawn as that is the time of day that Brigid was born, she has a connection to the Otherworld. In the Celtic world, that is the land of Faery. Brigid also owned an apple orchard in the Otherworld and bees would bring her their nectar to the earth.

Brigid’s Animals

As a goddess and guardian of domesticated animals, the most common are cattle or oxen. The animals belonging to Brigid are said to cry out warnings. As a goddess of the land, when the land was in turmoil, Brigid’s sacred animals would keen for it.

Cirb – the “king of wethers,” one of the rams that belong to Brigid. The plain of Cirb is named after this ram.

Fea & Femen – These are two of the ox that Brigid is said to have. The Mag Fea, the plain of the River Barrow, and Mag Femin, the plain of the River Suir are both named after them. Other sources will name these oxen as being from Dil and are “radiant of beauty.”

Torc Triath – the “king of boars” also belongs to Brigid. The plain of Treithirne is named after this boar.

Goddess of Blacksmithing

The art of blacksmithing and forging metal has been held as a mystical art in many older cultures and religions. By today’s standards that doesn’t seem so mystical. It does still require a lot of strength, skill, and knowledge to shape and bend molten metal into various forms.

As a goddess of blacksmithing, this aspect of creation also extends itself to other crafts and arts.

Goddess & Protector Of The Hearth

Some have seen in the perpetual fires kept at Kildare, that this also connects Brigid as a goddess of the hearth. Much like the Roman Vestia and Greek Hestia who kept the hearth. The women of the household would keep the home fires going, going over it at night to seek out Brigid’s protection of the home.

Fertility Goddess

With Brigid’s connection to her celebration at Imbolc, she is seen as a fertility goddess as this spring celebration held in February saw many livestock having given birth for the coming year. As a fertility goddess, Brigid is also a mother goddess who would protect mothers and babies.

It is also interesting to note, with Brigid’s name, we see one shortening of the name to Brid or Bride from which the English word for a bride, for marriage comes from. Certain stories out of Celtic lore strongly show the tie that a King has with the land. That there would need to be a marriage to the goddess of the land to ensure the strength and welfare of the kingdom.

The snake enters here as a symbol of regeneration and renewal, connecting her to Spring.

Goddess Of Healing

As a goddess of the arts and crafts and see in Saint Brigid of Kildare, the goddess Brigid is also a goddess of healing, who knows all the herbs and arts needed for healing.

Goddess Of Poetry & Wisdom

As a goddess who oversaw many numerous aspects of early Irish life, it’s little wonder that many people feel an affinity for Brigid. Even in Cormac’s Glossary, written in the 9th century C.E., Christian monks wrote how Brigid is “the goddess whom poets adored.” Lady Augusta Gregory also describes Brigit as a woman of poetry and whom poets worshiped.

There isn’t much known about how the ancient Celts and their beliefs. As a goddess of poetry, Brigid could easily be a goddess who oversaw the passing on of oral traditions and stories. Brigid could also be the goddess who inspires creativity much like the Greek muses.

Filid – This is a class of poets who are known and said to have worshiped Brigid.

Brigid – Deific Title

Back to Cormac’s Glossary, this source explains how Brigid has two sisters, Brigid the Healer and Brigid the Smith. The book further explains that the name Brigid is a title that all Irish goddesses hold. It would explain the proliferation of the name Brigid and the numerous spelling variations as a personal name.

The Lebor Gabála Érenn

Also known as The Book of Invasions, this text chronicles the origins of the Tuatha Dé Danann and their battles against the Fomorians and Firbolgs.

Cath Maige Tuired – During the First Battle of Magh Tuiredh, King Nuada of the Tuatha Dé Danann lost his hand the battle against the Fomorians. As a result, by the Tuatha Dé Danann customs, Nuada wasn’t seen as a whole and could no longer lead.

As a final act with abdicating the throne and hoping to bring peace between the Tuatha Dé Danann and Fomorians, Nuada appointed Bres of the Fomorians king and Brigid of the Tuatha Dé Danann married Bres to seal the alliance.

Side note: During this era of Irish history, lineages were matrilineal, so it really is not as much of surrendering to the Fomorians as it appears.

Second Battle of Moytura – Brigid and Bres’ union would result in a son, Ruadan who later on is killed by Goibniu. When Ruadán died, Brigid began keening, a combination of singing and wailing as she mourned her son’s death. Keening is the Irish custom among women to wail and mourn the loss of their relatives.

Brigid is also noted for the invention of a whistle used for traveling at night.

Sacred Wells

Either as a goddess or as a saint, many holy wells throughout Ireland were held sacred by Brigid. A practice is known as Well dressing, where rags would be tied off on trees next to trees were the means by which to petition Brigid for healing from her sacred wells or to honor her.

Places, where the water came up from the earth, were seen as portals to the Otherworld and the source of Brigid’s power of divining and prophecy.

Wishing Wells – Water is symbolic of wisdom and healing. There was a custom born from the belief that Brigid would reward any offering to her. Offerings of coins would be tossed into her wells. This custom would become the custom of wishing wells and tossing a penny into a fountain of water.

Brigid’s Well in County Clare – Located near the Cliffs of Moher, this well is located at a church and is near the church’s cemetery.

Brigid’s Well in Kildare – Perhaps the most well-known of Brigid’s wells, the waters of this well were believed to heal any ailments or wounds.

Brigid’s Cross

Also called a triskele, this is a three or four-armed cross that is made from rushes or straw. It is an ancient symbol that would be set over doors and windows to protect the home from harm. One tradition says this cross will protect the home from fire.

Imbolc

Also known as Candlemas and called Latha Fheill in Gaelic, this is Brigid’s feast day that is held either February 1st or 2nd, it is a festival that celebrates the first day of Spring within Irish tradition and marked the beginning of the year. Brigid’s connection to the element of fire and as a Sun goddess shows her connection with this celebration. In the Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, and Eastern Orthodox Church, this day is known as Saint Brigid’s Day.

Modern Observances of this day outside of modern Paganism and Wicca often know February 2nd to coincide with Groundhog’s Day, the day when the groundhog comes out and sees its shadow or not will predict a longer or shorter winter. In the Carmina Gadelica, a snake coming out of a mound on Latha Fheill to predict a longer or shorter winter.

On this day, people are known to create the Brigid’s Cross for the protection of the home. A dolly made out of straw or corn that represents Brigid is invited into the house by the matriarchy of the family. This dolly is dressed in white and placed in a basket to bless the house. Offerings of loaves of bread, milk, and a candle are left out. A cake known as a bairin or breac would be baked by farmer’s wives as they invited the neighbors over to enjoy the festivities of a long winter over and the arrival of Spring.

Farmers were known to give gifts of butter and buttermilk to their less fortunate neighbors. Other farmers will kill some of their sheep livestock to send the meat to those in need. Brigid herself, either as a goddess or Saint was known to travel around the countryside on the eve of Imbolc, blessing the people and their livestock.

Scottish Story – In this story, Brigid as Bride is kidnapped by Beira, the Queen of Winter. Bride was held prisoner on the mountain Ben Nevis. In order to free Bride, a spell would need to be cast, a spell that would take three days from the month of August. Freed, Bride the goddess of the sun is now able to bring back the sun and light and thus Spring.

Triple Goddess

It has been noted that Brigid has two sisters, Brigid the Healer and Brigid the Smith. There’s a strong suggestion that Brigid may have been revered as a triple goddess. Even in modern Wicca and Neo-Paganism, she is a goddess often identified with the Maiden aspect of the Goddess. In this aspect, Brigid is worshiped alongside Cernunnos in many traditions. It has also been commented that as a triple goddess, it could account for there being so many local goddesses who may have happened to share the same name.

Darlughdacha – Dr. Mary Condren has suggested that Darlughdacha may have been the original name for the goddess Brigid, that Brigid as the “Exalted One” is a title.

The name Darlughdacha appears again when Brigid is Christianized as Saint Brigid. Here Darlughdacha is a very close friend and companion of Saint Brigid, even so far as to share the same bed.

Hmm… very interesting. This Darlughdacha becomes the abbess of Kildare after the first Saint Brigid’s death. For it was custom that the abbess of Kildare would take the name Brigid when taking up that role.

Saint Brigid – Catholic Saint

If you can’t beat them, join them! Plus, you can’t discuss the goddess Brigid without talking about her survival as a Saint. Given the name Brigid and its many variations, there may indeed have been a real person who would become the Catholic saint. Though given all of the similar attributes that this ancient Irish goddess and Saint have, Saint Brigid is easily an adaptation by the Catholic Church, where if they couldn’t get people to stop worshiping Brigid. There is even a feast day held on February 1st that corresponds with a pagan festival of Imbolc. In the end, one and the same being.

Mortal Origins – When held as separate from her divine origins, Saint Brigid is said to be the daughter of the druid, Dubthach. Her father brought Brigid from the Isle of Iona, the “Druid’s Isle” to Ireland.

Saint Patrick – Most people know of Saint Patrick as the patron saint of Ireland and the story of his driving out the snakes. What most may not be familiar with, is that Saint Brigid is considered a contemporary to him, sharing equal status with him as Ireland’s Patron Saint.

Saint Brigid of Kildare – This is the title that Saint Brigid is often known by. She is associated with the eternal sacred flames attended to by nineteen nuns in her sanctuary of Kildare, Ireland. These nineteen nuns would tend the sacred fires of Kildare for nineteen days with Brigid herself, being the one who kept the fire going on the twentieth day. The site for Kildare was chosen due to its elevation above a grove of oaks. Oaks were held to be so sacred that no weapons were permitted near them. Kildare was reported by Giraldus Cambrensis and others to be surrounded by a hedge that could drive men insane who tried to cross it or to become crippled or die. This tending to a sacred flame is not unlike the Greek goddess Hestia or the Roman Vesta who also tended the hearth and sacred flames.

With what appears to be a strong survival of a Celtic tradition of vestal priestesses, these women were trained and then would go throughout the land to attend various sacred wells, groves, hills, and caves. This was originally thirty years of service where they would then be allowed to leave and marry. This thirty-year period was divided into the first ten years in training, the next ten years practicing their duties and responsibilities. The last ten years would be spent training and teaching others. This wasn’t just keeping a sacred fire going, this was a study of the sciences and healing arts and possibly the laws of the state.

An interesting note is that Kildare comes from the words “Cill Dara,” meaning the Church of the Oak. The area around it was known as Civitas Brigitae or “The City of Brigid.” The abbess of Kildare was seen as the reincarnation of Saint Brigid and would take her name on investiture. The sacred flames of Kildare would burn continually until 1132 C.E. when Dermot MacMurrough decided to have a relative invested as the abbess. Due to politics, Dermot’s army overran the convent to rape the current abbess and discredit them. Kildare wouldn’t be the same after that, losing much of the power it held and King Henry VIII finally had the sacred flames put out during the Reformation.

Law Giver – During Kildare’s heyday, when the saint Herself reigned, Brigid went from being a Mother Goddess to a Lawgiver, much like the Roman Minerva. During this time, when laws were written and then codified by Christianity, it is Brigid herself who made sure that the rights of women were upheld. Before, these laws had been committed to memory by oral traditions.

The Lives of the Saints – In this text, Saint Brigid is placed as the midwife to Mary and was thus present at Jesus’ birth. Saint Brigid places three drops of water on the infant Jesus’ head. It comes across pretty clear that this is a Christian adaptation of Celtic myth with the birth of the Sun and the three drops representing wisdom.

The stories continue with Saint Brigid being a foster mother to Jesus. Fostering was a common practice among the Celts. When Herod comes to kill all the male infants, Saint Brigid is there to save Jesus from death. From this story, Saint Brigid wears a headdress of candles to light their way to safety.

These stories have earned Saint Brigid the titles of “The Mary of Ireland” and Muime Chriosd, “Foster Mother of Christ.” This is interesting to note as in Celtic society were held in high regard, much like the Italian custom of godparents.

The Two Lepers – There are many stories of Brigid’s miracles and healing. This popular story involves two lepers who arrived at Kildare seeking healing. Brigid informed them that they should bathe each until their skin healed.

When the first leper was healed, they felt revulsion towards the other and refused to touch them or bathe them. Angry, Brigid caused the first leper’s disease to return. Then she took her cloak and placed it over the second leper, instantly healing them.

Apocryphal Gospel of Thomas – An excluded book from the “standard” Bibles, Thomas claims that a web was woven to protect an infant Jesus from harm. Something that is in keeping with Saint Brigid’s deific connections to domestic arts such as weaving wool from her lambs.

Athena – Greek Goddess

A Greek goddess of war, wisdom and women’s crafts such as weaving, Brigid is frequently seen as a Celtic counterpart to this goddess.

Brigindo – Gaulish Goddess

A Gaulish goddess of healing, crafts, and fertility, Brigindo has been equated as a continental cognate to Brigid.

Brigantia – British Goddess

A British goddess during the Roman occupation of Britain, she is a personification of the Brigantes in Northern England and Wexford Ireland. While there are plenty of attempts to link the two as the same goddess, there’s just enough evidence to show that Brigid and Brigantia are two separate and distinct goddesses.

Brigantia is seen as the patroness of warfare or Briga. Her soldiers were called Brigands. This connection sees some scholars linking Brigantia to the Roman Minerva and Greek Athena.

Bricta – Gaulish Goddess

A Gaulish goddess; it has been suggested this name is more a title and belongs to Sirona, a goddess of healing. The name or title of Bricta has been connected to Brig and thus Brigid.

Maman Brigitte – Haitian Goddess

Saint Brigid has been connected to Maman Brigitte as a syno-deity. Maman Brigitte is a Voodoo goddess or Loa who protects those graves within a cemetery marked with a cross. She is the wife to Ghede or Baron Samedi.

Minerva – Roman Goddess

A Roman goddess of war, wisdom, and women’s crafts such as weaving, Brigid is frequently seen as a Celtic counterpart to this goddess.

Oya – Yoruban Goddess

A mother goddess who is a patroness of many aspects such as winds, lightnings, violent storms, death, cemeteries, rebirth and the market place. It is Oya’s role as a Warrior Queen as a protector of women and justice that there connects her to Brigid and Saint Brigid the strongest.

Sulis – Romano-British

A local Celtic Solar goddess of Bath or Somerset. She is a goddess of the healing spring found there. Sulis has been equated with Brigid.

Father Time

Also Known As: Cronos, Saturn

Essentially Father Time is the personification of time, especially the concept of time that moves ever forward.

Depictions

The 18th century sees the formal introduction of the figure of Father Time that many are familiar with as an elderly man with a long flowing beard dressed in robes and carrying a scythe. Sometimes he is shown with wings or carrying an hourglass or other timekeeping device. An Egyptian influence to the image of Father Time is that some depictions show him with a snake in his mouth, said snake being a symbol of eternity.

Renaissance Influence – Both the wings and hourglass are additions from the early Renaissance era.

Ancient History

The origins of Father Time seem mysterious at first glance as if he might be a more modern convention. However, there are a couple of mythological origins.

Cronos – The Greeks associated their word for time, chronos with Cronos, the god of agriculture who incidentally carries a scythe or sickle for harvesting. For the cyclical nature of the year and agriculture, it’s easy to see who the two words chronos and Cronos would become intertwined and nearly synonymous.

Saturn – As typical of many of their deities, the Romans equated Cronos with the god Saturn who also carries a scythe. Saturn was represented as an old man who sometimes got around with the aid of a crutch. With Saturn, he is also associated with wealth and renewal.

Hourglass

The hourglass and other time devices that Father Time is shown with represent the constant progression and march of time, representing the forces of entropy and how eventually everything eventually comes to an end.

It’s not all doom and gloom, time does represent wisdom, especially the wisdom that comes from age and living life. Another thing that is notable, is that an hourglass can be turned over, representing the ability to start over or a new generation coming in.

Scythe

Or sickle, it is a harvester’s tool and is a symbol of the renewal of time as seen in the wheel of the year and cycles of life for birth, growth, and death.

Death’s Age-Old Companion

It’s notable how the imagery for both Father Time and the Grim Reaper are very similar in appearance. Both wear a robe and both carry a scythe. One just happens to be an old man while the other is a skeleton. Despite how similar the two look with certain details, they are not the same being.

New Year’s Day

Certain cartoons and editorials, most notably Rudolph’s Shiny New Year, will show Father Time as the Old Year welcoming in the Baby New Year as part of the neverending progression of years and time. In this role, Father Time will be wearing a sash showing the date of the old year on it.

Baby New Year – If Father Time is based on Cronos and Saturn, who is the Baby New Year based on? A couple sources dared to venture that this is Dionysus, in his role as a Dying and Reborn deity for the crops and harvest season.

The Legendary Council Of Guardians

In recent years, the figure of Father Time may appear alongside other legendary figures such as Mother Nature, Sandman, Cupid, and a few others.

Disney’s The Santa Clause trilogy is notable for the figure of Father Time to appear in the latter two movies.

Perchta

Etymology: “Bright One”, peraht (Old High German meaning “brilliant”). “Hidden” or “Covered,” pergan (Old High German)

Also Called: Behrta, Berchta, Berigl, Bertha (English), Bechtrababa, Berchtlmuada, Berchte, Butzen-Bercht, Frau Berchta, Frau Faste (the Lady of Ember Days), Frau Perchta, Fronfastenweiber, Kvaternica (Slovene), Lutzl, Pehta, Perchta, Perahta, Perhta-Baba, Posterli, Pudelfrau, Quatemberca, Rauweib. Sampa, Stampa, Spinnstubenfrau (“Spinning Room Lady”), Zamperin, Zampermuatta, Zlobna Pehta, The Lady of the Beasts, The Belly Slitter

Perchta has her beginnings and roots as an Alpine goddess worshiped in the Germanic countries where she protected the forests and animals. Later, as Christian influences increased, Perchta would take on a more sinister appearance and role, especially during the dark winter months where she would become a boogeyman type figure used to scare children into good behavior.

This is one of those confusing ones. Is Perchta a goddess, a witch, demon, or something else?

To answer that, we start at the beginning.

Attributes

Animal: Goose, Swan

Day of the Week: Friday

Element: Water

Month: January

Plant: Birch

Sphere of Influence: Nature, Forests, Wildlife, Spinning, Weaving

Symbols: Staff, Knife,

Time: Night

What’s In A Name?

The meaning for Perchta’s name is fairly easy to find, it comes the Old High Germanic words “beraht” and “bereht” meaning bright, light, flame and white. The word percht was meant as a warning for the sin of vanity. Another potential word in Old High German is the verb pergan, meaning “Hidden” or Covered” as the origin for Perchta’s name.

Given the many different eras and regions of Germany, Perchta is known by several different names. In southern Austria, there is a male form of Perchta known as Quantembermann (German), or Kvaternik (Slovene), meaning “The man of the Four Ember Days.” Jacob Grimm holds the idea that Perchta’s male counterpart is Berchtold.

Depictions

Perchta is notable for a dual nature where she will have one of two forms that people see her in. During the Spring and Summer months, Perchta takes on the form of a lovely, young maiden dressed in white, or during the colder, autumn and winter months, she is seen as an ugly old hag with a hooked nose and tattered, worn clothing as she carries either a knife or scissors to slit open people’s bellies. Some perchten masks showing the ugly crone aspect give Perchta an iron face and beak-like nose.

Jacob Grimm of the Grimm Brothers fame tries to say that Perchta is an ancient goddess. In some stories, Perchta will be described as having a goose or swan foot; this imagery connects her to having a higher nature and the ability to shape-shift. This same goose foot could also be the splay foot that a spinner develops with one foot pumping the pedal of a spinning wheel.

Swan Maiden – It has been noted that in several languages, that Perchta or Bertha is also referred to by her peculiar foot. Berhte mit dem fuoze in German, Bertha au grand pied in French and Berhta cum magno pede in Latin. The idea given by Jacob Grimm is that foot means that Perchta is a Swan Maiden.

Woodcut – There is a notable woodcut from 1750 that depicts Perchta as “Butzen-Bercht.” The word Butzen is noted to mean “bogeyman.” The woodcut shows Perchta as a crone with a wart on her nose as she carries a basket filled with screaming children, all of them girls. Perchta also holds a staff as she stands before a door to a house where there are more frightened young girls.

Middle Ages

The earliest depictions and mentions of Perchta, date her to during the Middle Ages, first in around 1200 and then later in the 1400’s when mention of Perchta becomes more prominent. Perchta served as an enforcer of communal taboos. One such taboo is weaving on sacred days or not joining in the feasts enthusiastically enough. Many of Perchta’s punishments stem out of punishing those who are lazy and haven’t done the proper work.

As to Perchta’s retinue that accompanies her, the first reference to them is in 1468, however, these are the souls of the dead. With the passage of time, this retinue would become demons, and then by the coming of the 15th century, they would become the familiar horned figures of the perchten and the first mentions of costumed processions and parades would appear.

In Hans Vintler’s Die Pluemen der Tugent (“The Flowers of Virtue”) written in 1411, we have the first illustration of Perchta and more accurately someone in a mask posing as “Percht with the iron nose.”

Counter-Reformations & Witchtrials – It has been noted that the era of history that Perchta first emerges also overlaps and coincides with the Reformations and Religious wars between Catholics and Protestants over how Christianity should be observed and practiced along with trying to stamp out other non-Christian religions and practices through Europe.

Among Wiccans and Pagans, the period between 1450 and 1700’s is called The Burning Times when thousands of men and women, upwards of around 100,000 were executed and burned at the stake for the crime of witchcraft. Germany had the worst of it with historians reporting that entire villages could see their population of women gone. There’s some sense to Perchta appearing as a dark figure who carried off girls who didn’t behave and the changes to her appearance during this era.

Alpine Goddess

In the southern parts of Germany and Austria, the name Frau Perchta is attributed to a witch who comes during the twelve days of Christmas, spanning from December 25th to January 6th for Epiphany. If a person is naughty or sinful, Frau Perchta is fierce and terrible with the punishment she will hand out. We are talking she will rip out a person’s intestines and other internal organs to replace with straw, rocks, and other garbage. In this terrible, punishing aspect, this image of Perchta looks very similar to that of Krampus, and figures dressed as her, called perchten are known to also appear in the annual Krampus parades held in several Alpine towns.

Dual Goddess

Before her darker imagery took hold, Perchta was held in a more benevolent light. Many of her positive attributes would be twisted under Christian influence causing many people to associate Perchta as a dark, Wintertime, Christmas entity to be feared. The influence of Christianity also creates a seeming, conflicting goddess with a dual identity.

Given when the change to her darker appearance happens, Winter when the nights are longer, when it is cold, and nature becomes that much more precarious if people haven’t properly prepared for the cold months. When evil spirits are thought to roam.

Protector Of Women & Children

In this role, Perchta is a goddess who protects women, children, and infants. For those children and infants who died, Perchta is a psychopomp who guided their souls to the Afterlife.

Goddess Of Nature

In this role, Perchta was mainly concerned with tending to her forests and taking care of nature. As a nature goddess or spirit, Perchta was known as “The Lady of the Beasts.” In this aspect, Perchta holds some similarities with Holda and Germany’s ancient hunting cultures.

It was only during wintertime and Christmas, the Winter Solstice that Perchta would concern herself with the affairs of humans. During Winter, Perchta will withdraw up into the mountains where she will create snow. In addition, Perchta will protect her followers by removing evil spirits as they travel.

Weaver Goddess

In this role and aspect, Perchta not only governs the mundane arts of weaving and spinning, but she also presides over fate, much like the Moirai or Fates of Greek mythology.

During the Summer months, Perchta is believed to live in the depths of various lakes, during which time she busies herself with spinning flax upon her golden spindle. During the night, Perchta can be encountered walking along the steep slopes of the alps carrying her spindle. Those who approach Perchta with their flocks can get her to bless them.

The Wild Hunt

The Wild Hunt is a phenomenon found in many different European countries and cultures. It is a nightmarish, supernatural force led by some dark spectral hunter on horseback and accompanied by a host of other riders and hounds as they chase down unlucky mortals, either until they drop dead of exhaustion, are caught, and forced to join the Wild Hunt or they can evade the Hunt until dawn.

Just exactly who it is that leads the Hunt does vary country by country in Europe. The Wild Hunt is known for making its ride during the Winter Solstice or New Year’s Eve. Jacob Grimm of Grimms Brothers fame makes a connection of Herne to the Wild Hunt due to the epitaph of “the Hunter.” That does seem to work, a Huntsman, connect him to the Wild Hunt and for Britain, the idea really jells of a local person who becomes a lost soul, doomed to forever ride with the Hunt.

According to Jacob Grimm, Perchta is one potential leader of the Wild Hunt. Given that during Midwinter, Perchta is known to wander around the countryside at this time with her entourage of perchten, it’s no surprise to see Perchta be suggested as a leader of the Wild Hunt.

Ultimately, just who leads the Wild Hunt will vary from country to country. In Welsh mythology, it is Gwyn ap Nudd or Annwn who lead the hunt with a pack of spectral hounds to collect unlucky souls. The Anglo-Saxons of Britain hold that it is Woden who leads the hunt at midwinter. Herne the Hunter has been given as the name for another leader of the Wild Hunt. Wotan is very similar to Odin (just another name for the same deity really), Herne has been linked to them as both have been hung from a tree.

Christian Influences

The arrival of Christianity is about when we see Perchta become a minor deity and then diminished to be some sort of magical creature or spirit. As more time passed, Perchta would then become an evil witch or sorceress. Later, Christian clergy would equate Perchta in official documents as being synonymous with other female spirits and goddesses such as Abundia, Diana, Herodias, Holda, and Richella.

Thesaurus Pauperum – This text and collection of recipes and natural cures was written by prominent Catholic officials for use by the poor. This text mentioned a Cult of Perchta who would leave out food and drink for Perchta on Epiphany for wealth and abundance. This same document would be used to Perchta’s cult in Bavaria in 1468. In 1439, Thomas Ebendorfer von Haselbach in De decem praeceptis also condemned this practice.

Frau Perchta – Christmas Witch & Bogeyman

During wintertime, especially during the month of December and Yule, as Frau Perchta, she becomes a fierce some looking hag or witch with two faces. Those children who are good and have behaved, have nothing to fear from Frau Perchta. However, for those who are deemed bad and have misbehaved, Frau Perchta is known for slitting open the stomachs of people and pulling out all of their organs to replace them with straw, stones, and garbage.

Perchten

These wild spirits are known to be active between the Winter Solstice and up to around January 6th, for the Twelfth Night. The percht are an offshoot of the older goddess, Perchta from the Alpine regions where she guarded the beasts of the forest. The percht would be depicted as humanoid goats with elongated necks and wearing animal furs. These same percht are believed to become the basis for Krampus. It is in the late 20th century that both Perchten and Krampus appear together in the same processions so that the two have become indistinguishable from one another. The wooden masks worn for these processions are called perchten.

Originally, the term perchten, (the plural for Perchta), referred to the female masks that represent the entourage of spirits accompanying Frau Perchta or Pehta Baba in Slovenia. The perchten are associated with midwinter where they personify fate and the souls of the dead. There are several regional names and variations for the perchten. Their names include: Bechtrababa, Berchta, Berchtlmuada, Berigl, Pehta, Lutzl, Perhta-Baba, Pudelfrau, Rauweib, Sampa, Stampa, Zamperin, Zampermuatta, and Zlobna Pehta.

Other Perchten names are:

Glöcklerlaufen – “bell-running” from the Salzkammergut region.

Schiachperchten – Or “ugly Perchten,” they come from the Pongau region of Austria. They have fangs, tusks and horse or otherwise ugly features. These perchten, despite their appearance, come to drive off evil spirits and demons as they go from house to house.

Schnabelpercht – Or “trunked Percht” from the Unterinntal region.

Schönperchten – Or “beautiful Perchten,” they come from the Pongau region of Austria. These perchten come during the Twelve Nights and festivals to bestow luck and wealth to the people.

Tresterer – From Pinzgau region of Austria.

Heimchen

Sometimes the spirits that accompany Perchta will be those of children, particularly unbaptized children in Christian beliefs. Food offerings left out for Perchta and her retinue are said to be consumed by these Heimchen.

For many women, before the arrival of modern medicine, there was a high infant and child mortality rate. Having a benevolent goddess who would come and take care of their children was likely very comforting for many women, to think of their child in a better place or in better hands.

Raunachte

This period is also known as the Twelve Days of Christmas. These nights are also known as Magic Nights when Perchta leading the Wild Hunt are known to ride.

Perchtenlauf

This is a seasonal play that is found throughout the Alpine regions during the last week of December and through the first week of January up to January 6th for Twelfth Night or Epiphany. It was known as Nikolausspiel or “Nicholas’ Play” at one time. These plays stem from the Medieval Morality Plays from Antiquity. The Nicholas plays feature Saint Nicholas rewarding children for their scholarly efforts instead of good behavior. People dress as perchten with masks made of wood with brown or white sheep’s wool.

For a while, the Roman Catholic Church tried to prohibit the practice of Perchtenlauf during the 17th and 18th centuries. Despite its best efforts, the parade and processions continued either in secret or as a result have made a resurgence in later centuries.

Krampuslauf

The great Krampus run is an annual parade held every year in many Alpine towns. For the first two weeks, especially on the eve of December 6th, young people will dress in Krampus costumes and parade through the town, ringing bells and scaring parade watchers. Some participants may dress up as perchten, a wild female spirit from Germanic folklore. Alcoholic beverages of Krampus schnapps and brandy are common during this celebration.

Twelfth Night

Also known as Little Christmas in Italy, Old Christmas in Ireland or Epiphany, this holiday is held on January 6th. The feast held on this day is called Berchtentag. In Salzburg, Austria, Perchta is believed to wander the halls of Hohensalzburg Castle during the night.

In Germany, this is when Perchta will go about collecting her offerings, where she will reward her followers, often with a silver coin or other small gifts, and punish those who haven’t observed certain practices and traditions. This is where Perchta, as Frau Perchta appears in her fearsome guise mentioned earlier to slit open the bellies of wrongdoers and those deemed naughty, only to stuff them full of straw, rocks, and garbage. Perchta would also be interested in making sure that women had spun the wool needed for the year.

In observance of this holiday, there would be a feast held with a ceremonial dance. Several people would dress up, pretending to be evil spirits that someone dressed as Perchta would then chase away, “slaying” the evil spirits in a pageant to invoke a ritual to protect the people of the village.

A special porridge consisting of gruel or dumplings and fish called Perchtenmilch would be eaten during this time. While the family ate, an additional bowl would be left out for Perchta and her entourage. If this traditional meal is forgotten, it is one of the taboos that angers Perchta so that she will cut open people’s stomachs and stuff them with straw.

Note: My earlier section for Frau Perchta gives the time for this celebration closer to Yule in December. Given multiple sources, this change of observances could easily be people conforming old traditions to those of the newer, incoming Christian religion and observance of Christmas along with a change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.

Berchtoldstag

Also known as: Bechtelistag, Bächtelistag, Berchtelistag, Bärzelistag, Bechtelstag, Bechtle. It is a celebration typically observed on January 2nd in Liechtenstein and Switzerland and has been happening since at least the 14th century. There are various theories about the origin of this holiday. There is a Blessed Bertchtold of the Engelberg abbey who died on November 2nd of 1197. Another theory holds that it commemorates the first animal killed during Duke Berchtold V of Zähringen’s hunt and the naming of his new city.

Like the English practice of mummery, another idea is that this holiday comes from the word: berchten” meaning to “walk around, begging for food.” Obviously, there is also Perchta given the similarity of the names and that when the celebrations of Epiphany were abolished by the various Protestant regions, those refusing to give up the Twelfth Night traditions, simply moved them to the day after New Year’s to gain another day off. There is a “nut feast” where children build hocks of four nuts with a fifth nut balanced on top. Masked parades are held, along with folk dances and families going out to the pubs to eat.

Fastnacht

Translating to mean “Fast Night” or “Almost Night,” this is a celebration that is held on the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday and Lent. It is a night where people eat the best foods possible, and yes, the preferred food is doughnuts. A procession of perchten is known for showing up in some modern celebrations.

Urglaawe

This is a dominion of Heathenry inspired by the Pennsylvania Dutch culture. In it, Perchta or rather, Berchta is a major goddess instead of a minor. The eleventh day (Elfder Daag) and twelfth night (Zwelfdi Nacht) are notable days for the Yuletide celebrations that fall on December 31st. In Urglaawe tradition, this feast day is known as Berchtaslaaf.

In this tradition, Berchta is held as either another name for the goddess Holle or is her sister. In this respect, Berchta becomes a goddess of order, notably for one’s own actions, thoughts, and behaviors. Owls are held sacred to her and are her messengers. In the Deitsch lunar zodiac, the Eil or Owl symbol occurs near Yuletide. Like many various cultures, the owl tends to be a symbol and warning of death and danger.

Syno-Deities & Figures

Freyja – Norse

Sometimes a connection of Perchta to this Norse goddess is made, however it’s noted to be rather dubious at best as Freyja and Frigg are often confused together as being the same goddess.

Frigg – Norse

The wife of Odin, placing he as the mother of the Gods, she is associated with marriage, prophesy, clairvoyance, and motherhood along with spinning. Frigg is more likely to be whom Perchta is associated with or stems from.

Holda – Germanic

The goddess Holda has been equated as the southern cousin or a syno-deity to Perchta as they both hold the same function as a guardian of the animals and come during the Twelve Days of Christmas to inspect the spinning.

La Befana – Italy

The Italian Christmas Witch is sometimes compared with Perchta during Winter celebrations. This is more the contrast of where La Befana is portrayed as an ugly, yet good witch and Perchta is in her more monstrous appearance.

Saint Lucy – Germany

A local Saint whose feast day fell near the Winter Solstice. She is primarily known and revered in Bavaria and German Bohemia. Saint Lucy is often equated with Perchta.

Weisse Frauen

A type of fairy or enchanted being, these white women are a variety of light elves. Jacob Grimm saw connection between the goddesses Holda and Perchta in their white forms with these beings.