Category Archives: Cryptid

Tulpa

Etymology: From the Tibetan word “sprul-pa” meaning “emanation” or “manifestation.” “Thought-Form” in English

In Buddhist mysticism, a Tulpa is a thought-form created by either spiritual or mental powers.

The term would later be adopted by Western Mysticism and thought in the 20th-century by Theosophists who would take the Tibetan words: nirmita, tulku, sprul-pa, along with others for the word “tulpa” meaning thoughtform. For Modern, Western practitioners of Theosophy, this thoughtform is seen as some sort of imaginary friend willed into existence that is sentient and capable of having its own free will.

What’s In A Name?

I should slow it down here, as there are several words in Tibetan mysticism and Buddhism that lead to the English use of the word “tulpa.” The main Tibetan word is sprul pa where the first part, “sprul” breaks down to mean “emanate” or “manifest” and the word “pa” is a function of Tibetan language that allows for a verb to be used as a noun. This is where, in English, the translation then becomes “Thoughtform.” Another similar word in Tibetan is “phrul” that not only means “manifestations” and “emanation,” but has several other meanings such as: magic, miracle, jugglery, trick, illusion, conjuring and even black art.

Still another Tibetan word that has been translated to mean “thoughtform” is the word “vilu” or “yid lus” and “yi dam” that are all words for tulpa. Further, there are several schools of mysticism, Asian shamanism, and Buddhism that have this concept found throughout China, the Himalayans, Bhutan, India, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia, Tibet and Tuva.

Buddhism

What the term Tulpa means in Buddhism obviously has differences with how Western mysticism approaches and sees the term.

Indian Buddhism –

In the Pali Samaññaphala Sutta, an early Buddhist text, the manomāyakāya or “mind-made body” ability is listed as a means to a full contemplative life. Other texts comment that this “mind-made body” is how the Gautama Buddha and arhats are able to travel up to the heavenly realms. This same ability is how the Buddha accomplished his multiplication miracle in the Divyavadana where he multiplied his nirmita or emanated form into a countless number of bodies filling the sky. This ability would be something that a Buddha or other enlightened beings would be able to accomplish as well.

As an aside, this sounds more like Astral Projection to me with the “mind-made body.” To be fair, the Buddhist philosopher Vasubandhu, who lived in the 4th to 5th century CE does say that the nirmita is a siddhi or psychic power that Buddhists can master. Other Buddhist philosophers see the nirmita or nirmana as a magical illusion. The Madhyamaka philosophy sees all of reality as empty and that all reality is a form of nirmita or an illusion.

Tibetan Buddhism –

There are several terms, nirmanakaya, sprulsku, sprul-pa that all relate and connect to the word trikaya. This is the Buddhist doctrine of the three bodies of the Buddha. These are often the “emanation bodies” of celestial beings, though there are “unrealized beings” such as those humans create too that are known to exist.

The 14th Dalai Lama is believed by some followers to be an emanation-reincarnation (tulku) of Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion. The 14th Dalai Lama has even said in a public statement that his successor might appear while he is still alive as an emanation.

Theosophy

In Theosophy, Annie Besant, in her 1901 book “Thought-Forms” has this term divided into three classes. The form in the shape of the person who created them, those forms resembling objects or people that can potentially gain a soul or spirit or even by the dead and lastly, the forms that represent an “inherent quality” from the astral or mental planes.  This is something abstract like emotions and ideas.

Thought-Forms

In Western occult understanding, the term “thoughtform” is first used as early as 1927 in Evans-Wentz’s translation for the Tibetan Book of the Dead. The Occultist William Walker Atkinson describes thought-forms in his book The Human Aura as simple ethereal objects created from people’s auras. Atkinson explains further in another book of his where thought-forms are astral projections that may or may not look like the person who created them. Or, thought forms are illusions that only those with awakened senses can see.

Alexandra David-Néel is a spiritualist who claims tulpas are capable of developing their own personality and being able to act on their own free will independent of their creator. David-Néel describes this process much like a baby developing in the womb and is later born, able to live outside.

David-Néel says she created her own tulpa in the image of a Friar Tuck like monk. This particular tulpa of David-Néel’s eventually had to be destroy when it became too malevolent. David-Néel notes that she may have created her own hallucination despite others claiming they could see the thoughtforms she created.

I can see how that makes sense, many writers mention how the story they’re working on and the characters they’ve created can seem to take on a life of their own.

Imaginary Friends

With the later part of the 20th Century and early 21st century, the term Tulpa has become popularized as well as secularized with the Western media and mindset. This has mainly meant equating a Tulpa as a form of Imaginary Friend that is consciously willed into being or created.

With tropes used in media and literature, the two terms of Tulpa and Imaginary Friend tend to get used interchangeably. Some stories have the Tulpa or Imaginary Friend able to have a physical manifestation.

Tulpamancers

There are self-described tulpamancers who can be found on such websites such as Reddit or 4chan claiming to practice tulpamancy to create sentient, imaginary friends that live within their head.

Done correctly, from a psychological standpoint, I can see how this practice can be a tool to help build empathy and social skills such as sharing or more easily deal with anxiety. Though given the mention of 4Chan and Reddit, it does become very questionable some of the activities these Tulpamancers are engaging in and if they’re suffering from mental illness and seeing things.

Dangerous

One of the articles that I came across that leaned heavily into the Western Mysticism of Tulpa creation mentioned that the tulpas could be “poisonous.” The article leaned into pseudo-science with sound vibrations and creation. It points out that the problems with the subconscious mind. If a Tulpa were created unintentionally or incorrectly, it could become dangerous or “poisonous” with drawing on darker aspects from the psyche of the person that created it.

In Buddhist Mysticism, a Tulpa is able to eventually become separate and it’s own entity, whereas in Western Mysticism, there’s a tendency to see these Tulpa as not separate, that it will be some sort of servitor and controlled by its maker and dismissed later when no longer needed.

What happens when it becomes independent? What happens if what you thought was a Tulpa or Imaginary Friend turns out not to be?

Tulpa Effect – Cryptids & Spirits

There are several Cryptid encounters, Ghost stories and even sightings of Shadow People that may be connected to what’s called the Tulpa Effect. Where a collective belief has fueled the creation of such a being or entity with enough people believing, hearing the stories and thus, it leads to the creation of an entity, even if such a creation were unintentional.

There have been enough discussions with how the expectations of seeing a ghost can manifest and create one even if the local stories and history don’t properly support it. The most notorious of these would be the Slender Man stories circulating and people claiming encounters that it fizzled out in the true short lived internet media sensation and hype.

An episode of the classic Real Ghost Busters has a quick discussion about the creation of the ghosts of Sherlock Holmes and Watson due to the collective beliefs of many people thinking they had been real people and constantly writing letters to the fictional characters. Just even in the confines of a cartoon, it can be seen how much the concept of Tulpas, Thought-Forms and Imaginary Friends becoming real permeates pop-culture.

With mainstream media, there are many shows and literature where the concept of the Imaginary Friend or Tulpa being willed into existence has become a common trope. From shows such as X-Files, Foster’s Home of Imaginary Friends (even if they didn’t use the term tulpa) to even Puss in Boots Netflix series use these beings as part of the plot for a sentient being that’s created.

With Imaginary Friends, most don’t last beyond childhood and can seem to fade away whereas with Tulpas, those can grow in personality and experience to become their own being that can’t be controlled is often what is cited as the distinction between the two.

Fortean Phenomena

This leads to another concept idea held behind these tulpas that get created through a collective unconscious and belief. In Fortean Phenomena, this concept is called a “window area” where these are places of former religious importance that are now fallen out of use and abandoned. It follows then, that due to religious beliefs, a local deity or entity could have been created and with their former worshipers gone, they continue to find other ways to instill a belief, cause paranormal activity to try and perpetuate a belief in them, thus feeding and keeping themselves from fading away.

Anyone reading or watching Neil Gaiman’s American Gods knows this idea very well.

Changeling: The Dreaming

The creation of Tulpas and Imaginary Friends all sounds like fun and games. The entire discussion of Tulpas reminds me of the Changeling: The Dreaming role-playing game. Instead of the term Tulpa, the term Chimera is used to describe those entities, sentient or non-sentient that are created. That these Chimera are created intentionally or not from human thoughts and emotions or just even the collective unconscious of everyone believing in the same thing. Such entities or object could manifest a physical presence in the world for a short period and when exposed to banality, human doubt, or disbelief, they could be weakened or even destroyed.

Delusions? Hallucinations?

On one hand, when you have so many people claiming the same thing or beliefs, there must be something to it?

The idea of the Tulpas and Imaginary Friends is definitely a concept to stay a little more critical of. Crossing over to Ghost Stories, there’s also enough discussion how the expectations of seeing a ghost can manifest and create one even if the local stories and history don’t properly support it.

Some people have aphantasia and lack the ability to see anything with their imagination or mind’s eye. Other people have an incredibly vivid imagination. Is there an entity there, real, imagined or created? Is it someone who has mental health issues such as schizophrenia? Is it just a good, strong healthy imagination with someone able to strongly visualize?

Plus, not everything encountered will be the result of a tulpa. But it should be part of the line of questioning process when doing the process of elimination. That when you remove the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth.

This one can be hard to define.

Goatman

Also Called: Goat Man

The Goatman is a figure from American Urban Folklore. It is often described as being humanoid in appearance with a goat head. It is infamous for stalking Fletchertown Road in Prince George’s County where it attacks people in cars with an axe.

The main sightings and legends of Goatman are from the state of Maryland with a few other states claiming their own Goatman cryptid. In Maryland, the Governor’s Bridge Road, Lottsford Road and Fletchertown Road in Prince George’s County along with the Glenn Dale Hospital have all become places that people claim to have seen the Goatman. The Goatman is blamed for the deaths of many pets and from time to time, hikers along with harassing people in cars or more accurately, terrorizing people in their cars with an axe. Especially on any hot spot roads claimed to be lover’s lanes.

Maryland Legend

The Goatman is a cryptid whose stomping grounds are Prince George’s County. After a number of dogs went missing or died, the Goatman was held responsible despite the evidence of passing trains being the cause.

Despite, the Goatman is popular among students and often there is graffiti reading: “Goatman was here” that can be found in various places. Even local law enforcement receives several calls claiming sightings of this creature. Most calls and reports are likely to be pranks that perpetuate this Urban Myth and Legend. The 1970’s saw a large number of sightings in Bowie.

Description: The accounts can vary, but most descriptions of the Goatman say that it is a humanoid with a relatively human face and body covered in hair. Other descriptions state that the Goatman resembles the fauns of Greek mythology with the upper body of a human and the lower body being that of a goat. Accounts vary with the creature being between four to twelve feet tall with most accounts placing a Goatman sighting at about six to eight feet tall. When riled up, the Goatman makes a high-pitched squealing sound.

Stories circulate that the Goatman makes his home somewhere in the forested, northwest region of Prince George’s County close to Bowie living in a makeshift shelter. From time to time, the Goatman comes out to kill a stray dog or beat on random cars with an axe.

Mad Science – One variation to the birth of this Urban Legend is that the Goatman was once a scientist who worked at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. There had been an experiment with goats that backfired, and the hapless scientist mutated into a half man, half goat monster who began to attack cars in the area.

Crazed Hermit – This variation to the legend places the Goatman as a crazy hermit living in the woods. He could often be spotted walking alone at night on Fletchertown Road.

Goat Herder – This variation sees this legend as an angry goat herder who went berserk on discovering that some teens killed several of his goats.

Modern Folklore

Barry Pearson, a folklorist from the University of Maryland, says the Goatman legends began long ago…

The first reports for the Maryland Goatman began in August 1957 in Upper Marlboroa and Forestville of Prince George’s County. A young couple were spending an evening at a popular lover’s make-out spot, just off the road at dusk. They were interrupted by a loud banging on their car hood. The couple looked up to see a large hairy horned beast wielding a double-bladed axe. The creature ran into the woods shortly after.

A few nights later, another couple living nearby reported seeing a hairy wild-man rummaging through their trash. The Upper Marlboro Fire Department and local hunters organized a search for this mysterious creature to no avail. More sightings would come in the following weeks, but eventually the authorities would declare it all a hoax.

Some few years later, another young couple in their car, near Zug Road in Huntington would report having seen a similar creature staring at them from the woods. The creature was described as having a tall, ragged animal with human features.

The Goatman legend would continue throughout the 1960’s with Teenagers being warned against parking in the woods at night lest they have an encounter with the ax-weilding Goatman. Sightings and claims of encounters would continue.

The Goatman would begin to gain popularity in 1971. More accurately, the first story to feature the Goatman was on October 27th, 1971 in the Bowie area of Prince George’s County News. An article written by Karen Hosler used information found in the University of Maryland Folklore Archives that mention the Goatman and some ghost stories centered around Fletchertown Road. Later, Karen Hosler would write another article titled: “Residents Fear Goatman Lives: Dog Found Decapitated in Old Bowie.” This article would relate the story of a family searching for their missing puppy, Ginger. Unfortunately, Ginger would be found days later near Fletchertown Road decapitated.

To sensationalize the article, the Goatman was connected to the story with a group of teenage girls claiming they had heard strange noises and had seen a large creature the night that Ginger vanished. Nor did it help that the article reported how sightings of a large animal-like creature walking on hind legs were increasing for Fletchertown Road.

Increasing Goatman’s notoriety, the Washington Post would run an article on November 30th titled “A Legendary Figure Haunts Remote Pr. George’s Woods.” The article goes into detailing the men who found Ginger. The article continues with local police commenting how they’re getting more sightings of Goatman. How teenagers perpetuate and keep Goatman legends going by repeating stories of this creature attacking people in their cars, especially on the local lover’s lane. Of which, Fletchertown Road is one of them.

Other Goatman-esque Cryptids

The legend of the Goatman has become very widespread through the U.S., reaching a number of states that all claim some variation of the Goatman legend or at least a giant, hairy Bigfoot cryptid.

Old Alton Bridge, Texas

Also known as Goatman’s Bridge, this has been a location for many sightings of this cryptid in Texas. The bridge connects Denton and Copper Canyon. The Goatman of this region is known to wander the surrounding forest.

The origins of this story are tragic. As the tale goes, there had been a black goat farmer who lived with is family on the north side of the bridge. He was well liked and known for his honesty and dependable-ness. Locals began to call the farmer the Goatman and he posted a sign on the bridge reading: “This way to the Goatman.” The success of a black farmer brought the ire of the local Klansmen who showed up at the farmer’s home, kidnapping him and hanging him from the Old Alton Bridge. When they looked to see if the farmer had died, he was gone. The Klansmen panicked and returned to the farmer’s home to murder his wife and children.

This Goatman legend continues with locals warning how if you want to see the Goatman, park your car on the bridge, turn off the lights and honk the horn three times and he will appear. Like any ghost story, people tell stories of being touched, grabbed and having rocks thrown at them.

The “Goat Man Of Texas” legend tells the story of how the Goatman of Marshall and Denton, Texas is essentially sex crazed and goes after anyone, man, woman or beast for sex.

Lake Worth Monster, Texas

Another Goatman urban legend and cryptid from Texas. In July of 1969, people began to believe in and report some half-goat, half-man creature with fur and scales. This Goatman has been known to jump on cars denting them, to throw tires at people, of which a group of ten witnesses testified to that event.

A Tommy Burson reported that this goatman cryptid jumped on his car after leaping from a tree and causing an 18-ince long scar on the side of the vehicle. Burson uses this scar as proof his story and the local police investigated the matter.

It is after Burson’s report, the next night that people report a similar creature hurling a tire from a bluff over a group of people. Debrah Grabee claims possesion the only photograph taken by Allen Plaster who took it in October 1969 during the thrown tire incident.

Pope Lick Monster

A Goat-Sheepman found in the state of Kentucky. It is believed to live beneath a Norfolk Southern Railroad trestle over Floyd’s Fork Creek, Louisville. Claims for sightings of this cryptid began in the 1940’s and early 1950’s. Where the Goatman of Maryland could described more as a satyr, the Goatman of Kentucky has a fur covered body like a human and goat head. The earliest versions of this legend hold it responsible for cattle mutilations while in later stories, it is a foul tempered beast that seeks only to be left alone and other legends say that the screams of the Goatman are in imitation of the train that passes through its territory that extends to the Jefferson Memorial Forest to the South.

The trestle over the Pope Lick Creek is unfortunately a hotspot for many teens who will dare each other to cross the trestle that rises some 90 feet in the air and spans over 700 feet. Due to the lack of sound carrying in the area, many people don’t hear the on coming train in time and have either been struck by the train or jumped to their death.

Proctor Valley Monster

Not so much a Goatman, but more like some deranged cow-like animal that stands seven feet tall. This creature is blamed for numerous cattle mutilations.

Australian Goatman

I came across one version of a Goatman who appears in Australian urbans who appears to help people who have gotten lost or lead them to water.

Sasquatch

Or Big Foot, many people tend to categorize sightings of Goatman in the same vein as this legendary cryptid. Especially with height comparisons of six to seven feet tall, humanoid and hairy as all get out.

Sheepsquatch

Also known as the White Thing is a cryptid found in West Virginia folklore that is often described as a being bear-like or canine in appearance with goat or sheep horns. If people are looking at the goatman as a cryptid with the horns, Sheepsquatch also comes to mind.

Waterford Sheepman

This is a cryptid found in the small town of Waterford, Pennsylvania during the 1970’s. It too has been called Goatman given the descriptions. This creature was often seen running across roads into farm fields.

Wisconsin Goatman

Part Urban Legend, part Ghost Story, the Goatman of Washington County, Wisconsin appears to date back to mid-nineteenth century. The story goes that a Civil War veteran was traveling along Hogsback Road with his new bride when the wagon they were in broke an axle. The veteran got out to go look for help. While she waited, the bride heard the sound of sniffing and growling outside the wagon. When the bride looked out, she was terrified of a dark, hairy creature with the body and head of a goat that walked upright like a man. She hid within the wagon until the creature was gone. The bride went running off in the direction her husband had gone. She followed muddy footprints until she came across his bloody body hanging from a tree with hoof prints all around the base.

Urban legends continue today warning travelers along Hogsback Road to be wary as the Goatman preys on unsuspecting drivers.

Urban Legend Vs Mythology

The cryptid and Urban Legend known as the Goatman is not completely unique. When we go back far enough into mythology, we can see that other cultures have had their own versions of a Goatman or Goat Deity.

Bocánach – A type of goblin or spirit described as being hairy humanoids with goat heads in Irish mythology known for haunting battlefields.

Glaistig – Hailing from Scottish mythology, the Glaistig is a ghost who appears in the form of a woman with the lower half of a goat, much like satyrs. Depending on the story she appears in, determines if she’s good or bad. Sometimes she lures men in with song and dance in order to drink their blood. Other stories have her throwing stones at people.

Naigamesa – Either a Deer or Goat-Headed deity of fertility worshiped in India among both Jain and Hindu beliefs. Naigamesa is a protector of children in Jainism while in Hinduism, he is feared and worshipped to ward off evil.

Pan – A goat deity of fertility worshiped in ancient Greece. Early depictions of Pan show him as a black goat with later descriptions giving him the familiar half-man, half-goat appearance.

Ptah – An Egyptian gods worshiped in Mendes. Ptah is a creator and fertility deity depicted with the body of a human and goat head. Male goats were sacred to the Mendesian mystery cult where they were involved in fertility rituals.

Púca – A spirit or fairy found in Celtic/Irish Folklore. The Púca are known tricksters and shapeshifters. One of the forms they would take is that of a goat.

Satyr & Fauns – These are the most notable and immediate that come to mind with half-man, half-goat creatures from Roman and Greek myth, respectively. With this claim and connection for Goatman, the earliest sightings can then go back to 520 B.C.E.

Folklorist Barry Pearson thinks that the inspiration for Goatman comes from students studying Greek mythology and the stories of Satyrs and the god Pan who is half goat, half human.

Yang Jing – This is a somewhat obscure Chinese Goat God whom mountain villages would offer sacrifices to, to ensure and protect their livestock and harvest.

Tall Man Spirit

Also known as: Big Man, Stick Men, Stovepipe Hat Bigfoot, Tall Man, Walking Sam

The Tall Man Spirit is a dark figure from Native American beliefs, particularly of the Dakota and Lakota people in the state of South Dakota. The belief and stories surrounding the Tall Man date back decades if not centuries where it has become linked to the tragic history that many Native Americans have endured.

This tragic history is very prominently linked to in 1890, when the U.S. cavalry came in to put a stop to the spiritual movement known as the Ghost Dance. What would follow is a confrontation that led to U.S. soldiers open fired on unarmed Lakota Sioux, many of whom were women and children. This site would become known as the Battle of Wounded Knee. It would, a century later, be the site of a 1973 protest that would turn into a months-long standoff between Native American activists and law enforcement.

With this history, add to it the widespread poverty, homelessness, drug abuse, alcoholism, child abuse and other crimes such as rape and murder so prevalent on the Pine Ridge Reservation. It’s understandable that one of the most prevailing problems in Pine Ridge is that of suicide, especially among the youth, would, at the very least, see the personification of an entity called Tall Man Spirit or Walking Sam manifest.

Description

The Tall Man Spirit has been described as having a similar appearance to Slender Man and is likely one of many sources for Slender Man’s inspiration.  The Tall Man is said to be tall, exceeding seven feet in height, slender, long thin legs and arms, lacking a mouth and nose, and wears a black stove top hat. Much like Slender Man, Tall Man is said to have the ability to control people’s minds.

Other descriptions place the Tall Man as being between 12 and 15 feet in height, covered in hair, with red eyes and smelling horrific like a sewer. That sounds more like a classic description of Big Foot. Over among the Oglala Sioux, a very similar entity is mentioned, that has hooves.

Big Man – Going by the more correct translation of this entity, the Big Man spirit seems to be more of a local protector of the forest than any dark malevolent spirit tied to death. It seems to be more a spirit of the land. In that respect, it’s taking on a much darker aspect is likely just a reflection of the history and how it has affected the Lakota. As if a connection has deeply gone wrong and soured.

Slender Man – The figure of Slender Man is relatively new to the Urban Folklore landscape, making it a 21st century Bogeyman. This being’s first appearance was on June 10th of 2009, having been created by Eric Knudsen, using the name “Victor Surge” in the Something Awful forums for a photoshop contest. The idea had been to create an Urban Legend so believable it would take on a life of its own, which it certainly has. It has been noted, after researching The Tall Man Spirit, that Slender Man draws on a lot of the same imagery motifs.

Stovepipe Hat Bigfoot – This is one name for the Tall Man when people describe sightings of seeing it wearing clothing. Stovepipe Hat Bigfoot is notable for being mentioned around the Pine Ridge Reservation. As the name indicates, this is also people misidentifying Big Foot or Sasquatch with Tall Man.

Walking Sam – This is another name for the Tall Man Spirit as it is known around the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. It did make local news and even the New York Times a few years back in 2015 with a high rate of suicides occurring on the reservation, especially among the youth. As a result, Walking Sam is considered a suicide spirit, one that is rather dangerous.

There is one notable incident where several teenagers were planning a mass suicide. They had planned to head out to an area where there were mostly trees where they would hang themselves. The local pastor, John Two Bears learned of what was to happen and was able to head off this group attempt.

More modern manifestations of this entity show it making appearances on the internet, taking advantage of vulnerable people, particularly youth, telling them to end their life. Situations have to be particularly dire if it can seem capable to do that.

Walking Sam is reported to have the ability take control of peoples’ minds, telling them to kill themselves so that it can collect their soul that will then join the others hanging from his long, spindly arms. One comment made is that Walking Sam was sent to earth as punishment and by claiming the souls of suicides, it is looking for company.

“In The Spirit Of Crazy Horse”: Written by Peter Matthiessen in 1983, he makes mention of Walking Sam as a supernatural entity that is both spirit and real, able to slip through the forest as if the trees weren’t there.

Folklore & Urban Legend

At first glance, yes some could approach the story of the Tall Man Spirit as some sort of spooky campfire story told in the same vein as that of Bigfoot and other Urban Legends. It could explain too one name of “Stovepipe Hat Bigfoot” that I came across. That is a disservice to this entity and what it is. Unless you want to try diminishing it’s power by making light of it, to be less scary or intimidating.

It is very likely people have confused two different entities together based on possible mistranslations from the Sioux languages into English. In the Lakota or Western Sioux language, they call Big Foot by the name “chive-tanka” meaning Big or Great Elder Brother. In English, the term gets translated to be “the Big Man.” It’s easy to see why Big Foot hunters and enthusiasts would glom onto a potential mistranslation to embrace it.

On the Oglala reservation, sightings of Big Foot or Big Man are seen as ill omens and warnings of potential tragedies. Where there seems to be sightings and claims of more than one creature or entity, some have put forward the ideas that this entity is a local forest spirit and protector of the land.

Remembering to keep the two separate, Tall Man is found in older stories of bad spirits or giants that once wandered the Earth. They had become prideful and arrogant to the point that they challenged the thunder and lost to it.

Big Foot or Sasquatch by themselves are in an entirely different category belonging more towards cryptids and cryptozoology. The Tall Man Spirit fits more towards a broader category of supernatural beings like the Bogeyman and Shadow People. A portent of ill omen and tragedy.

Mind-Control

This is one of the powers attributed to the Tall Man Spirit, to make a person or even a group of people do things they normally would not otherwise. One of which is to whisper to people, commanding them to commit suicide.

I don’t know if I’d call that a power, as this entity, particularly Walking Sam seems to prey on and target those already vulnerable, feeling the extremes of depression, despair, powerlessness and hopelessness. That all it seems to do is give people that nudge to push them over in that direction.

Superstition

The belief in Tall Man is very prevalent on the Pine Ridge Reservation. While many will call it mere superstition that people use to blame the causes of suicide. The harsh reality is that even if the Tall Man is chalked up to superstition, what it represents or is a manifestation of, is not. Suicide is still a very real thing that many Lakota, especially their youth are having to confront with the deeply root despair, depression, and potentially overwhelming helplessness.

While it was easy to take apart Slender Man and analyze him, given how new to the folkloric and urban legend scene it is. Tall Man is harder as it’s had longer to seep deeper into a local region and people’s culture. Of course, it’s easy for the Tall Man spirit to seem as powerful as its portrayed when the helplessness and despair is that deeply rooted.

Nor does it help when some gruesome images associated with the Tall Man are that of nooses. Sheriffs, law enforcement and other people report having found them hanging from trees. Comparisons have been made to found footage films like Blair Witch Project. Even if we go with the simple explanation of someone leaving nooses to be found, another comparison is made to Japan’s infamous “suicide forest,” Aokigahara.

That is all rather disturbing.

Snarly Yow

Snarly Yow

Also known as: Black Dog, Dog-Fiend, the Werewolf, Vanishing Dog

The Snarly Yow is a local phantom Black Dog found in both Maryland and West Virginia folklore in the United States. Unlike the Black Dog of British folklore, the Snarly Yow is sometimes described not as black, but as a white, headless dog dragging a chain from its neck. It has a red mouth, glowing eyes and over-sized paws and known to be very intimidating in appearance. A few sightings will claim the beast stands on its hind legs or that it can change its size to that of a small pony.

Maryland Legend

The Snarly Yow is often found at a pass where the old National road crosses a brook and canyon. The first stories and sightings of the Snarly Yow date to 1790 where an Inn was built close by in Maryland. There are many stories of people encountering the Snarly Yow either while walking, driving, riding horseback where the phantom dog appears, follows along or chases after the car. Or just simply appears and vanishes. Variations to the stories will tell how the horse becomes spooked and throws the rider, how others have thrown sticks and rocks at the beast or even fired at with a firearm, only to have the objects pass through it. Every story ends with the Snarly Yow just vanishing before their eyes.

“South Mountain Magic” – A book written by Madeleine Vinton Dahlgren in 1882, collected many of these encounters. Dahlgren, a wealthy widow had a summer home on South Mountain where she made it her mission to collect local legends. The most striking feature of her book is that many of the stories about the Snarly Yow are all first-hand accounts ranging from a preacher, to a farmer’s wife and to a mountain man who have all had encounters with the beast.

Dahlgren’s book describes the Snarly Yow as an intimidating and imposing wolf-like creature that could change its size. A dark, black shadowy beast, it would mostly just block the path of any travelers coming through.

“Snarleyyow: or, the Dog-Fiend” – Is a high seas adventure novel written in 1837 by the British Naval Officer Frederick Maryatt. His book clearly features a similar large black dog known for being intimidating and formidable.

Civil War – The Civil War saw many battles, one of which, Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg, Maryland, that claimed over some 22,000 lives in one day of fighting. A number of ghost stories rose up surrounding this battle and the Snarly Yow is just one of many such phantoms to make their appearance.

A plaque located by the road near Boonsboro, MD for a local battle that happened at South Mountain reads:

 “Beware of the “Snarly Yow.” Legend has it that the shadow of a black dog used to prowl the heights of South Mountain. One night, a huntsman, famous as a sure shot, encountered the beast. He aimed and fired his rifle. The shot went right through the animal with no effect. He fired again and again, each shot passing through the shadowy beast. Finally overcome with dread, the huntsman fled.”

Turner’s Gap – A location near South Mountain, it is the sight of a Civil War battle known as “The Midnight Battle.” The Snarly Yow is known to appear here.

20th & 21st Century Encounters – Many of these stories revolve around the Snarly Yow, like any dog, either blocking the road or chasing cars that drive along National Road (Route 40). Drivers will stop, thinking they have hit the apparent dog, only to get out, find nothing is there and when they turn to get back in their vehicle, the Snarly Yow appears, baring its teeth at them before disappearing.

West Virginia Legend

The Snarly Yow is believed to roam the mountains and hills near Harpers Ferry, part of West Virginia’s Eastern Panhandle. The stories of the Snarly Yow here begin in the 1700’s when the first Germans settled in the Potomac Valley. The name comes from the Germanic words to describe this creature’s howls and wails.

Civil War – The Civil War saw many battles and the town of Harpers Ferry was greatly contested by both sides, often changing hands. The Snarly Yow, just like in Maryland, is just one of many such phantoms to make their appearance.

Most of the stories regarding the Snarly Yow tell how people have claimed to shot at or run over the creature. Then, either believing the apparent dog to be killed or injured, they discover, when looking back, that the creature standing nearby. A few people report having seen the Snarly Yow standing on it’s hind legs like a human. This ghost hound will appear out of thin air, alter its size and just as quickly as it appeared, vanish. Most often the Snarly Yow will appear along roadsides or in the middle of the road.

Other Areas

 Stories of the Snarly Yow have also extended its range to the Blue Ridge Mountains of Georgia and even Hillsboro, Virginia.

British Black Dog

In Europe, particularly in the UK for England and Scotland, there a lot of folklore regarding Black Dogs and several different such individual Black Dogs. Sightings of these dogs have been going on for over 400 years. In British folklore, seeing a Black Dog is often an omen of death. These Black Dogs are often found out in the wilderness along old roads, bridges and pathways. Sometimes the Black Dog is in association with a nearby graveyard that it protects. Like the Snarly Yow, the British Black Dogs have glowing red eyes, are large and able to change their size; suddenly appearing and vanishing. Most Black Dogs encountered in British folklore might protect a family or warn an individual of coming death; with some cases outright heralding it. While some Black Dogs are more vicious than others, it is only if they come into physical contact with someone that they attack, can the Black Dog cause harm in the way of paralysis, death and serious wounds.

The Snarly Yow differs from the British Black Dogs in that it is not an omen of death, it just seems to have a penchant for appearing, blocking the path of travelers as it scares them and then just vanishes. Other than getting startling and scaring people, the Snarly Yow hasn’t ever really hurt anyone, unless you count the time a rider got thrown from their spooked horse and broke their collar bone.

Fallout 76

The latest installment in this video game series is set in West Virginia. The game takes advantage of the state’s wealth of local urban legends, cryptozoology and folklore to adapt many monsters to the game’s post-apocalyptic setting. The Snarly Yow is just one of many such monsters found in the game.

Sheepsquatch

Sheepsquatch

Also Known As: Devil Dog, White Creature, White Devil, The White Thing

First off, I have to say it’s rather hard to take this particular cryptid seriously due to the name. That said, the Sheepsquatch or White Thing is an American cryptid that is found in the mountains of West Virginia in the United States. Some accounts hold The White Thing and Sheepsquatch as being two separate creatures, yet the descriptions or so similar, it’s likely they’re one and the same entity.

The creature, first known as The White Thing, makes its way into American folklore with the 1965 book: “The Telltale Lilac Bush and Other West Virginia Ghost Tales” by Ruth Ann Musick. A folklorist, Musick puts forth the idea that The White Thing has both a physical and phantom or spiritual presence.

As the White Thing gained in popularity and stories of it began to spread, it would later become known as Sheepsquatch, a name owing more to people trying to give it a name that is more accurately descriptive of what it looks like. An impossible hybrid of sheep and Sasquatch in the imaginations of some.

Description: The Sheepsquatch is often described as having dog-like features, large like a bear with long, shaggy white or dirty white hair, goat-like horns and a large fanged mouth. The front paws as being paw-like hands such as those of a raccoon and even a long ringed tailed like a raccoon’s. Much like the previous raccoon description and those of bears, the Sheepsquatch can move about either on two or four legs. It’s reported to be incredibly fast with lightning speed and a scream like a woman. Mountain Lions are also known to have a scream like a woman. The creature is often spotted racing through the forests and down to river banks to drink.

That tends to be more the original description. Later accounts vary and seem to have altered what the creature looks like. These later descriptions give it a humanoid big foot or demonic appearance. Some will say it’s just a large unknown mountain cat. Further reports say the creature has too many legs, that it has four eyes, that the eyes are red, in addition to large fangs, it has large claws, that its tail is long and hairless like a possum.

These later altering descriptions certainly give the idea that people might be misidentifying what creature they’re seeing, or they may have heard a vague name from somewhere and are describing what they think they saw. West Virginia does have a lot of cryptids in its local lore, so is there a different cryptid being seen or an ordinary animal getting misidentified?

Phantom Creature – People further describe the Sheepsquatch as being very blood thirsty and will attack without any provocation. What marks the Sheepsquatch as being a potential phantom creature is that people will say they’ve been attacked by it and can feel the monster sinking its fangs into them. When the attack is over, to the person’s shock and surprise, there isn’t a mark on their body.

Now, if the creature were real, it would need to have a reason to attack, the simplest being it’s protecting its territory, or it’s sick or just possibly learned to become aggressive if enough people are out there hunting it and not leaving it alone.

Sulfur – The smell of sulfur follows it and can be indicator that a Sheepsquatch is nearby. The smell of sulfur is attributed to the TNT Area of Mason County where it is said to have originated. It’s possible that this sulfur smell is nothing more than the animal’s musk.

Incidentally, the TNT Area of Mason County is also the same place that Mothman is from.

Cherokee Legend

To try and give this cryptid any historical accuracy; Cherokee lore is brought up about white wolves. How a white wolf is an omen of magic and premature death. Overtime, the white wolf becomes a white dog in Appalachian lore. This large white dog is described as having matted, unkempt fur and a powerful build. The dog will appear alongside roads and follow a person home where it will sit far enough away from the house and wait. This dog seems to be wait for when a death occurs, only appearing to a person about ready to die. Sometimes this death occurs within a few days or up to a couple weeks and sometimes those close to the person will also die. The rest of the time, the dog remains invisible.

Black Dog

The above legend sounds very much like the British folklore of Black Dogs and how they are an omen of death. Most Black Dogs encountered in British folklore might protect a family or warn an individual of coming death with some cases outright heralding it.

Cemeteries – Like the Black Dog, some Sheepsquatch seem to be connected to cemeteries and those ones seen, are a death-omen.

Sightings

Kanawha Valley – This is generally the location for the majority of The White Thing or Sheepsquatch sightings. The Kanawha Valley and its surrounding mountains, river and many branching streams and creeks seems to be an ideal place for such a creature to exist.

The creature has also been spotted in other counties of: Boone, Mason and Putnam. All areas located to the west and southwestern West Virginia. The mid-1990’s saw a rash of sightings of this creature near Cross Lanes, West Virginia.

1973 Point Pleasant, West Virgina – In July, in the TNT area of Point Pleasant, where the Mothman sightings are to have occurred, a white creature was reported seen. In 1994, a twenty-eight-year-old man reported how he was seven years old at the time, had seen a white shaggy haired creature whose head was three feet wide. This creature suddenly appeared alongside the car he was riding in with his family. He says the creature floated through the air, keeping pace with the car at 65 miles an hour.

1994 Point Pleasant, West Virgina – A group of women were driving cautiously along on a particularly icy road near the TNT area. The women report seeing a large, seven or eight tall creature stepped out of the woods ahead of them on the road. They describe the creature as having white shaggy hair with a prominent snout, ram-like horns and standing upright like a human. The creature froze for a moment when the headlights of the car shone on it before taking off running back into the forest.

1994 Mason County – A former Navy Seaman by the name of Edward Rollins reports having witnessed the White Thing appear in the forest. Rollins had been out in search of another West Virginian cryptid, the Mothman. Only instead of Mothman, it was the White Thing that Rollins encountered.

Rollins was out in an area near Bethel Church Road when the White Thing is to have exited the forest, coming down to a creek where it drank before crossing over the creek and moving on towards a nearby road. Rollins notes the creature had a sulfurous smell to it and believes the smell is just likely due to the lingering waste and pollution from when explosives used to be manufactured in the area.

1994 Boone County – The same year as the previous account, two children report having seen the Sheepsquatch while out playing in their yard. The two describe the creature as looking like a large white bear, standing up on its back legs to tower some six feet in height. The creature was startled by the presence of the children and took off back towards the forest.

1995 Boone County – In this sighting, a couple were driving when they spotted a large white beast sitting in a ditch by the roadside. Curious, the couple slowed their car to get a better look as they passed by. The couple describes the creature as having four eyes. Unlike other incidents where the Sheepsquatch ran away, this time, the creature attacked the car. Frightened, the couple drove away quickly. Once back home, that’s when they noticed the large scratches on the side of the car where the creature attacked.

1999 Boone County – This time around it’s campers out in the forest at night. As the group is sitting around their campfire, they hear an animal snorting and scuffling, much like what is thought of when a bear is nearby. Initially, the creature didn’t come into the light of the fire, then suddenly it charges the group. The campers jump up and run back towards their homes, the whole time being chased by whatever it is. The White Thing stops at the edge of the forest when the groups flees the tree line. The thing let out a loud scream before turning to retreat back into the woods. In the morning, when the group returned to their campsite, they found it all torn up. The commentary given is that it looked “like someone had tilled it up for gardening.”

2011 Patrick County – This story takes place in June, posted on June 11th and is to have happened in Fairy Stone State Park. A woman identifying herself as “Teena” tells how she was out hiking a few weeks ago with a friend. They had been out for about an hour when the friend stops and points towards a large group of rocks. There was something moving, but it had been too far away to see it clearly. As the two walked closer, they got a better look at what looked like a medium-sized bear with light colored fur, almost yellowish gray, the head was unusual too. The pair immediately left and went for home.

2015 Fulks Run, Virginia – This story claims to be the most recent sighting of the creature, this time in the Appalachian forests. Another group of campers reports having seen the creature. It stood about 8-9 feet tall and with shoulders some 4-5 feet wide. One camper reports seeing it at the top of a hill, crouching down. When the camper stood to alert the others, the creature started running towards the group. Fortunately, a river separated the group of campers from the creature and they report how the creature looked for a way to cross the river before wading across. When the creature got closer, the group describes it as being like a bipedal dog with wet fur. A loud gut-wrenching screech was heard that campers said sound about two miles away from their location. The creature got a look of shock to its face before whimpering and turning to run away, opposite of the sound that was made. As for the campers, they quickly packed camp and left, reporting their story to the locals instead of the authorities. The identity of the campers remains unknown.

Sweet Home Alabama

West Virginia isn’t the only place that The White Thing has been encountered. The people of Alabama, particularly around Argo and Trussville, tell of a 150-year-old legend of the White Thing of Happy Hollow that has been sighted for generations along this stretch of road. It is described as being man height, furry and white with sharp claws capable of scraping bark of trees and a shrill cry like a baby’s or a woman in distress. This beast is notorious for mutilating livestock. This White Thing is noted as looking more like a white or albino Sasquatch.

Possible Reality

It’s very likely, with some of the varying descriptions of the Sheepsquatch that people are misidentifying what they’re really seeing. Anything from ordinary animals like dogs, wolves and mountain lions to practical jokers dressed in costume looking to scare the tar out of campers and passersby.

Ice-Age Survivor – One idea put forward is that it could be Panthera Atrox or the American Cave Lion, a now extinct animal. If there were such an Ice-Age Survivor, it could be this animal that’s being seen.

Misidentified Animals – This is always a strong likelihood. Especially for any reported sightings of Sheepsquatch that try to describe it as being a feline or smaller like a dog. They might have seen an albino animal and with that fear of the unknown, some people tend to be rather confused and easily persuaded by the power of suggestion to misidentify what they saw.

Practical Jokers – And of course, as Sheepsquatch seems to clearly be in that realm of spooky campfire stories to tell people, I wouldn’t put it past someone to go scare the living tar out of a group of campers who will then run off to report having been terrorized by Sheepsquatch again.

Reality T.V.

Sheepsquatch has featured on a couple of different Reality T.V. shows that claim to be exploring the unknown and searching for evidence of mysterious cryptids and urban legends.

Monsters and Mysteries in America – In 2013, on the Destination channel, an episode of this show featured two hunters who claimed to encounter a nine-foot tall creature with white fur and long talons. The hunters shot at the apparent monster before it fled but were either unable to hit it or their firearms just didn’t affect the creature.

Mountain Monsters – In 2014, on the Destination channel, this show featured a video taken by a person claiming to have seen Sheepsquatch attack a pile of lumber.

Having seen that episode clip, wrong color.

Fallout 76 – The latest installment in this video game series is set in West Virginia. The game took advantage of the state’s wealth of local urban legends, cryptozoology and folklore to adapt many monsters to the game’s post-apocalyptic setting. The White Thing is just one of many such monsters found in the game.

Ufology & Mothman

The Mothman sightings were very prominent in the 1960’s and the spate of sightings for Sheepsquatch seem occur in the mid-1990’s. Most of which were all around the Cross Lanes section of West Virginia with a couple in Point Pleasant’s TNT Area. For those who readily believe and want to make connections, it’s easy to continue to attach a connection of the two entities. West Virginia does have a wealth of local folklore and monsters to draw upon.

Modern Folklore & Urban Legend

This particular post for me really feels as if all I’ve done is take two different cryptids in the way of “White Thing” and “Sheepsquatch” and mushed them together.

And it feels that way when starting with “The White Thing’s” first appearance in American folklore as a potential campfire ghost story. Whose early description and what it means; has a strong feeling of being the adaptation of British folklore with Black Dogs being brought by early British settlers, bringing along their beliefs. It’s possible that when hearing the local native folklore about white wolves and death-omens, the two just blended together.

Now somewhere along the line, due to the increasing popularity of Sasquatches or Bigfoot and the belief in mysterious unknown hominids still living in the wilds, somebody heard about The White Thing, heard its description and dubbed it Sheepsquatch. Once it gets that name, the creature moves away from its Black Dog, ghost story roots to the campfire quality stories of telling Bigfoot stories to scare people. Of course, because of the origin of West Virginia and Mothman, a lot of people into Fortean Phenomenon and chasing Ufos also glom onto the lore of Sheepsquatch.

You can see how there’s slightly, alternating descriptions from different accounts and sightings of Sheepsquatch and how it seems to be gaining in size, going from 6-7 feet to the latest reality T.V. show claiming sightings having it at 9 feet tall. It’s the fish story that just keeps getting bigger!

The description and location of where The White Thing and Sheepsquatch are found is what really puts it to mind for me they’re one and the same creature getting described. Like any good story, they do have a way of taking on a life of their own.

Mamlambo

Mamlambo

Other Names – “the Brain Sucker”

In the Zulu mythology of South Africa, Mamlambo is a large serpentine river goddess as well as a goddess of beer. In some legends, Mamlambo appears during lightning storms.

For the Xhosa of South Africa, the Mamlambo is a giant river snake that will bring good fortune to the one who can claim it. Witch doctors are believed to use Mamlambo to extract revenge on their enemies.

Goddess Of Beer!

Yes, beer. This aquatic, serpentine deity is also known for brewing beer. This is a job that women in many Southeast African tribes do.

Cryptozoology

Mamlambo’s myth entered the realm of cryptozoology in 1997 when various South African newspapers began reporting sightings of a “giant reptile” monster in the Mzintlava River (also known as the Umzimhlava River) near Mount Ayliff in South Africa. The reports also mention how between 7-9 people and even a number of animals were all killed by this monster by dragging its victims underwater and drowning them. After which, the Mamlambo would suck out the blood and brains of the victims, earning it the name of “the Brain Sucker.”

Description

There are a few different accounts what Mamlambo is to look like.

One version has the creature being some 20 meters (67 feet) long, with the torso of a horse and lower body of a fish, short legs and neck of a snake. That it also shone green at night. Some have commented that this description fits that of a Mosasaur, a variety of giant marine reptiles that went extinct with the dinosaurs.

A slight variation to this description says the Mamlambo is half-fish, half-horse with short stumpy legs, crocodilian body and the head and neck of a snake. This version of the description also says the Mamlambo has a hypnotic gaze that it uses to lure its victims to a watery grave. Much like crocodiles do, the Mamlambo is able to leave the water to snag its potential victims that come to close to the water. The Mamlambo is also believed to glow an eerie bioluminescent green when it is dark.

Possible Reality Behind The Myths

In April of 1997, there had nine bodies found in the Mzintlava River. According to local police, all of the bodies had been in the water for a long time, long enough for scavengers such as crabs to come and eat the soft parts of the heads and necks. When the bodies were pulled from the water, river crabs were still clinging to the bodies. The local villagers on the other hand insist that these mutilations are the result of the Mamlambo eating people’s faces and then sucking out their brains.

Another idea put forward is that the Mamlambo may be an elasmosaur-like animal an ancient type of archaeocete from the cetacean evolutionary branch. Basically, a member of the whale family before whale legs became flippers.

Cryptid Cousins

Brosno Dragon – Or Brosnya, is a Russian Lake Monster that some have described as being a mutant beaver or a giant pike that’s around 100-150 years old.

Dobhar-Chú – A cryptid from Irish folklore described as being a water hound and known for dragging victims to a watery death.

Each-Uisge – A Scottish shape-shifting water horse, that much like the Irish Kelpie is known for drowning victims.

Glashtyn – Or Cabyll-Ushtey, it is a shape-shifting goblin that inhabits of the waterways in Manx, one of it’s favored forms is that of a horse.

Kelpie – A water horse, this is another creature from Irish folklore known for its shape-shifting abilities and drowning victims.

Lau – A dinosaur-like lake monster with tentacles from Sudan.

Loch Ness Monster – A similar aquatic and serpentine creature found in Scotland.

Mahamba – A reptilian cryptid from the Congo, it is often described as being similar to a giant crocodile or thought to be a fresh water living fossil mosasaur.

Mokele-Mbembe – A famous reptilian cryptid from the Congo described as looking a sauropod and herbivore in nature.

Reality T.V.

The Mamlambo has indeed featured on an episode of the SyFy channel’s Destination Truth.

Amarok

Amarok
Alternate Spelling: Amaroq

Also known as: Great Wolf

In Inuit mythology, Amarok is the name of a gigantic, monstrous wolf. There is another wolf entity, Amaguq who is a Trickster deity. While very similar and from the same culture, neither Amarok nor Amaguq are the same being.

Amarok is said to hunt down and devour those who are foolish enough to go out hunting alone at night. Unlike other wolves who hunt in packs, the Amarok is a lone hunter.

Folk Lore & Legends

* One particular legend of Amarok is that of a young boy who was physically stunted and was hated by his village. Wanting to improve his strength, the young boy called out to the Lord of Strength. At his call, an Amarok appeared and proceeded to knock the boy to the ground with its tail.

This act caused a number of small bones to fall from the boy’s body. The Amarok told the boy that these bones had prevented his growth and that he needed to return daily in order to increase his strength. The boy did so and after several days of meeting with the Amarok and wrestling him, he gained enough strength that he was able to beat three large bears and win the prestige and esteem of his people.

* Another legend tells that Amarok came when the caribou had become so numerous that many were becoming sick and weakening from the lack of food. Amarok began hunting the weak and sick caribou so that the herd was strong and healthy again.

* Yet another story goes that a man, who mourned the death of a relative of his, had heard that an amarok was close by. Deciding to seek out the amarok’s lair, the man took another family member with him.

Once the two had found the amarok’s lair, they found it had pups and they proceeded to kill all of them. The deed done, the man’s family member became frightened and the two fled to go hide in a cave.

From the cave’s entrance, they could see the amarok returning with food for its pups. When the amarok couldn’t find its pups, it ran to a lake nearby and began to pull something human-shaped up out of the water. At the same time, the man fell dead at his relative’s feet.

It is believed that the amarok took the man’s soul from his body as “nothing remains concealed” from the amarok and no matter how far away the man hid or ran, it would extract revenge for the death of its pups.

There are many stories where an amarok kills or captures people.

Cryptozoology & Possible Prehistoric Connections

In his book “Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo,” the author Hinrich Rink makes note that the native Greenlanders use the term “amarok” to refer to a large “fabulous” animal. Other tribes living in the Arctic use the term “amarok” to refer to a wolf.

The stories surrounding Amarok and his description sound plausible enough to some that he may have a real world basis.

Dire Wolf – These Ice Age predators lived some 1.8 million years to 10,000 years ago. They like so many of the Pleistocene megafauna died out during the end of the last Ice Age. Its very possible that the ancestors to the Inuits passed on stories of dire wolves as their descriptions are similar to that of Amarok with being large (five feet long) wolves.

Hyaenodon – Another Ice Age predator, they were the early ancestors to modern hyenas with the largest being the Hyaenodon giga. It has been suggested by some that stories of Amarok may be stories of this creature.

Shunka Warakin – For those who follow cryptozoology, among the Iowa tribes (part of the Sioux), the name means “carries off dogs.” Like the Amarok, it is described as being a large wolf-like animal of Native American folklore.

Waheela – Another cryptozoology candidate, Amarok is sometimes seen as being the same as a creature known as a Waheela. Stories of the Waheela are found in the Northwestern part of Canada. They are also a wolf-like creature similar to the Amarok.

Personally, I think the Dire Wolf is the most likely candidate for any real world or historical basis and truth to the Amarok. The Waheela and Shunka Warakin are also likely when seen as possibly being the same animal, just a different name.

Yehasuri

Yehasuri
Alternate Spellings: Yenosu’riye, Yehasu’rie

Also known as: Wild Indians, Little Wild Indians, Wild People, Not Human Ones

Etymology – “wild little people”

Pronunciation: yay-hah-soo-ree

The Yehasuri are a race of small (roughly two feet tall), hairy humanoids from the Catawba legends of South Carolina in the United States.

It is said that the Yehasuri live in tree stumps and eat a variety of different things like acorns, roots, frogs, fungi, turtles, and insects to name a few.

While Yehasuri are not known for being dangerous, they are known for pulling a lot of mischievous pranks and tricks. Some of these pranks include: stealing children’s footprints and shadows, outright kidnapping children, tying people by the hair to trees, undoing people’s work if they aren’t properly respect or avoided. Sometimes these pranks can get rather destructive.

It seems to be that Catawba parents use stories of Yehasuri, portraying them as a type of bogeyman, to keep children in line and from misbehaving themselves.

Protection from Yehasuri

The only way to stop the Yehasuri is to rub tobacco on your hands and to say an ancient Catawba prayer:

“dugare ini para’ti na yehasuri deme hana te we stere yanamusi sere.”

Other precautions against Yehasuri were to make sure that nothing is left out where they can’t mess with things, bringing in clothing at night, sweeping away the tracks and foot prints of children before night and avoiding potential places in the forest where they might be encountered.