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Category Archives: Challenge

Zmeu

ZmeuOther names: smeu, zmei (plural) and zmeoaică or zmeoaice (feminine)

Etymology – Dragon, Snake or Serpent

The Zmeu is a draconic being found in Romanian folklore and is often compared to other supernatural creatures such as the balaur, a type of dragon and the vârcolac, a werewolf. Due to the similarity of names, the Zmeu resembles the Slavic dragons, Zmej in their ability to fly and breathe fire.

Unlike other dragons, the Zmeu is often described as having anthropomorphic features as it is very human-like having arms and legs and is able to use or create human-like tools. It is also anthropomorphized due to the Zmeu’s desire to marry human maidens.

Dacian Etymology, Origins & Disputes

The biggest problem with trying to prove a connection to the Dacian-Thracian languages is due to a lack of written language from them and only a handful of words are known for certain. And it gets argued that Zmeu is not of Dacian origins. Instead, the word “Zmei” or “Zmeu” is of Russian, Bulgarian and Serbian origins. In all of these languages, “Zmei” means “snake.” The argument further continues that “Zmei” is of Slavic origin and comes from the Slavic word for earth, “Zemia.” The Proto-Slavic root is “zm” or “zum” So Zmei means a snake or an animal that lives close to the ground or earth, “Zemia.”

Paliga – The linguist, Sorin Paliga, believes that the word Zmeu and the very similar Slavic word Zmey may have come from the Dacian language. He even tries extensively to connect the word to the Romanian word for Earth and Subterranean features. Since then, Paliga’s idea have become contested and disputed.

English – Not really a linguist connection other than how the word translates. The name Zmeu is sometimes translated to refer to a type of ogre or giant due to the Zmeu’s tendency to kidnap a young maiden to be his wife in an otherworldly realm.

Romanian – Another source for the etymology of Zmeu is suggesting a relation to the Romanian word zmeura, meaning “raspberry.” It has been suggested that this may indicate a double meaning for the name Zmeu and is indicator of its true nature and color as a red colored dragon. Additionally, the name Zmeu also refers to a children’s kite. The folklore for Zmeu is also very similar to folklore found in Bulgaria.

Folklore And Legend

In many of the Romanian and Bulgarian stories, the Zmeu is a fierce being known for its cunning, intelligence and dangerous, destructive levels of greed and selfishness. Some of the stories told about the Zmeu, they appear in the sky like a dragon, flying and breathing out a gout of fire. Other stories make mention of the Zmeu having a magical gemstone in its head that shines as brightly as the sun. Aside from its tremendous supernatural strength, the Zmeu is also capable of great feats of magic that can allow it to steal the sun and moon from the sky.

The stories also go on to tell how the Zmeu can shapeshift into human form or as various, different animals. The Zmeu’s natural form is that of a dragon, specifically an anthropomorphized dragon man.

Like many dragons in European folklore, the Zmeu is particularly fond of beautiful young maidens, whom it kidnaps and carries way to its otherworldly realm. And also like in much of European folklore, the maiden is often rescued by a brave prince or knight-errant who manages to defeat the Zmeu.

Many Romanian stories depict the Zmeu as the destructive forces of greed and selfishness incarnated. The Zmeu will steal something of immense value that only the Romanian “Fat-Frumos” or “Prince Charming,” a literal translation is “handsome youth” who will be the only one who that can retrieve this valuable object back through his acts of great, selfless bravery. Often times, the Zmeu lives in an otherworldly realm, Celalalt Tarâm where Fat-Frumos must travel to in order to battle with the Zmeu. With descriptions of the Zmeu’s lair being dark, its often thought to imply that the Zmeu lives underground.

Ballad Of The Knight Greuceanu – In this story, the Zmeu steals the sun and moon from the sky and thus envelopes all of the earth and humankind under a cloak of darkness.

Prâslea The Brave And The Golden Apples – In this story, the Zmeu robs a king of his golden apples. This story that has been remarked to bear similarities to the German Fairy Tale of “The Golden Bird,” the Russian story of “Tsarevitch Ivan, The Fire Bird And The Gray Wolf” and the Bulgarian folktale of “The Nine Peahens And The Golden Apples.” In the later stories, the thief is a bird, though in some retellings of the Romanian tale, the Zmeu transforms into a bird in order to steal the apples.

Moldavian Vampire!?!

In Moldavia, the Zmeu is a vampiric or Incubus type figure. It will take the form of a flame and enter the room of a young woman or widow. Once in the room, the flame then becomes a man who seduces the woman.

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Achimi

Achimi

Among the Kabyle people of Algeria on the African Continent, Achimi is a Buffalo god. He is the son of Itherther and Thamuatz, the first creatures living on earth. Between Achimi and his father Itherther, they helped in the first humans’ development of hunting and eating meat.

Achimi was known for being wild and adventurous. So much so, that Achimi eventually left his parents to go out on his own.

In his wanderings, Achimi came across a village that had been built by the first humans. The humans of this village nearly got him

At some point during his escape from the villagers, a bee told Achimi how it would be a much better and easier life for him to be domesticated by humans as they would care and provide for him and protect him from predators such as lions.

A slight variation to this is that instead of a bee, it is an ant who tells Achimi all about how to have the easy life. All Achimi has to do is be domesticated by humans and he’ll have it made. Sure it will be short, but it will be comfortable.

But if he wants a long life and one full of freedom, the Achimi needs to avoid getting caught by the humans and domesticated. The downside being, that there would be times that Achimi would go hungry.

Stubborn as ever in his youth, Achimi refused the “advice” of the bee (or the ant) and went off in his own ways, bound and determined to maintain a life of freedom and independence.

Eventually Achimi returned to where his herd roamed. In his absence, his father and mother had had another calf, a younger sister to Achimi. This enraged Achimi and he challenged his father for dominance of the herd. His father ousted, Achimi proceed to mate with his mother and sister. Back to the other variation of this story with the ant, it had told Achimi he could take over the herd, usurping his father and mating with his mother and sister.

Time moves on and Achimi mated with his mom and sister to create a herd of buffalo. And, as time does, Achimi got old and a time came that the herd was cold, hungry and experiencing a lot of suffering. Remembering what the bee (or ant) had told him, Achimi decided to lead his herd to where the village was and allowed the humans there to tame and domesticate them, living an easy and short life from then on.

I’m sure such a story seems great from the human perspective, domestication and herding of cattle for an easy source of food.