Category Archives: Architecture
Pronounced: koo l-ah
In Mesopotamian mythology, Kulla is the god of bricks and construction, the divine builder. He was responsible for the restoration of temples as well.
Enki And The World Order
The earliest mention of Kulla is from this Sumerian myth in the first dynasty of Isin. In this story, Enki puts Kulla in charge of the pickaxe and brick-mold.
Kulla was created by Ea when he pinched off a piece of clay from the primeval ocean. This part of the story is mentioned in part of the ritual used for restoring a temple, when the god Anu created the heavens.
Kulla, along with Mušdam, the divine architect would be invoked at the start of any construction when the foundation of a building was being laid out.
Laying The Foundation
The proper time to begin laying down the foundation of a house is at sunrise. At this time, a basin of holy water is set up in which silver, gold, juniper, syrup, ghee and press oil are placed within. A ritual arrangement for the gods Ea, Shamash and Asalluhi is done followed up by a sacrifice.
For this, an adagurru-container is set up and then another ritual arrangement for the god is done. A ram is sacrificed over the foundation trench and syrup, beer, wine, oil and oil of the highest quality is poured out in libation over and into the foundations.
The incantation for the Laying of the Foundation is as follows:
“Kulla the Brick God) Lord of Foundation and Wall – oh you! X, son of X, who is building this house, by your command, by your word may he prosper! Because you are merciful, I have turned to you, because you are merciful, I seek you! The house he has built may last for a long time. This evil of the house […], you avert death, loss and evil deed from this house. At your sublime command, which cannot be altered, and by your firm consent, which cannot be changed, may X, son of X, live, prosper and sing your praises.”
The first two X’s refers to the name of who is heading the construction and building of the house. The second two X’s refer to the future owner of the house that’s being built.
The translation of the cuneiform is also not complete and there’s been good guesses to what is meant and how it should translate.
As the incantation is given, the following items will be scattered in the foundation trenches or in between gaps of the first layer of bricks before the foundation is laid. These items are: arsuppu-grain, garden-pea, wheat, grain at its highest growth, emmer, seed of all kinds, silver, gold, carnelian, lapis lazuli, juniper, juniper seed, the fragrant plant sumlalu, fragrant balluku-wood, sweet reed, a white cloth, a black cloth, a linen cloth and a red cloth.
Once this is done, the invoker then leaves the site. The idea is that the evil or negative energy in having disturbed the ground for building the house is taken removed. At this time, the house will gain a protective deity and a protective genius and that the proprietor or owner of the house will grow old as in have a good, long life.
Restoring A Temple
The ritual used for restoring a temple is described as needing a favorable day when the foundation is opened for laying down bricks. Offerings to Kulla were set up using a censor of juniper, the libation of fine beer, scattering pressed-out sesame, cedar resin, cypress oil, honey, milk, wine, an assortment of stone, silver, gold and various aromatics are also given to the River god. A ram was also sacrificed and its blood poured into the foundation.
Once the construction of a building was finished, both Kulla and Mušdam would then be banished in a rather elaborate incantation series of rituals. I find it interesting that it is mentioned Kulla is exorcised like some unwanted spirit and that these rituals were part of a curriculum that exorcists learned.
It was very important that at the completion of any construction to prevent Kulla’s presence from requiring that any further building be done and needed construction elsewhere was neglected.
Exorcising Kulla From A Newly Built House
One version of this exorcism of Kulla has him driven away where he is unceremoniously loaded up onto a boat and banished to the netherworld. Afterwards, the construction crew were forbidden from entering the newly constructed building for a period of three days. The tablets, 14 in total, seven on the right side and seven on the left are thrown into the river.
The incantation for this exorcism of Kulla is as follows:
“Kulla, you are torn out, driven away and expelled. Kulla, you are conjured by heaven and you are conjured by the netherworld, you are conjured by Ea and Marduk, you are conjured by Duri and Dari, you are conjured by Lahma and Lahama, you are conjured by Alala and Belili, you are conjured by the gods residing in heaven, you are conjured by the gods residing in the netherworld! You are conjured by the Apsû, you are conjured by the gods residing on the Sacred Mount! You shall be torn out, you shall go away, you shall depart, you shall withdraw, you shall move out! I conjure you by Ekur and Gar – you shall never return!”
An alternative to this is that Kull and Mušdam would be thanked for their help and asked to depart the completed construction site.