Category Archives: Arabian

Hyades

Hyades

Etymology – In Ancient Greek: Ὑάδες “the rainy ones.” The Greek word: hyein – “to rain.” It may also come from the Greek word hys or hus for “swine.” Latin – Suculae, “Suckling-pigs” or “little pigs.”

In Greek mythology, the Hyades are the five daughters of Atlas as well as the half-sisters of the Pleiades. As minor goddesses or nymphs, they are associated with bringing rain and stormy weather.

Western Astronomy Read the rest of this entry

Cygnus

Cgynus

Etymology – Swan

Also known as: The Northern Cross, Ornis (Greek “bird”)

The constellation of Cygnus, the Swan is considered one of the most recognizable constellations in the night sky, particularly during the summer and autumn in the Northern Hemisphere.

To the Greeks, this constellation was known as Ornis, meaning “bird.” It was later named Cygnus by the Romans who proceeded to adapt several Greek myths to try and explain the name or connection.

While there are many people in Greek mythology who bear the name of Cycnus, the constellation of Cygnus is also associated with several stories. One of the more well known stories is that of the god Zeus and his transformation into a swan to try and seduce Leda or in some variations, Nemesis. Another well known story connected to this constellation is that of the story of Phaethon and his friend Cycnus.

Western Astronomy

The constellation known as Cygnus is one of 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy in his book, Almagest. Today it remains as one of the 88 current or modern constellations. It is a large constellation, ranking 16th in size. Pseudo-Eratosthenes and Hyginus’ Poetical Astronomy are the earliest sources of Greek astronomy and constellations that make the connection of the story of Zeus and Leda with his transformation into a swan.

Constellations bordering with Cycgnus are: Cepheus, Draco, Lyra, Vulpecula, Pegasus and Lacerta, The best time to spot Cygnus is during the month of September in the Northern Hemisphere.

Arabic Astronomy

Many of the older, traditional names for the star in Cygnus such as Albireo, Deneb, Rukh and Sadr clearly point towards a Middle Eastern connection. In Arabia, the constellation was known as: Al Ta’ir al Arduf, “the Flying Eagle.” Other names include Al Ta’ir al Arduf, Al Radif and Al Dajajah “the Hen.”

They clearly saw a bird, sometimes said to be an Eagle or Pigeon, but frequently, as the traditional names point to, a Hen.

The Arabs also have an asterism called Al Fawaris or “the Riders” that’s found within Cygnus.

Chinese Astronomy & Mythology

The constellation of Cygnus lays in the area of the night sky symbolized by The Black Tortoise of the North or Běi Fāng Xuán Wǔ. Modern Chinese has adopted the name of tiān é zuò, meaning “the swan constellation.”

The Chinese also know the constellation of Cygnus as Que Qiao, the “magpie bridge.” In the story associated with it, there was a pair of lovers, Niu Lang (a Shepherd) and Zhi Nu (a Weaver) who were separated by the Goddess of Heaven because Zhi Nu is a fairy and due to celestial decrees and mandates, wasn’t allowed to be with a mortal.

When the Goddess learned that the two were secretly married, she took Zhi Nu with her up into the heavens and created a river, represented by the Milky Way in the sky to keep the two separated.

Niu Lang was still determined and took his and Zhi Nu’s two children to Heaven so they could all be together. The Goddess however still forbade the two lovers to be together but on seeing their bitter tears, she relented and allowed that once a year, on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month the two could be reunited. So once a year, all the magpies in the world come together to form a bridge over the river and help the two lovers unite and see each other. The star Deneb in the story either marks the start of the bridge or represents a fairy who chaperones the two lovers when they meet.

The Qixi Festival, also known as the Qiqiao Festival and Double Seventh Festival and even the Magpie Festival commemorates the joyful reunion of these two lovers. It is a variable holiday held on the 7th day of the 7th lunar month in China. It is celebrated and observed in a couple other countries like Japan as Tanabata in Korea as Chilseok. It is a festival and holiday comparable to the European celebration of Valentine’s Day.

The legend of Niu Lang and Zhi Nu is one of four folk legends regarding love and romance. Young girls pray to Zhi Nu for skillful hands for sewing and young newly weds will worship this celestial couple and bid them farewell before moving on in their own marriage and happiness. Now days though, young people tend to favor the Western celebration of Valentine’s Day more then the Qixi Festival though their story is still told and passed on.

Polynesian Astronomy

In Tonga, Cygnus is known as Tuula-lupe. The Tuamotus called it Fanui-raro or Fanui-tai. The star Deneb is also given the name of Fanui-tai. The star Gamma Cygni is called Fanui-runga. In New Zealand, it is known as Mara-tea. The star Beta Cygni was likely called Whetu-kaupo. In the Society Islands, it is known as Pirae-tea or Taurua-i-te-haapa-raa-manu.

Zeus And Leda

One of the more well known stories connected to the Cygnus constellation is the story of Zeus disguising himself as a swan in order to seduce Leda. In this guise, Zeus behaved much like a swain, which means a lover or wooer.

Leda was the wife of the Spartan King Tyndareus. She’s known for giving birth to two sets of twins; the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), and Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra. When Leda laid with Zeus, their union produced an egg. Later that night, when she laid with her lawful husband Tyndareus, their union resulted in another egg. The immortal twins Pollux and Helen are said to have been fathered by Zeus while the mortal twins Castor and Clytemnestra were fathered by Tyndareus.

Zeus And Nemesis

A variation to the above myth is that instead of Zeus seducing Leda, he seduces Nemesis, the goddess of divine justice and retribution. She was also the goddess of the Pelopennesian cult. Other sources are more clear that Nemesis lived in Rhamnus (located to the North-East of Athens) where this cult may have been. When Zeus went to seduce Nemesis, she changed herself into a variety of different animals before taking the form of a goose to escape him. Zeus continued to pursue Nemesis, each time taking the form of a larger, swifter animal until he turned into a swan before he was able to catch and rape her.

A variation of the story with Nemesis that’s told by Hyginus is that Zeus had turned himself into a swan and pretends to be escaping from an eagle. Nemesis protected the bird, offering sanctuary. It’s after words, when Nemesis has gone to sleep with the swan on her lap that she discovers the truth of who the bird really is.

In either version of the story told, Nemesis ends up laying an egg that she leaves in a swamp. This egg was found either by Hermes or a shepherd who brings it to Leda who keeps the egg in a chest until it hatches. It is from this egg that Helen of Troy is hatched. As a result of his success, Zeus placed an image of the swan up into the heavens.

Orpheus

The great musician Orpheus was said to have been turned into swan after being murdered by a group of Ciconian or Thracian Maenads. In this retelling of the story, Orpheus was placed up into the heavens as a swan next to his lyre, the constellation Lyra.

Cycnus And Phyllius

Another myth connected to this constellation is that of Cycnus and Phyllius. This Cycnus committed suicide and was turned into a swan after he was shamed and refused a tame bull that he demanded from Phyllius.

King Of Kolonai

Among many ancient Greek figures to have the name Cygnus or Cycnus, is a son of Poseidon and as well a king who fought in the Trojan war. He was killed by the hero Achilles on the first day and turned into a swan at his death by his father to save him.

The Death Of Phaethon

This story is perhaps the best known and most associated story to the Cygnus constellation.

Phaethon was the son of Clymene, whose husband was the Egyptian King Merops. Eventually, Clymene told Phaethon that Merops wasn’t his father and that it was the Sun-god Helios (or Apollo). Afterwards, Phaethon would boast and brag to his friends how his real father was a powerful god. Phaethon’s friends teased him and said he was lying. Hurt by this, Phaethon went to his mother Clymene, who then told him to go to the Sun-god and ask him yourself of the truth.

Helios was greatly pleased on seeing his son Phaethon and promised him anything that he asked for in order to prove to his friend who his father is. To Helios’ horror or dismay, Phaethon demanded to drive the Sun-chariot across the sky. Helios tried to dissuade Phaethon, telling him that driving the chariot was too dangerous for mortals, even demigods to drive. Unable to deter Phaethon, Helios relented, granting Phaethon his request.

Phaethon soon found himself loosing control of the chariot as the horses realized that someone new and inexperienced was holding the reigns. Like any such spirited animals who push to see how far they can go and do what they please, the horses took their own lead, racing across the sky towards the eastern horizon and heavens.

The horses’ uncontrolled pathway across the heavens left a scorch mark across the sky that became the Milky Way. The Earth became cold as the Sun-chariot was too high. As the horses continued their uncontrolled trek, they raced down close to the Earth, scorching the land across Africa and creating a great desert.

Making it worse, a frightened Phaethon saw the chariot racing towards a giant scorpion, the Scorpius constellation as the horses continued their uncheck race across the heavens. Pulling wildly on the reigns, Phaethon realized his folly and foolishness to not listen to his father.

To keep the Earth and Heavens from seeing more destruction from the out-of-control chariot, Zeus, the King of the Gods hurled one of his thunderbolts, striking Phaethon in the process. Phaethon’s body fell into the river Eridanus while the horses returned to their stables and back to Helios.

Phaethon’s friend or lover, Cycnus was so distraught over his death, that he went down to the river where he wept bitterly until the god Apollo took pity and turned Cycnus into a swan and eventually the gods decided to place him up into the heavens as the Cygnus constellation.

Another version to this story is that Phaethon and Cycnus were racing their respective chariots across the sky when they got too close to the Sun. Their chariots burned up and they fell to the Earth with Phaethon falling into the river Eridanus. When Cycnus came to and found where his friend was at, he dove in after to try and retrieve his friend’s body for burial and it’s from that action, that the gods or Apollo (sometimes its listed as Zeus) turn Cycnus into a swan and place him up into the heavens due to the level of grief Cycnus held and the gods sympathy and pity for him.

In other slight versions to this story, Cycnus is not only mentioned as a musician, but a King of the Ligurians. When Phaethon fell into the river Eridanus, Cycnus dove into the water, swimming back and forth searching for his friend’s body so he could bury them. Regardless of which variations of the story are retold and mentioned, Cycnus is still turned into a swan by the god Apollo and placed up into the heavens to form the Cygnus or Swan Constellation.

The Sons of Ares

There are two sons of Ares both of whom are named Cycnus. They often get confused together, though they both have in common getting killed by the hero Hercules and being turned into swans at their death.

Sacred Bird Of Apollo

While many deities have animals associated with them, Apollo is best known and associated with the swan. It was believed that large flocks of these birds could be found living on the mythical northern river of Eridanos in Hyperborea. These flocks were said to circle Apollo’s holy shrine, singing hymns. Another belief was that the people of Hyperborea, on reaching old age, that instead of dying, would turn into swans after bathing in the bitumen swamp of the river.

Swan Song

This phrase refers to a person’s final act or deed before death or retirement. Most often this is used for a person’s last piece of creative work, or performance, particularly in literature, music, or art.

One origin for this phrase is from the story of Cycnus, the friend or lover of Phaeton. The same Phaethon who begged his father Helios to be able to drive the sun chariot across the sky that ended in disaster and his death. While there are a few different versions of this story, it is generally agreed that Cycnus, being in such grief over the death and loss of his friend was changed into a swan by the god Apollo who took pity on him.

In addition, the Mute Swan was believed to sing a song at its death, a song considered to be the sweetest of all bird songs.

Queen Cassiopeia’s Pet

A rather minor note is that some think that Cygnus represents the swan that Queen Cassiopeia kept.

Hercules Family

The constellation of Cygnus, along with 18 other constellations of: Hercules, Sagitta, Aquila, Lyra, Vulpecula, Hydra, Sextans, Crater, Corvus, Ophiuchus, Serpens, Scutum, Centaurus, Lupus, Corona Australis, Ara, Triangulum Australe, and Crux.

All of these constellations have some connection to the overall legend and myth of the Grecian hero Hercules. They are the largest grouping of constellations found in the Western Hemisphere.

Cygnus, along with the other avian constellations of Aquila and Vultur cadens form a part of a significant myth of the Stymphalian Birds and one of the Twelve Labors of Hercules.

The Northern Cross

Among Christians, the constellation of Cygnus is known as the Northern Cross. Many Christians have seen the Cross or Crux that Jesus hung on.

Five stars form this asterism. They are: Deneb (Alpha Cygni), Delta Cygni, Albireo (Beta Cygni), Gienah (Epsilon Cygni) and Sadr (Gamma Cygni) forming the center.

Neolithic Connections?

It has been noted by some archaeologists that there are megalithic sites such as those found in Ireland that appear to be aligned with the Cygnus constellation. The Avebury, Wayland Smithy long barrow and Callanish are two such places aligned with either the rising or setting stars within Cygnus.

The swan, like many other birds are seen as symbolic of carrying the souls of the deceased to the after life. Many Palaeolithic sites and cultures have used birds symbolically for death and rebirth. Even the Greeks saw birds as psychopomps or “soul-carriers” and it been a very common belief among several cultures of Europe.

With such a connection to death and rebirth and Cygnus’ shape in the heavens, it would be very easy for early Christians to adapt and adopt this belief to their faith as the Cross.

Stars Of Cygnus

The stars Delta and Epsilon Cygni are used to depicted Cgynus’ wings while the star Deneb depicts the tail and Albireo represents the tip of the swan’s beak.

Alpha Cygni – Also known as Deneb, it is one of the brightest stars seen in the night sky. It is a blue-white supergiant star and 19th in brightness. The name Deneb comes from the Arabic word dhaneb, meaning “tail.” It is from the phrase Dhanab ad-Dajajah, which means: “the tail of the hen.” Within the constellation of Cygnus, it is one corner of the Summer Triangle with the stars Altair found in the constellation Auila and Vega, found in the constellation Lyra.

Beta Cygni – Also known as Albireo, it is generally considered to be the head of the swan and sometimes called “the beak star.” The name Albireo is likely the result of a mistranslation from Arabic into Latin where ab ireo was thought to be the name of a particular herb. The original translated name in Arabic was from the Greek word for bird which is “ornis.” It is a binary star and the fifth brightest star in Cygnus. It is one of the stars that form the Northern Cross.

Gamma Cygni – Also known as Sadr which comes from the Arabic word for “the chest.” This star is also sometime known as Pectus Gallinae, which is Latin for “the hen’s chest.” It is the star found in the center of the Northern Cross asterism.

Delta Cygni – Also known as Rukh. The name Rukh is Persian in origin and is related to Urkhga in Akkadian. The star is named after the huge, mythical bird of prey known as a Roc that was capable of carrying off elephants. In the year 11,250 C.E. this star will take the position of the North Star for a period of about 400 years.

Epsilon Cygni – Also known as Gienah, this star shares the same traditional name with Gamma Corvi from the Corvus constellation. The name Gienah comes from the Arabic word janah meaning “the wing.”

Kappa Cygni – This star marks the tip of Cygnus’ left wing. Its most notable for a meteor shower, the Kappa Cygnids that take place in August.

North America Nebula

Or NGC 7000 is one of the most well-known nebulae found within the Cgynus constellation as it is visible within the night sky without the aid of any telescopes as a bright patch of the Milky Way. Due to its characteristic shape, which resembles the North American Continent, it is only visible in long-exposure photographs and for those using telescopes; it can be difficult to spot as the surface area for brightness is low. It was first discovered by William Herschel in 1786.

Cygnus X

This is the largest star-forming region that has some of the brightest and most massive stars known such as Cygnus OB2-12 and Cygnus OB2.

Fireworks Galaxy

Also known as NGC 6946; this galaxy is known for the number of supernovae that have been found there. It is a spiral galaxy that borders the edge of Cygnus with the constellation Cepheus. NGC 6946 was discovered on September 9, 1798 by the German-born British astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel. So far nine supernovae have been observed within this galaxy.

Cygnids

There are two meteor showers associated with the constellation of Cygnus. They are the October Cygnids and the Kappa Cygnids, a minor meteor shower that occurs in August.

Aquarius

Aquarius
Etymology – “water-carrier” or “cup-carrier”

Aquarius, like many of the constellations that make up the familiar Western or Greek Zodiac is an old constellation sign. It is known as the Water-Carrier and depicted as a youth carrying a vessel of water. This constellation is located between Capricorn and Pisces. As the 10th largest constellation, Aquarius doesn’t have very many bright stars, so for those out stargazing, they will need a dark sky during the month of October in order to pick it out.

Astronomy & Astrology

Much of the foundations of Western knowledge regarding the fields of Astronomy and Astrology owe its roots to Ancient Mesopotamian cultures. Many ancient cultures studied the stars, seeing in them patterns that are called constellations. These ancient astronomers were able to make predictable, annual turnings of the heavens that they could divide and mark for the passing of the Seasons and time. For the ancients, Astrology served as a precursor to Astronomy and they believed that by studying the heavens, they could foretell future events and even a person’s life path.

These ancient cultures would also meet and exchange ideas frequently and in this fashion, when the Greeks encountered the Persians, there was an exchange of knowledge regarding Astronomy that becomes the constellations and zodiacs so many know today. Eventually, there is no clear distinction between what ancient Mesopotamian Astronomers and Greeks Philosophers knew. Even in current, modern times, the influence of these ancients is still known.

Western Astronomy

Aquarius is one of the oldest recognized constellations and was one of 48 constellations that were identified by Ptolemy, an astronomer who lived during the second century. In modern times, it is one of 88 known or recognized constellations found in an area of the of the night sky known as the Sea or Water due to the number of other constellations with aquatic associations such as Cetus, Delphinus, Pisces and Eridanus.

Greek Mythology

Aquarius is depicted in Greek astronomy as a young man pouring water from a vase or urn into the mouth of Piscis Austrinus, the southern fish. There are a couple of different myths regarding the constellation of Aquarius in Greek Mythology.

Ganymede

Ganymede was the son of King Tros of Dardania and the basis for the kingdom of Troy in Greek mythology. An exceptionally beautiful youth, Ganymede had caught the attention of Zeus when he was out watching over his father’s flock of sheep. Now, depending on the versions of the story being told, Zeus, either in the guise of an eagle or sending the eagle Aquila, came and carried him off to Mount Olympus. As compensation to King Tros, Zeus gives him some horses.

Once there, Ganymede faced the wrath of Hera, the wife of Zeus, who was angry and very likely jealous that her husband had taken such a fancy for a young boy. In addition to this, she was also angry that Zeus intended for Ganymede to replace Hebe, Hera’s daughter as the cup-bearer after an incident where Hebe had accidentally spilled some nectar of the gods. And it couldn’t have set well with Hera that Zeus immortalizes Ganymede in the constellation of Aquarius in addition to immortality and eternal youth.

Another version of this myth says that it was Eos, the goddess of the Dawn who carries off Ganymede to Mount Olympus and then Zeus took him from her to be the cup-bearer.

Regardless of the versions of the story told, Ganymede does become the cup-bearer to the gods and basically serves them their wine. Further variations of this story tell how Ganymede would ride Zeus’ eagle Aquila, accompanying this god on his travels. Both the Aquila constellation near Aquarius and the constellation of Crater, said to be Ganymede’s cup are near Aquarius to complete this story.

Ganymede also becomes deified as he was given immorality and eternal youth by Zeus and ends up being the one responsible for the annual Nile River flooding and the life-giving waters of rain. Some scholars have pointed out that like the story of Capricorn, the Greeks are borrowing from other older stories and cultures as well as coming up with their own stories to explain the images and what the constellations mean.

In Roman times, the name Ganymedes was sometimes used for handsome slaves who served as cupbearers. Furthering this, many have pointed out that the story of Ganymede is a clear indication and precedence for homosexuality in Greek culture. Others, like in Plato’s writings of dialogues between him and Socrates say that it wasn’t homosexuality; point out the meaning of the name Ganymede for “taking pleasure of the mind.” That Zeus loved Ganymede non-sexually for his mind. Still, other sources point out that this is where the Latin word for catamite originates.

The story of Ganymede seems to be related or taken from a Sumerian story of Etana, who descended to the heavens with the help of an eagle while looking for a plant of birth that in turn leads to the birth of his son, Balih.

Grecian Flood Myth

Aquarius, sometimes identified as the god Zeus is the one who causes a great flooding of the earth. A man by the name of Deucalion and his wife, Pyrrha who survived a great flood that washed over the earth. Deucalion had been told by his father, Prometheus in some versions of this story, to build a boat and to fill it with provisions. The two did and they floated in the boat over the sea for nine days and nights before coming to ground on Mount Parnassus.

Safe now, the two found that they were the only survivors and began to wander more as the flood waters receded. Deucalion and his wife couldn’t have been the only survivors of this flood if they were able to consult an oracle who told them to “throw over your shoulders the bones of your mother.”

The solution seemed pretty easy to Deucalion who guessed that the bones of Mother Earth must be stones and so he and Pyrrha began picking up stones to toss over their shoulders. After a bit of this, they looked back and saw that there were now people. The stones thrown by Deucalion had become men and the stones thrown by Pyrrha had become women.

In this myth, Aquarius is seen or becomes a taker as well as giver of life. This myth of a world flood and the rebirth of life on Earth is a very common myth that can be found in numerous cultures around the world.

Sometimes in an effort to have the Grecian Flood myth story parallel the Biblical Flood story of Noah and the Ark, it is Zeus himself who tells Deucalion to build a boat and not Prometheus.

The Death Of Hyas

Hyas was a mighty hunter who ended up being killed while out hunting by either a lion or a boar. On his death, his sisters, known collectively as the Hyades for their brother, were so grievous and weeping for their brother’s loss, that the god Zeus took pity on them and placed them up into the heavens, forming the Hyades asterism and the “V-shape” of the Taurus constellation. The tears of their grief would become associated with the coming of rain.

As for Hyas, the gods placed him up in the heavens to become the Aquarius constellation and the lion that killed him became the Leo constellation. Both were placed on opposite ends of the heavens in order to protect Hyas. Making for the ancient Greeks explanations of why neither constellation appears together in the night sky, so that as one constellation sets in the west, the other is rising in the east.

Arabian Mythology

The Arabs depicted the constellation of Aquarius as a bucket due to their religion forbidding the depiction of humans in art. Sometimes a mule was used in place of showing a human as being the one carrying the buckets or urns of water.

Some of the stars that make up Aquarius also have alternative names in the Arabic language. There is beta Aquarri known as Sadalsuud, from an Arabic phrase “sa’d al-suud,” meaning “luck of lucks.” Then there is alpha Aquarri or Sadalmelik and comes from the expression “sa’d al-malik,” meaning “luck of the king.” As well as, gamma Aquarii or Sadalachbia from another Arabic expression “sa’d al-axbiyah,” meaning “luck of the homes.” And finally there is zeta Aquarri, known as Sadaltager, from the Arabic phrase “sa’d al-tajir,” meaning “luck of the merchant.”

Why is there so much luck? In the Middle Eastern world, when the sun enters Aquarius, that marked the beginning of the New Year and Spring was on it’s way. This would be a time of the life-giving rains that so many depend on, especially the farmers.

Babylonian Mythology

The constellation of Aquarius was well known to the Babylonians who identified it as GU.LA, “The Great One.” There are many Babylonian entitlement stones and cylinder seals dating to the second millennium marked with the astrological symbol of Aquarius, saying it represented the god Ea shown to be pouring water from an urn or holding an overflowing vase. In Babylonian astronomy, Ea is the ruler of the southern quarter of the Sun’s path, the “Way of Ea” and corresponds to a period of 45 days to either side of the winter solstice.

For the Babylonians, the time of Aquarius marks a time of destructive flooding and rainfall, so they often viewed this constellation unfavorably.

The Sumerians viewed Aquarius as responsible for a great flood that covered the earth. The Sumerians also have the story of Etana, a legendary hero-king whose story has been found on several Akkadian seals. According to the Sumerian king list, Etana is one of the kings who ruled the city of Kish after a great deluge or flood. This king’s list also refers to Etana as “the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries.”

The Legend of Etana

In this story there is a tree with the eagle’s nest at the top and a serpent at its base. Both creatures have promised the sun god Utu that they will be civil with each other and share their food with their children.

One day, the eagle eats one of the serpent’s children and the serpent cries over this. Utu tells the serpent to hide inside the stomach of a dead bull. When the eagle flies down to eat the dead bull, the snake is able to capture the eagle and throws him in a pit to die of hunger.

Utu then sends a man, Etana to help the eagle and saves it. Etana asks the eagle to help him find the “plant of birth” so that he can sire a son. In gratitude, the eagle helps carry Etana up to the heavens where the god Anu presides. Fearful, Etana has the eagle take him back to the ground. Once he’s gotten his courage up, Etana makes another attempt to go up to the heavens and is successful this time in getting the “plant of birth” and is able to sire his son Balith.

Chinese Mythology

In Chinese astrology, the constellation of Aquarius is found in the northern part of the heavens and symbolized by the Black Tortoise of the North.

In modern Chinese, Aquarius is known as bǎo píng zuò, meaning: “the precious pitcher constellation”. The stream of water flowing out of the Water Jar is depicted as the “Army of Yu-Lin-Kjun,” where “Yu-lin” means “feathers and forest” that represent numerous light-footed soldiers seen in the fainter stars of Aquarius. The stars 88, 89 and 98 Aquarii represent the portion of the constellation called Fou-youe, representing the axes used for weapons and hostage executions. Also found in the constellation of Aquarius is Loui-pi-tchin that represents a rampart stretching out and depicted with the stars 29 and 27 Piscium and 33 and 30 Aquarii through Phi, Lambda, Sigma, and Iota Aquarii to Delta, Gamma, Kappa, and Epsilon Capricorn.

Egyptian Mythology

For the ancient Egyptians, the god Hapi, the god of the Nile River was often identified with Aquarius. He was depicted as carrying a tray of food or pouring water from two large urns. With these urns, Hapi distributed the waters of life as the urns represented good fortune. Sometimes Hapi is shown holding a rod called the Norma Nilotica, that was used for measuring the depths of the Nile River. The time of Aquarius marked the annual flooding of the Nile when the life giving waters from Hapi would be poured out and the people could till their farms along the river’s borders. This annual flooding of the Nile for the ancient Egyptians marked the beginning of spring.

Hindu Mythology

The name of Aquarius in the Hindu zodiac is kumbha meaning: “water-pitcher.” Some feel that this is proof or shows that the influences of the Greek zodiac reached as far as India from Grecian travelers. That might be a bit of a stretch as it may be that the Indian or Hindu story of Varuna, god of the sky and waters is who is represented by the constellation of Aquarius.

This is the dawning of the Age of Aquarius

The constellation of Aquarius will be forever immortalized by the counterculture of the 1960’s with the Hippies and their proclamations for the Age of Aquarius and the musical Hair. Truth be told, they were a bit premature by about 600 years for when this time will actually begin.

The astrological age is determined by the name of the constellation in which the Vernal or Spring Equinox occurs, which is close to around March 21st. Right now, we’re still in the Age of Pisces, which will continue until about 2600 C.E. depending on the source.

Sadalsuud

Or beta Aquarri, mentioned up above in the Arabian Mythology section, is the brightest star in the Aquarius constellation. That it is a supergiant star probably helps.

Other notable mentions are some globular clusters of stars of Messier 2 and Messier 72, the asterism Messier 73, along with the Aquarius Dwarf Galaxy. There is also the Saturn Nebula, known as the Waterbearer

Aquariids

There are a series of four meteor showers associated with the constellation of Aquarius. These are the: the March Aquariids, Eta Aquariids, Delta Aquariids, and Iota Aquariids.

Zodiac

The constellation of Aquarius is the eleventh sign of twelve signs that form the Zodiac. For those who study and are into the classical Greek Zodiacs, this time is typically said to be from January 20 to February 18. Due to the changes of the earth’s orbit and tilt, the best time to see this constellation is during October around 9 p.m. The planets Saturn and Uranus are said to rule this Zodiacal sign and constellation. Its element is Air, an extroverted sign and is one of four fixed signs.

Aquarius people are said to be inquisitive, unpredictable, independent, friendly, outgoing, artistic, intellectual, social, stubborn, altruistic and even progressive. At their best, Aquarians are great humanitarians, thinking of others and how to help them. They have an easy with people and are able to interact with a lot of people and relate well with them. At their worst, Aquarians can come across as know-it-alls and become argumentative when trying to get others to see their viewpoints and ideas as correct instead of listening to others or realizing they may have been incorrect.

Aquila

Ganymede