Monthly Archives: March 2021
Also known as: Ala, Ala, Ale, Ale or Ana (Feminine)
In the lesser well-known Etruscan mythology, Ani is the god of the sky who lives in the heavens. A few scant sources link Ani as a god of the crossroads. Like his later, Roman counterpart, Janus, Ani is shown having two faces.
Day of the Week: The first day of every month
Patron of: Transitions, Travelers
Planet: Sun, Moon
Sphere of Influence: Crossroads, Past, Future
Symbols: Keys, Staff, Two-Faces, Doors, Archways, Gateways, Portals
While there isn’t a whole lot known about the ancient Etruscans, the few imagery and statues of Ani that have been identified show him having two faces much like Janus.
Ani’s name is mentioned on the periphery of the Piacenza Liver. In Martianus Capella’s Tempum I, dedicated to Janus, the name Ani appears inscribed here.
There is a very similar, female deity to Ani, distinguished by the change of vowels to Ana.
Ani is listed as an Egyptian god of the Underworld, Tuat. There are tentative connections to Ani being the Lord of Festivals and the New Moon within the Egyptian beliefs. Lastly, Ani is mentioned in a hymn dedicated to Amen-Ra.
Aditi – Hindu Goddess
The Vedic goddess of Infinity, Aditi is depicted as having two faces. She is seen as the feminine form of Brahma. Like Janus, Aditi is invoked at the beginning of ceremonies and she concludes them as well.
Anu – Sumerian God
Among the ancient Akkadians, Anu is the god of the sky that Ani has been compared to.
Belinus – Chaldean God
Also called Baal-Ianus, a William Betham has made arguments that Janus’ cult would originate from the Middle East with the Chaldean culture.
Brahma – Hindu God
The imagery of double or four-faced deities in Hinduism is common. Brahma is the god who created the universe.
Culśanś – Etruscan God
In the little-known Etruscan mythology, Culśanś has been identified as being the counterpart to the Roman Janus. This connection seems more likely given Culśanś’ role as a god and protector of doorways and his depiction of having two faces.
Heimdallr – Nordic God
As guardian of the Bifrost bridge, the functions that Heimdallr has withstanding in a place between time and space have noted to be similar to Janus.
Isimud – Sumerian God
Also known as Usimu in Babylonian. A deity featuring two faces appears several times in Babylonian art. Isimud is the messenger of Enki.
Greek Connection – Which brings us to another point. However much the ancient Greeks and Romans tried to claim that Janus had no Middle Eastern connection, and that Janus is solely a Roman deity, there are some much later writers who would equate Hermes with Janus, especially during the Hellenistic era of Greek culture.
Janus – Roman God
The Roman god of Beginnings, Gates, Transitions, Time, Duality, Doorways, Frames, Portals, Passages and Endings. He is seen as a primordial deity to the ancient Romans who was there at the beginning of time and anything getting started to or created. Janus is very much so the Roman equivalent to Ani.
Svetovid – Slavic God
Depicted as having four heads or faces, Svetovid is the Slavic god of war, fertility, and abundance.
Etymology – Unknown
Also Known As: The Queen
Alternate Spellings: Κασσιόπεια, Κασσιέπεια, Κασσιόπη, Casseipeia, Kassiope, Kassiopeia, Kassiepeia.
In Greek mythology, Cassiopeia is the name of a few different women, all of whom were Queens for their respective country and area. For the constellation, Cassiopeia refers to Queen of Andromeda and Perseus fame.
As punishment from Poseidon for her vanity and haughtiness, Cassiopeia is described as being a chained woman in a throne or a Queen in her throne holding a mirror to represent her vanity.
In more modern times, the Cassiopeia constellation is known as the Celestial “W” and Celestial “M” all depending on which way you’re looking at the W Asterism that characterizes this constellation.
The image represented in this constellation, shows Cassiopeia tied or chained to a chair as she circles the Pole Star where she can sometimes appear to be going headfirst into the water as part of her punishment and hubris with the god Poseidon. Other depictions of Cassiopeia will show her holding a mirror to symbolize her vanity and in other depictions she is holding a palm leaf whose symbolism has been lost.
Father – Coronus, a mortal, since there is more than one Coronus, it’s not clear which one is to be her father.
Mother – Zeuxo, an Oceanid.
In his Dionysiaca, Nonnus refers to Cassiopeia as a nymph, which given her parentage could accurate or it just refers to Cassiopeia’s beauty.
Story Of Perseus
In Greek story of Perseus, Cassiopea was the Queen of Acrisios or Aethiopia, the wife of King Cepheus and the mother to Andromeda.
The story begins when Cassiopea starts bragging about how Andromeda is more beautiful than the Nereids. This kind of attitude of extreme arrogance and pride, especially when a person claims being better than the gods, creates what’s known as hubris.
Offended by Cassiopeia’s remarks, the Nereids approached Poseidon and complained, asking him to punish this mortal woman. Poseidon agreed and he sent a flood as well as the sea monster Cetus (or Kraken) to destroy the coastline of Aethiopia.
After consulting with the oracle of Ammon (identified by the Greeks with Zeus,) located at an oasis near Siwa in the Libyan desert, Cepheus is told that he would be able to end the destruction of his country by giving up his daughter Andromeda in sacrifice to Cetus. At the urging of his people, Cepheus had Andromeda chained to a rock by the sea to await her fate.
Luck was with Andromeda, for the hero Perseus is flying by on the Pegasus and on seeing her, he flew down to ask her why she was bound to the rocks. Andromeda told her story to the hero Perseus.
After hearing the story, Perseus went to Cepheus, saying he could save Andromeda from the sea monster and that in return, he wanted her hand in marriage. Cepheus tells Perseus that he could have what he wanted.
At that, Perseus then, depending on the accounts given, pulled his sword and found a weak spot in the scales of the sea monster Cetus or he used the severed head of Medusa to turn the monster to stone.
The story doesn’t completely end there as it seems Andromeda had also been promised to her uncle Phineus to marry. This wouldn’t have been disputed or contested if Phineus had been the one to save Andromeda and slay Cetus himself. So Phineus picks a fight with Perseus about his right to marry Andromeda at the wedding.
After slaying a Gorgon and a Sea Monster, a mere mortal man is no challenge for Perseus who once again pulls out Medusa’s head and turns Phineus to stone. Given variations of the story, sometimes this is when Cepheus and Cassiopeia are also turned to stone when they accidentally look at the gorgon’s severed head. Another variation to the story, is that Cassiopeia is turned to stone when she objects to Perseus and Andromeda’s marriage. With Phineus now dead, Andromeda accompanies Perseus back to his home Tiryns in Argos where they eventually founded the Perseid dynasty.
Some accounts give that Perseus and Andromeda had seven sons and two daughters. Others place this count a little differently saying its seven children all together, six sons and one daughter. Most accounts agree that the eldest son, Perses founds his own kingdom and becomes the ancestor to the kings of Persia. A variation to this account is that Perses was adopted by his grandfather Cepheus and named heir to the throne.
Eventually, years later, as the major figures of the story died and passed away, the goddess Athena placed Cepheus and the others up into the heavens as constellations to immortalize and commemorate this story.
Further, it is the god Poseidon who places both Cepheus and Cassiopeia up into heavens to become constellations, explicitly as punishment.
The price for hubris, still another version for the ending of the story still has Cassiopeia punished for her bragging by being chained to her throne to forever circle the North Star. This is why she can sometimes be seen upside down in the heavens as a warning to others.
Hyginus’ Account – By his account, Cepheus’ brother is Agenor who confronts Perseus as he was the one to whom Andromeda had been promised in marriage. So, this is who Perseus ends up killing instead of Phineus.
Clash Of The Titans – In the original 1981 movie, the actress Siân Phillips plays Cassiopeia. This version of Cassiopeia is never punished by Poseidon and it is the goddess Thetis who states that Andromeda will be given to the Kraken. The 2010 remake sees Polly Walker play Cassiopeia and this character is aged rapidly to death by the god Hades.
Aethiopia or Ethiopia?
The accounts can vary and much of this owes to some lack of clarity among the ancient Greek Scholars and Historians. Homer is the first to have used the term Aethiopia in his Iliad and Odyssey. Greek historian Herodotus uses the name Aethiopia to describe all of the inhabited lands south of Egypt. The name also features in Greek mythology, where it is sometimes associated with a kingdom said to be seated at Joppa, (what would-be modern-day Tel-Aviv) or it is placed elsewhere in Asia Minor such as Lybia, Lydia, the Zagros Mountains and even India.
Modern day Ethopia is located on the horn of Africa and has some tentative ties to the legend of Andromeda. The Egyptian priest Manetho, who lived around 300 BCE called Egypt’s Kushite dynasty the “Aethiopian dynasty.” And with the translation of the Hebrew Bible or Torah into Greek around 200 BCE, the Hebrew usage of “Kush” and Kushite” became the Greek “Aethiopia” and “Aethiopians.” This again changes later to the modern English use of “Ethiopia” and “Ethiopians” with the arrival of the King James Bible.
Given the way that Countries, Empires, Kingdoms and Nations rise and fall, expand and shrink, it’s very well possible that both Aethiopia and Ethiopia are one and the same and that modern-day Tel-Aviv once known as Joppa (Jaffa) may have once been part of Ethiopia. Some sources cite Joppa as having been a city of Phoenicia. There is a lot of history that has been lost to the sands of time that can only be guessed at and speculated upon.
The constellation known as Cassiopeia is one of 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy in his book, Almagest. Today it remains as one of the 88 current or modern constellations. Cassiopeia is the 25th largest constellation in the night sky. Bordering constellations to Cassiopeia are Andromeda, Camelopardalis, Cepheus, Lacerta, and Perseus.
Cassiopeia has the nickname of the W constellation as this is asterism comprised of the five brightest stars is easily recognizable. In English, Cassiopeia is known as the “The Queen.”
The Cassiopeia constellation is found year-round on the northern hemisphere near the pole star. The best time to see this constellation is in November. This constellation is able to be seen by those countries north of the Tropic of Capricorn come late spring.
French Depiction – Cassiopeia is shown sitting on a marble throne holding a palm leaf in her left hand while holding her robe with her right hand. This image is found in Augustin Royer’s 1679 Atlas.
This constellation was known as the Lady in the Chair. In some Arabic Atlases, the stars of Cassiopeia are associated with a figure known as the “Tinted Hand” that represented a woman’s hand that’s been dyed red with henna. Later, in Islamic religion, this red hand is the bloody hand of Muhammad’s daughter Fatima.
Another Arabic constellation found within Cassiopeia is a Camel. The head is comprised of the stars Lambda, Kappa, Iota and Phi Andromedae with the hump being formed by Beta Cassiopeia and the rest of the Cassiopeia constellation forming the body and the legs extending into stars within Perseus and Andromeda constellations.
In Chinese Astronomy, the Cassiopeia constellation is located in the areas of the night sky known as Zi Wei Yuan (the Purple Forbidden Enclosure), Bei Fang Xuan Wu (the Black Tortoise of the North), and Xi Fang Bai Hu Zu (the White Tiger of the West).
Wangliang – In Chinese star lore, the W-shape of Cassiopeia; three stars of this asterism are associated with a group known as Wangliang that commemorate a legendary Chinese charioteer of the same name. Old Chinese star charts show this asterism as a fan-shape comprising of four stars, Gamma, Eta, Alpha and Zeta Cassiopeiae that represent a team of horses. A fifth star, Beta Cassiopeiae represents Wangliang himself. The star Kappa Cassiopeiae or Ce, is Wangliang’s whip.
Wangliang features in a Chinese moral story where he was asked to drive a carriage for a hunter named Hsi. On the first day, they failed to catch any birds. When Hsi returned from his hunt, he complained how Wangliang was the worst charioteer. Hurt by these comments, Wangliang convinced Hsi to let him drive again. Hsi agreed and the next day they went out, they were able to snare ten birds in the morning. This impressed Hsi so much so that he asked Wangliang to stay on as his full-time charioteer. Wangliang turned down the offer, stating that the first time, he had driven the carriage by the rules and that the second time he drove, Wangliang had cheated by driving into the birds in order to make it easier for Hsi to bring down the birds. Wangliang finished his statement by saying that he couldn’t drive for a hunter who wasn’t honorable. The moral being that: “A man cannot straighten others by bending himself.”
Gedao – The stars Delta, Epsilon, Iota, Theta, Nu and Omicron Cassiopeiae form a chain of six stars that represent a pathway to the Central Palace. The Central Palace is located within the Ursa Minor constellation. This asterism, Gedao is sometimes depicted as the flag or banner for Wangliang. Next to this, the star Zeta Cassiopeiae or Fulu represents a side road.
Chuanshe – This is a chain of nine stars that passes over from Cepheus to northern Cassiopeia and into the Camelopardalis constellation. This chain of stars represents guest rooms just outside the wall of the Central Palace. It isn’t clear which stars actually represent this asterism.
Huagai & Gang – Located further north to the entrance of the Central Palace, these two groups of stars represent the Emperor’s gilded canopy used in processions. The asterism Huagai has seven stars and Gang has nine stars.
Eastern Boundary Wall – Comprised of the stars Cassiopeiae 21 & 23, these two stars mark the boundary wall for the Central Palace. Some Chinese astronomical texts will place this boundary wall within the Cepheus constellation.
Sometime in the 1600’s, a few Biblical characters began to be associated with the Cassiopeia constellation. Some of these figures are: Bathsheba, the mother of Solomon, Deborah, an Old Testament Judge and prophetess and Mary Magdalene, one of Jesus’ followers.
The Chukchi people of Siberia saw five reindeer in the five brightest or main stars of Cassiopeia.
In the Marshall Islands, the constellations of Andromeda, Cassiopeia, Triangulum, and Aries are all part of a same greater constellation representing a porpoise. Andromeda’s bright stars form the body of the porpoise; Cassiopeia represents its tail and Aries its head.
In Persia, Cassiopeia is depicted as a queen holding a staff with a crescent moon with her right hand and wearing a crown. A two-humped camel will also be drawn with her.
In Hawaii, the stars Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Cassiopeiae all have individual names. Alpha Cassiopeiae is called Poloahilani, Beta Cassiopeiae is called Polula, and Gamma Cassiopeiae is called Mulehu.
The people of Pukapuka call this constellation by the name Na Taki-Tolu-A-Mataliki.
While the Romans adapted many of the Greek beliefs and myths for their own, for them, this constellation is known as the Woman of the Chair.
The Sami see elk antlers in the W Asterism in Cassiopeia.
In Welsh Mythology, the Cassiopeia constellation is known as Llys Don or “The Court of Don.” The goddess Don is the Mother of the Gods. In addition, the Milky Way is known as Caer Gwydion or “The Fortress of Gwydion” and the Corona Borealis constellation is known as Caer Arianrhod or “The Fortress of Arianrhod.”
All of these constellations have some connection to the overall legend and myth of the Grecian hero Perseus.
Stars Of Cassiopeia
Alpha Cassiopeiae – Also called Schedar or Schedir, from the Arabic word sadr meaning: “breast.” The name is in reference to the star’s location for Cassiopeia’s heart. This is the brightest star in the constellation.
Beta Cassiopeiae – Also called Caph, from the Arabic word kaf meaning: “palm. This star’s other names are al-Sanam, al-Nakah, al-Kaff, and al-Khadib. It is a subgiant or giant star, it is the 12th brightest star in the night sky. Caph, along with the stars Alpheratz in Andromeda and Algenib in Pegasus is known as one of the Three Guides. These three bright stars mark an imaginary line from Caph to Alpheratz for the celestial equator where the Sun crosses during the Spring and Autumn Equinoxes.
Gamma Cassiopeiae – Also called Tsih in Chinese, meaning “The Whip. This star is called Navi, a name given to it by American astronaut Virgil Ivan Grissom. Navi happens to be Ivan’s name spelled backwards. This central star in a W shape that characterizes and is the brightest star within this constellation. This star has been used as a navigational reference by astronauts.
Delta Cassiopeiae – Also known as Ruchbah, from the Arabic word rukbah meaning “the knee.” This star is known by the name Ksora. It is the fourth brightest star in the constellation.
Epsilon Cassiopeiae – Also known as Segin.
Eta Cassiopeiae – Also known as Achird. It is the closest star in Cassiopeia to the Milky Way Galaxy. It is a yellow-white G-class dwarf star that is slightly cooler than the Sun. There is also a companion orange K-class dwarf star.
Zeta Cassiopeiae – This star is a blue-white subgiant star located some 600 light years away.
Rho Cassiopeiae – Is a rare yellow hypergiant star, of which only seven have been identified within the Milky Way Galaxy. It is thought that this star may have already gone supernova, we just have yet to the light from it.
This asterism is the most distinct and recognizable feature of the Cassiopeia constellation. It is comprised of the five brightest stars of Epsilon, Delta, Gamma, Alpha, and Beta Cassiopeiae. Some scholars like Aratus have described this asterism being like a key or folding door.
In November of 1572, Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe spotted and recorded a new star appearing within the Cassiopeia constellation. Naturally, this would be called Tycho’s Star and he wrote a treatise about this new star the next year. It’s known now that this star was really a Supernova and it was visible to the naked eye for over a year. In his 1603 Uranometria atlas, Johan Bayer included this star as a starburst beside Cassiopeia’s throne. Then in 1690, on the Hevelius atlas, this star appears on Cepheus’ left hand.
Also known as NGC 457, this is an open star cluster that resembles an owl. It is also known as the E.T. Cluster and Caldwell 13. This cluster was discovered in 1787 by William Herschel and is located some 10,000 light years away from Earth.
The Pacman Nebula
Also known as NGC 281, a large gas cloud where a star formation took place. There are several young, blue stars within. The name Pacman comes from the character of the same name in a videogame. The nebula is about 9,500 light years away from Earth and was first discovered in 1883 by the American astronomer E.E. Barnard.
The White Rose Cluster
Also known as NGC 7789 or Caroline’s Rose, it is an open star cluster roughly 7,600 light years away from the earth. This star cluster gets its name of The White Rose due to the loops of stars within this cluster resembling a pattern similar to a rose’s petals. It was discovered in 1783 by British astronomer Caroline Herschel.
A meteor shower known as the Phi Cassiopeiids occurs in early December.
This meteor shower though named for the hero Perseus is associated with the Cassiopeia constellation and passes through in August.
Others Named Cassiopeia
There are a couple of others named Cassiopeia in Greek mythology.
- The wife to the demigod Epaphus, a King of Egypt. Epaphus was also a rival to Phaethon who had a disastrous journey with his father Helios’ chariot of the Sun. Another name for this Cassiopeia is Memphis, also the name of an Egyptian city that Epaphus is to have founded.
- Also spelled as Cassiepeia. According to Hesiod, she is the daughter of Arabus and the wife of King Phoenix. This Cassiopeia would become the mother of the hero Atymnius by either Phoenix or Zeus. Some accounts will have her be the mother of Phoenix and Carme. Though Carme is reputed more often to be the daughter of Eubuleus.