Alternate Spellings: Εχω, Ekho
Echo is an Oread or Mountain Nymph found in Greek mythology. She resided on Mount Cithaeron located in Boeotia. The main story of Echo is often used in Greek and later Roman mythology to explain the repetitive or echoing sounds that one hears in mountains and valleys or other places that carry acoustics.
Plant: Crabgrass, Hemlock
There is an ancient Greek vase depicting Echo as a winged nymph with her face covered by a veil.
Parentage & Family
Most sources don’t list any parentage for Echo, it stands to reason it is likely Ouranos.
In Longus’ story of Daphne & Chloe, Echo’s parentage is given a that of a nymph and a mortal man, making Echo a demigoddess.
As a nymph, all of the other nymphs would be counted as Echo’s sisters.
Pan and Narcissus are listed among the lovers for Echo.
Iynx and Iambe – With Pan, Echo is their mother.
There a few main stories involving Echo. Most websites and books tend to focus on the Roman stories and narrative, adding the Greek story later or last. I feel it’s important to reverse the order to how they’re told.
Follower Of Artemis
Being an Oread or Mountain nymph, Echo was a virgin like many of her sisters whom were all favorites and followers of Artemis, the goddess of the hunt.
Porticoes Of Echo
While not exactly worshiped, there were a few places in Greece with porticoes that were dedicated to Echo due to the repeating or echoing sounds they made. One was located at Hermione, Argos known to echo three times and another at Olympia that would echo seven times. Even a statue to Menon in Egypt was known to echo and noted as being connected to Echo for her namesake.
Daphnis & Chloe
This 2nd century C.E. romance is a story within a story told by the Greek writer Longus.
There comes a point within the story when Daphnis and Chloe are looking out at the boats on the sea. Chloe becomes confused when she hears a fisherman’s song repeated in a nearby valley. Daphnis then promises to tell Chloe the story of Echo in return for ten kisses.
The kisses exchanged, Daphnis proceeds to tell the story of Echo, the daughter of a nymph and a mortal man. Thus, making Echo a demigod of sorts. Raised among the nymphs, Echo learned their dances and learned to sing from the Muses who taught her to play a number of different musical instruments.
By this account, Pan grew jealous and angry for Echo’s musical abilities. Pan grew further enraged, for Echo, like many of the nymphs who are followers of Artemis, goddess of the Hunt was also a virgin, for this, Echo spurned Pan’s advances as she rejected not only him, but other gods and mortals. For this, Pan incited a panic among his shepherd followers who descended upon the helpless Echo, tearing her apart to pieces and scattering her upon the earth.
Gaia, who favored the nymphs gathered up and hid the scattered remains of Echo within herself. At the command of the Muses, Echo’s voice still sings, repeating back the sound of any earthly thing that she hears.
In a sly bit of revenge upon Pan by Gaia, whenever Pan hears his own pipes echoed in the mountains, he goes chasing after the sound, seeking in vain for a student that he can never find.
Homeric And Orphic Hymns – Both of these hymns retell Longus’ story of Pan chasing after Echo’s voice in the mountains.
Echo & Pan
Of Greek origins, this story tells how Echo, being a rather beautiful nymph and musically inclined; being able to sing and play several different instruments. Like all her nymph sisters, Echo lived deep within the forests, spurning the love of mortals and immortals alike.
Before this, there had been an Achilles, the son of Zeus and the Lamia. Now Achilles was incredibly handsome and along with several others, entered a beauty contest with Aphrodite. Acting as judge was Pan who was the most fairest of them all. Aphrodite grew angry with Pan and she cursed Pan with an unrequited love for Echo, whom he pursued relentlessly.
To try and reconcile this version of the story with the above one in Daphnis & Chloe, it makes sense that in his madness, that Pan would incite his shepherd followers to descend upon Echo to tear her apart.
That afterword, Gaia taking pity and having favored Echo, gathers up the pieces of her broken, scattered body to the earth and that all that remained was Echo’s voice. It really makes sense that in mourning, that Echo is chasing after the sound of Echo’s voice every time he hears her repetitive call. It makes sense for Pan to be mentioned as forever chasing after his student that he can never find.
Apuleius, The Golden Ass – A 2nd century C.E. Roman novel, the author Apuleius describes Pan as sitting by the banks of a stream with Echo in his arms as he teaches her his music and songs.
Suda – In this fragments of poetry and story, Echo is described as bearing the children Iambe and Iynx to Pan.
There must have been a real relation between Echo and Pan and not just the lusty, rutting of a goat-god. It’s unfortunate as it does seem the ire of Aphrodite cause Pan to go into madness and kill his one real love. Given the lusty reputation of Pan for chasing nymphs, Echo’s demise being caused by Aphrodite seems to have been over looked and lumped in as just another failed conquest.
The Great Deluge
More as a side note, in Nonnus’ Dionysiaca, he makes a number of references to Echo. According to Nonnus’ version of the stories, Pan chased after Echo much like he would chase after the other nymphs, yet never gained her affections. In his Book VI, when Nonnus begins to recount the story of the Great Deluge, he tells how as the waters rose up above the hills, that Echo was forced to swim. Just as she had escaped the ravages of Pan, Echo feared the advances of Poseidon should he catch her.
Echo & Juno
This story originates out of Roman mythology from Ovid’s Metamorphosis. As it’s Roman, the Roman names for the gods are Jupiter or Jove (Zeus in Greece) and Juno (Hera in Greece). Anyone familiar with Greco-Roman mythologies knows of Jupiter’s reputation and his numerous affairs among mortals and gods alike; much to his wife, Juno’s displeasure.
This is the main story about Echo that most everyone knows, it explains the origin of echoes or repeating sounds in mountains and valleys or anywhere an echo can be heard.
On one occasion, as Jupiter was pursuing of one of his latest affairs with a nymph. Juno came among the nymphs looking for her husband as she hoped to catch him in the act. As the case was, Echo had been tasked by Jupiter himself to keep Juno distracted with a lot of idle chatter while Jupiter engaged in his latest tryst. Juno wasn’t happy with the overly talkative nymph and when she discovered that Echo was merely distracting her; Juno punished Echo that she would always be able to have the last word, but she would only be able to repeat the last thing said.
Echo & Narcissus
Another Roman story from Ovid’s Metamorphosis, this picks up from the previous story with Juno’s wrath towards Echo.
Shortly after being cursed by Juno, Echo came across the youth Narcissus while he was out hunting deer with some friends. Echo fell in love with him and followed quietly after Narcissus, for the more she watched him, the more in love she became. Unfortunately, as much as Echo wanted to call out to the young man, Juno’s curse prevented her.
After a time, Narcissus became separated from his friends and he called out: “Is anyone there?” In answer, Echo responded back with: “Is anyone there?”
This started Narcissus who then asked: “Come here.”
Because of the curse, Echo could only respond with the same “come here” reply.
When no one came out into the glade he was standing in, Narcissus figured that the other person must be moving away from him. So, he called out again: “This way, we must come together.”
Echo, taking this to heart as confirmation for her love, called back: “We must come together!” As she came running out, ready to throw her arms around Narcissus.
On seeing the nymph running towards him, Narcissus became affronted and pushed Echo away exclaiming: “Hands off! May I die before you enjoy my body!”
Hurt, all Echo could respond with was: “Enjoy my body.” Before she turned to flee back into the woods, rejected and humiliated by Narcissus.
Narcissus would have his own comeuppance coming and he fell in love with his own reflection in a pool. Her love unrequited, Echo watched on as Narcissus pined away for his reflection and eventually died.
It is said, that just before he died, Narcissus told his reflection: “Oh darling boy, I loved you in vain, good-bye.”
Echo repeated the words: “Good-bye.” As she herself began to fade away, her body turning to stone and all that remained of her was the sound of her voice.
The Romans were famous for subsuming many deities in their conquest across Europe, particularly the Mediterranean area, and identifying their gods with those of a conquered culture. The most famous being the Greeks, where many deities were renamed to those of Roman gods. Prominent examples like Zeus and Jupiter, Hera and Juno, Ares and Mars and so on down the line. Echo is one figure from Greek mythology who maintained and kept her name. Changing the names of the deities from the Roman to their Greek counterparts in other retellings can make it hard to keep track of which story is the right version. Assuming you want to go that route.
Of course, there would be confusion over the myths and stories pertaining to Echo. It all comes down to remembering which are the Greek stories and which are the Roman stories. When you go by Ovid’s accounts in The Metamorphoses, you get the Roman names Jupiter and Juno. Then you go to another source such as Edith Hamilton’s Mythology, the story of Echo & Narcissus uses the Greek names of Zeus and Hera when retelling the story of Echo’s curse placed on her by an angry goddess.
There’s certainly nothing wrong with that. Most people knowledgeable with the Greco-Roman mythologies tend to want to use the Greek names. It just seems to be a disservice in the long run as no matter how similar the Greek gods are to their Roman counterparts and however much the myths often overlap, there are differences.
For Echo, I think it’s important to know the difference as when I started this thread of study into her stories, there’s confusion in her story and her involvement with Pan and the later Roman stories. The Greek stories came first before the Roman ones. So, I feel it’s important to take note of this, especially as Echo seems to be one of Pan’s real loves and not a momentary infatuation that sees him endlessly chasing after the nymphs.
Etymology: From the Greek word “pantes” meaning: All, everything, rustic
Other Spellings: Πάν
Other Names and Epithets: Aegocerus (“Goat-Horned”), Agreus (the Hunter), Faunus, Haliplanktos (Sea-Roaming), Innus, Kronios, Nomios (the Shepherd), Sinoeis
Pan is a familiar, half-goat, half-man or satyr deity in Greek mythology. As a god of forests and wilderness, he’s known too for inhabiting grottoes too. In his ancient Arcadian home, Pan is said to have wandered the mountain sides playing his reed pipes, aiding or hindering hunters, guarding shepherds and their flocks and his never-ending pursuit and dancing with nymphs.
Animal: Goat, Tortoise
Patron of: Shepherds
Plant: Pine, Mountain Beech, Water-Reed
Sphere of Influence: Fertility, Flocks, Rustic Music, Wilderness
Symbols: Reed Pipe, Phallus, Lagobolon (Hare Trap)
Pan is the Greek half-man, half-goat god of shepherds and flocks. A god of fertility and the wilds.
What’s In A Name?
The Latin words of the verb paô and pasco connect Pan’s name to mean “all” or the universe. The Arcadians used the word pan meaning rustic, for anything out in the country, wild and untamed.
The idea of the Greek word pan for “all” comes from Homeric Hymn where Pan is described as delighting all the gods. This word ends up being used in word play in Plato’s Cratylus where he describes Pan as a dual-natured god, a personification of the cosmos.
The Greek word: “pa” is a more likely source for Pan’s name as it translates into “Guardian of the flocks,” certainly one of the things he is known for. Interestingly “pa-on” meaning: “herdsman” is a closely related word and where the Latin pastor and the modern English word “pasture” come from.
Another source says that Pan’s name comes from the Greek word: “paein” meaning “to pasture.” Furthering the ideas, Edwin L. Brown puts forward the idea that Pan is likely a cognate to the Greek word: ὀπάων, meaning “companion.”
Early Greek Depictions
It is around 500 B.C.E. that Pan appears in Greek art. These early depictions of Pan show him as a black goat standing upright on hind legs.
Later red-figure pottery shows Pan’s image change to that of a satyr. Some might even say the father of all satyrs. He is often shown having a wrinkled face with a prominent, bearded chin, snub nose, pointed ears, goat-like horns with hairy legs and cloven hooves like a goat. playing a reed pipe. Sometimes he is shown with a shepherd’s crook and a pine branch or a crown made of pine. Often times he’s in the company of fellow satyrs and Maenads.
Coinage – In 4th century B.C.E., Pan’s image is found on coinage in Pantikapaion, for the Arcadian League.
Dual Nature – Plato’s Cratylus
This one’s interesting. Socrates discusses how Pan is a duel-nature son of Hermes. That makes sense as Pan is half man, half goat after all. Socrates goes on to explain how Hermes’ name comes from the word for “speech.” That Pan, the all things known, both true and false. The true part of Pan is the part that is smooth and divine and that he lives with the gods. The false part is the lower part that is goat, representing the baser, common man who are rough and like the tragic goat. I presume this comes from the origin for the word tragedy or tragikos, goat-song and is in reference to early, primitive performances where people wore goat-skins. A roundabout way of saying that life is nasty, short and brutish. It is among mankind that tales and falsehoods can be found.
While we’re at it, Pan was also the god of theatrical criticism.
Considered a pastoral paradise in Ancient Greece, the land “that existed before the moon,” this is the place where Pan is said to have been born, specifically on Mount Lycaeum.
Arcadia is mountainous and fertile area located in central Peloponnessus. This place is found to the south of modern-day Greece. This is the location where the seat of the ancient Greek empire once lay.
For the ancient Greeks of their day, they viewed Arcadia and those who lived there as being backwards and primitive. They weren’t held in the same light as more civilized Greeks. Outside of Greece, Pan’s worship spread as far as Egypt and other local, neighboring countries.
Athens – Around the fifth century B.C.E., after the Battle of Marathon, Pan’s worshipped arrived in this City-State.
The story goes that Pheidippides, an Athenian was to Sparta to enlist their aid against the Persians, Pan appeared before him and promised that he would terrify or panic the invaders. In return, the Athenians would begin honoring and worshipping Pan.
Shrines & Temples
Even after the Greeks began worshiping other gods and adding them to their pantheon, Pan still had shrines built, honoring and venerating him. Many of these shrines and sacred places to Pan were often in caves and grottos. There were many sanctuaries and temples dedicated to Pan throughout Arcadia, including some in places like Athens, Heraea, Homala in Turkey, Megalopolis, Mount Parthenius, Oropus, the island of Psyttaleia, and Troezene to name a few. The Korkykeion cave found on Mount Parnassos and the Vari cave in Attica are a couple of the places dedicated to Pan.
According to the ancient Greek historian, Diodorus Siculus, the Egyptians had a good number of statues of Pan in many of their temples. In Thebes, the city of Chemmis was also known as the city of Pan or Panopolis.
Caves & Grottos
Many of Pan’s sacred places were found in caves and grottos. Pan’s sacred shrines and grottos weren’t solely dedicated to him, sometimes he shared it with a local deity or nymph in the region. Sacrifices offered up to Pan included cows, rams, lambs, milk and lamb. These sacrifices would also be offered up to Pan in conjunction with Dionysus and the nymphs. Other sacrifices to Pan included statues of herdsmen, vases, lamps and gold grasshoppers. Goat sacrifices and torch races were also part of Pan’s worship at Delphi and Athens.
A few other locations for Pan’s shrines or temples are:
Acacesium – A perpetual fire was kept burning here in this time. Also at this time, there was an oracle where the nymph Erato was Pan’s priestess.
Acropolis – This shrine to Pan is hidden away in a shallow cave beneath the Acropolis in a place still wild and untamed.
Apollonopolis Magna, Egypt – A Temple of Pan is found here.
Corycian Grotto – Located near Mount Parnassus.
Nomian Hill – A shrine was located here near Lycosura.
Peloponnese – A Temple of Pan was located here on the Neda River gorge.
Well of Eresinus – Located between Argos and Tegea
Mystery Cults – During the Hellenistic era, Pan becomes a cognate to the Phanes/Protogonos, Eros, Dionysus and Zeus.
Youngest To Oldest
In the Greek pantheon, Pan is considered the youngest of the gods. That makes sense if Hermes is Pan’s father. Making Zeus his great grandfather and Apollo his grandfather. At the same time, Pan is also considered the oldest god as records of his worship date to the 6th century B.C.E. in Arcadia. Mythical evidence seems to back this with Pan being the one who gives Artemis her hunting dogs and teaches Apollo the secrets to prophecy.
This likely makes sense too that for all that Pan being a rustic, rural god, was seen by the Greeks as representing the connection between the wildernesses and civilization. In Arcadia he would enjoy being a major god, but else where he was reduced to a minor god and not counted among the twelve major Olympian gods. So how ever minor his role seemed to have taken on, his influence and importance were not denied or forgotten.
Parentage and Family
Grandfather or Great Grandfather
As the grandson or great grandson of Cronos, Pan is known as Kronios.
The parentage for Pan is greatly varied and murky. Depending on the source that one uses, a different set of parents will be mentioned. That kind of makes sense when seeing Pan as a nature god, that he could be older than the other Olympian deities. Depending on which one you read, will be which one you decide to go with.
Father – Hermes, nearly every myth concerning Pan’s birth agrees on this. Sometimes another deity, Aegipan is given as Pan’s father. Even the gods Apollo, Cronus, Dionysus, Uranus, or Zeus could be mentioned as Pan’s father. Others like Amphinomos, Antinoos and Odysseseus are mentioned as Pan’s father.
According to Euhemerus, a 4th century B.C.E. mythographer, Aegipan (or Pan) was married to Aex and when she had an affair with Zeus, she bore the god Pan to him. In this instance, Pan was called Aegipan.
Mother – There are many different myths regarding who Pan’s mother is.
In no particular order, they are: Dryope the daughter of Dryopos, Thymbris, Penelope (There are two Penelopes of note here. The first one, Hermes visited in the form of a ram. The second Penelope is of Odysseus fame as she proved to be unfaithful while she waited for Odysseus to return home). Nonnus’ Dionysiacs is where Penelope of Mantineia in Arcadia, a nymph. This Penelope is later confused or combined with the Penelope, the wife of Odysseus. Oeneios, some random Nereid, Sose, and Callisto. Even the goddesses Aprodite and Hecate are sometimes mentioned as being Pan’s mother.
Sometimes Pan’s parentage is given as being Uranus and Ge or that of Aether and Oeneios.
That seems a little odd to think of Pan as having any spouse. Given Pan’s later reputation for chasing around after all the Nymphs and seducing anyone who’s female…. There’s actually a few that Pan actually truly loved.
Aix – Also spelled Aex, she is a goat or a nymph who took the shape of a goat. Her connection to Pan seems more sure if you count Aegipan and Pan as being one and the same person.
Echo – This one is rather tragic, the story is given in full later.
Pitys – A nymph who turned herself into a pine in order to elude Pan’s advances.
Syrinx – A more well known Syrinx who changed herself into a bed of reeds to escape from Pan’s unwanted advances.
The satyrs in general were all considered kin to Pan, if not his sons, Laertes, Circe and the Maenads.
Agreus – A half-brother by way of Hermes, part of a “Pan Triad.”
Arcas – the twin brother to Pan, when Zeus is seen as the father. That is, if you accept the source of Kerenyi’s work of Aeschylus in Rheus noting there being two Pans.
Daphnis – A half-brother by way of Hermes.
Nomios – A half-brother by way of Hermes, part of a “Pan Triad.”
Akis – Also spelled Acis, he is the son of Pan (or rather Faunus) and the nymph Symaethis.
Eurymedon – Of the Seven Against Thebes fame, he said to be the son of Pan given how he fought fiercely in battle, causing others to panic.
Iambe – With Echo, Pan is the father of Iambe, a minor goddess of verse.
Iynx – With Echo, Pan is the father of Iynx, a girl who took the form of a bird.
Krenaios – Also spelled Crenaeus, he is the son of Pan (or rather Faunus) and the nymph (more accurately a Nereid) Ismenis. Crenaeus fought fiercely in the Seven Against Thebes, even more so in the river Ismenis of his mother’s name sake.
Krotos – With Eupheme, Pan fathered Krotos, a minor god who invented the hunting bow and rhythmic beats or clapping in music.
Silenus – This one is a bit dubious, as he is sometimes considered older than all of the satyrs and sometimes his parentage is given as being the son of Hermes and Gaia.
The Panes – All the satyr and local woodland deities including the fauns. According to Nonnus’ Dionysiaca, there are twelve Panes who lived in caves and claimed Pan as their father. They are known for having accompanied Dionysus in his War with India. These Panes were:
Aigikoros, Argennon, Argos, Daphoineus, Eugeneios, Glaukos, Kelaineus, Omester, Philamnos, Phobos, Phorbas, and Xanthos
What A Pane
Nearly every region of Ancient Greece had a regional woodland deity, many of them local satyr deities that all came to be identified as just different aspects of Pan. These multiple Pans or Panes were also known as Paniskoi or “little Pans.”
Satyrs weren’t necessarily gods in themselves, but nature spirits known for all sorts of carousing and chasing after nymphs, eating and drinking. The Romans would know these nature spirits by the name of fauns or incubi, the Celts believed in Dusios or dusii for plural. Much like the plural of Pan being Panes, the plural of satyr is Satyri.
This association with these local deities, gave rise to Pan being known by many names and seen as a universal god. Some of these local deities are as follows:
Aegipan – A goat-fish god connected to the constellation Capricorn.
Aristaeus – God of flocks, agriculture, bee-keeping, viticulture in Northern Greece. Like Pan, Aristaeus also held the title of Agreus (the Hunter) and Nomios (the Shepherd).
Marsyas – A Phrygian satyr also known for playing the pan pipes.
Priapus – A local god whose images have been found at Pompeii
Silenus – Knowledge and viticulture
Sybarios – An Italian version of Pan who was worshiped in the Greek colony found at Sybaris, Italy. This Sybarite Pan is the son of a Krathis, a sheperd and a she-goat.
As a triad, Pan was known as Agreus, Nomios, and Phorbas. Each seen as a separate entity and not just as a title of Pan’s.
In Nonnus’ Dionysiaca, two of the Panes, Agreus (Hunter) and Nomios (Shepherd) are merely different aspects of Pan. By the same account, they are the sons of Hermes with two Nymphs. The first is Sose, a prophetess who bore Agreus who inherited Sose’s gift for prophecy and would become a god of the hunt. The second is a nymph by the name of Penelope (not to be confused with the one of Odysseus fame) who bore Nomios known for playing the reed shepherd’s pipes or syrinx, shepherd, and seducing Nymphs. It has been said that many of the stories about Pan are actually about Nomios.
Agreus and Nomios are often taken to be two different aspects of Pan, indicating a dual nature to the half-goat god as both wise prophet and a lusty, amorous beast.
Phorbas would later join these two. Phorbas’ name means “giver of grazing” and has been noted as a play on the word phobos for “fear.”
The Birth Of Pan
Regardless of who is considered Pan’s mother, it’s generally agreed that she ran away at the sight of this already fully developed infant sporting horns, covered in hair, complete with beard, goat tail and legs with cloven hooves. Hermes however, took his son up to Olympus where the other gods were immediately delighted with him, especially Dionysus. The nymphs would raise Pan.
One of the nymphs to raise the infant Pan was Sinoe. From her, Pan received the epitaph of Sinoeis.
As a side note, the Homeric Hymn has the nurse being the one frightened by the sight of Pan and running away.
Where Penelope, the wife of Odysseus is listed as Pan’s mother, she was seduced by Antinous. When Odysseus returned Penelope to her father Ikarios, she gave birth to Pan when she arrived at Mantineia in Arcadia. With Penelope as Pan’s mother, he is clearly a demigod who became fully immortal.
A fertility deity, Pan is known for being very lusty as a symbol of male sexuality and carnal desire. Spring is the time for fertility, so it makes sense that Pan what he’s known for doing best, sex. There’s just no way around it.
Pan is very famous for his stories of endlessly chasing after nymphs who, to elude the lusty, rutting god, would turn into trees and rocks. These same stories were also used by the ancient Greeks to explain the many varieties of plants and natural features with how they came to be.
Nudity was a common thing among the Greeks, seen as being very natural and not holding any of the stigmas against it that are found with later cultural, especially religious taboos. It just is, nothing sexual about it.
Pan on the other hand… Part and parcel to Pan’s sexual prowess, one of his symbols is a phallus. Meant in joking tones, Diogenes of Sinope tells how Pan learned masturbation form his father, Hermes and then went on to teach it to shepherds. As such, it’s not uncommon to find ancient Greek art depicting Pan having an erection, he was just that sexually active.
Sex for the sake of it. That is part of who Pan is, bringing out the wild, untamed natural man to give into primal desires to satisfy momentary, carnal lust. If you want a love god for someone to fall in love with for a life partner, Pan is not your deity. Try Aphrodite or Eros for better results. For the ancient Greeks and Pan especially, he held many sexual partners and would move from one to the next with ease.
Rest assured, the ancient Greeks did see a need for having a main partner and a need to have someone you were with to create a better sense of family and unity. But engaging with a new partner from time to time could lead to something new and a change of pace.
When in Rome, only this was Greece.
Pan & The Nymphs
Pan is often mentioned as a companion to the nymphs of the woods, mountains and rivers. As a god of fertility, Pan also has a reputation that may or may not be deserved as being very lusty and constantly chasing after the nymphs as they flee from his unwanted advances. It all starts off well and good, he would join their dances and play his reed pipes, then soon enough comes the rutting and the chasing after. The nymphs would very likely be the original #MeToo crowd. They do manage to get their revenge on him at one point where they set upon Pan while he’s asleep to tie him up and shaved off his beard.
This part comes from Philostratus the Elder in his Imagines 2 where he describes a painting of the Bucolic Nymphs having tied up Pan and shaved off his beard as they say they will persuade Echo to no longer respond to him.
Even Artemis, the goddess of the Hunt and Moon got fed up with Pan’s behavior as her retinue of virgin followers and nymphs would grow smaller every time Pan or any of the satyrs came around.
Maenads – Aside from the Nymphs, Pan also got on well with the Maenads, the female followers of Dionysus rather well too. Now, either did this one by one or would multiply into a host of Panes to satisfy them all.
Pity – This poor nymph eluded Pan’s advances by turning into a Mountain Fir.
Pan Girls – With Pan’s rather lusty nature, Greek girls back then were known as Pan Girls when they displayed the same behavior.
Where The Wild Things Roam
A nature god, Pan’s domains were all of wildernesses. Grottoes, meadows, forests, beasts and even human nature itself. All of it is Pan’s domain. During the heat of the day, Pan would sleep and didn’t take kindly to anyone who disturbed him. Pan is described too as a god heard, but not seen.
Bees – As a god of nature and wild things, it stands to reason that among many of the things that Pan cared and watched over would include bees too. Like was previously stated, all of wilderness.
Fishing – Coastal areas and the success of local fishermen were also under Pan’s province.
God Of The Hunt – As a god of the wild places, Pan is also a god of the hunt, hunting dogs and he could decide a hunter’s success or not. In Arcadia, hunters would whip or scourge statues of Pan if their hunting failed.
God Of Shepherds And Flocks – In Pan’s homeland of Arcadia, there were many shepherding groups, most of whom herded goats and sheep. Pan protected the herds and flocks both wild and domestic. Pan would even help shepherds find their way back to the towns and cities. This role clearly placed Pan as the guardian of the wilds and civilization.
Panic At The Parthenon!
Pan’s name is the basis by which the word “panic” originates. It is one of the things that Pan is known for, causing a sudden or great fear in people. There are a couple myths given as an explanation for this.
Afternoon Naps – Sleep is good. The afternoons are when Pan is known to take his naps and woe to anyone who disturbed him from his sleep. But hey, who wouldn’t be cranky when woken up from their sleep. That’s right, run for the hills.
Music – Pan’s music that he played on his reed pipes could inspire panic in anyone who heard it. With it, Pan’s music could lower people’s inhibitions, an ecstasy brought on by listening to the music and dancing. A lowered inhibition that could either inspire or bring on a madness.
Panolepsia – During the Hellenistic era, Pan’s popularity increased and it is at this time he became associated with the word panic, an emotion known to overcome soldiers on the battle field. This violent emotion, known as panolepsia could overcome any individual person, inside and outside of battle.
Titanomachy – The first myth given is that Pan was present when Zeus defeated the Titans during the great Titanomachy. The claim then is that Pan’s yelling caused the Titans to flee.
Battle Of Marathon – The Athenians began worshiping Pan after he helped them out with causing panic among the invading Persians.
Nighttime Pranks – The second myth given is that Pan would make noises to scare away travelers in his protected forests.
God Of Rustic Music
When he wasn’t busy chasing nymphs, Pan could be found playing his famous reed pipes and dancing with the wood nymphs. Pan’s skill with music was such that he could cause inspiration, promiscuity or panic depending on what he wanted. The reed pipes were synonymous with rustic music as they were relatively cheap and easy to make with cutting reeds to different lengths and stopping them up with something like wax.
One of Pan’s more famous and well-known myths. Syrinx was just one of many nymphs that Pan would endlessly pursue. She was a water-nymph and the daughter of the river-god Landon. One day, as Syrinx returned from hunting, she encountered Pan who became infatuated with her. To escape his unwanted advances, Syrinx fled from Mount Lycaeum down to the Ladon river, there she pleaded with her sisters (or sometimes Zeus) to change her into a bed of water reeds. When Pan narrowly missed grabbing Syrinx, he discovered that when he blew air through the reeds, they made a noise. A forlorn Pan, mourning the loss of Syrinx, took the reeds and crafted his famous reed pipes or Syrinx from them.
Daphnis – The son of Hermes and a nymph, a shepherd, he invented pastoral poetry. He is one of many whom Pan taught how to play the pan pipes or syrinx.
Pindar – A poet said to be loved by Pan for singing and dancing to his music. Pindar built a sanctuary dedicated to Pan outside his house.
Olympus’ Got Talent!
In the original version of this story, Pan is equated with the Phrygian satyr, Marsyas. In the original telling of events, Marsyas is punished for having challenged the god Apollo.
However, other versions of this story have Pan and Apollo having a music contest with a local deity, Timolus set to be the judge. King Midas (as in the one with the golden touch) was there by happen stance as at this time, he was now a follower of Pan and followed him around.
When Apollo and Pan completed their different musical scores, Timolus was all set to call Apollo the winner. Midas spoke up and said that it should be Pan who was the winner. This angered Apollo and in retribution, he changed Midas’ ears into those of an ass.
You just can’t win.
One version of this story has it that both Apollo and Pan were tied, so they held a second round. This time around, Apollo said that they should play their instruments upside-down. Apollo was unaffected with playing upside-down, Pan however, was unable to play his reed pipes. Thus Apollo won the contest.
The Mother Goddess
In Pindar’ Pythian Ode, Pan is mentioned as a being either a follower or consort to the mother goddess. This is very likely either Cybele or Rhea whom is seen as a synonymous with Cybele.
Pindar makes mention of virgins worshiping Cybele and Pan near his home in Boetia.
Pan and Rhea alike are deities of the mountains and wild places. In a fragment of Pindar’s Maiden Songs, Pan is mentioned as the companion to Rhea and the warder or guardian of holy shrines.
There’s an episode in Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica where Rhea becomes angry with the king of Kyzican for killing one of her sacred lions and Pan descending on the city of Kyzikos at night yelling loudly to disturb the flocks to panic and stampede and bring terror to the city in revenge at Rhea’s command.
Another source I found for this, replaced Rhea’s name with that of Cybele’s. This isn’t too surprising, when you see Rhea and Cybele as the same deity, just different names from different Greek and Roman cultures. It almost seems like a matter of preference when someone retelling the Greco-Roman stories flip-flops back and forth with the names used.
Pan is known to be part of Dionysus’ retinue accompanying many other prominent paniskoi, satyrs and rustic deities, causing a lot of rowdy behavior and riots characteristics of such bacchanalias.
Dionysus’ Indian War – When Dionysus went to war with the country of India, Pan was among the many satyroi and panes who accompanied him.
God Of Prophesy
Being the grandson to Apollo, that makes sense that Pan would have inherited some of the family tendency to foretell the future. According to some accounts, Pan is to have taught Apollo the prophetic arts. In the sanctuary of Despoine in Arcadia, the nymph Erato served as one of Pan’s prophetess’. Similarly, the Korykian cave, another Oracular site was held sacred to the nymph Korkykiai and Pan.
Pan & Typhon – Capricorn
In Greek mythology, the constellation, Capricorn is known as Pan and he is usually portrayed as the son of Hermes. He had the upper half of a man and the legs of a goat. How Pan becomes associated with the constellation of Capricorn is that one day when Pan and the other Gods were down by the Nile River, they were attacked by the monster Typhon. The Gods all changed themselves into various animals and forms in order to escape. In the confusion and panic, Pan jumped into the Nile River, intending to change into a fish, but only his lower half changed while his upper half turned into a goat. When the other Gods saw this half-goat, half-fish form of Pans, they laughed so much and decided to place an image of it up among the stars where it becomes the Capricornus or Capricorn constellation.
In a more elaborate retelling of the story of the Greek Gods versus Typhon, while the Gods did change into various animal forms, Zeus changed into the form of the ram, Aries and remained in this form for a while. Other gods like Aphrodite and Eros became a pair of fish that form the constellation of Pisces. Now Aegipan had also transformed himself into an animal to escape Typhon, but he was already halfway submerged in the Nile River when he finally decided what animal form he would be. He had decided to be a goat, but only from the waist up and a fish from the waist down. And its this result of indecision during panic and trying to escape that results in the familiar half-goat, half-fish from of Capricorn.
Zeus finally reappears back in his own form and battles against Typhon, but he was however defeated. Typhon proceeds then to cut out the tendons of Zeus’ hands and feet and therefore unable and helpless to move. Typhon hid the tendons in a cave in the land of Cilicia. The draconic being known as Delphyne, a half-serpent, half-woman creature was tasked by Typhon to guard Zeus’ tendons.
Between the gods Hermes and Aegipan, they were able to steal back Zeus’ tendons and return them, so Zeus could become whole again. With his strength restored, Zeus was now able to battle Typhon again and this time, defeated him hurling thunderbolts at him. For Aegipan’s role in this battle the Titan, Zeus set the Capricorn constellation up in the stars to honor him.
Aegipan or Pan?
Well now that all depends… some scholars will say that Aegipan is a separate deity from Pan like Nomios and Phorbas who are collectively called the Panes. Other scholars will say that the Panes are merely different aspects of the same god, in this case, Pan.
Additionally, Aegipan is sometimes said to be the father of Pan and not Hermes. It can create for a lot of confusion. Which is what Pan is good at and hence the origin of the word panic. There is also a 5th century B.C.E. Greek vase depicting both Pan and Aegipan as separate beings.
Pan And Demeter
In this story, Demeter and Poseidon are married. After a falling out with Poseidon and the abduction of her daughter Persephone by Hades, Demeter became very distraught, clothing herself in black and hiding away in a cave. Because of this, with Demeter being an agricultural and fertility goddess, nothing grew and there came a famine upon the land. None of the gods knew where Demeter had gone. Pan returned to his home of Arcadia and began wandering the country side and mountains. Eventually, Pan made his way to Mount Elaios where he found Demeter hiding in her cave. Pan reported back to Zeus that he had found Demeter and the Moirai was sent to Demeter and a peace between her and Hades that resulted in the familiar cycle of seasons.
Pan And Echo
Another nymph (a minor mountain deity) by the name of Echo. Most stories have her spurning Pan’s advances and eventually she fades away, leaving behind only her voice to answer or echo Pan’s calls to her.
Beauty Contest – This story tells how Echo, being a rather beautiful nymph and musically inclined; being able to sing and play several different instruments. Like all her nymph sisters, Echo lived deep within the forests, spurning the love of mortals and immortals alike.
Before this, there had been an Achilles, the son of Zeus and the Lamia. Now Achilles was incredibly handsome and along with several others, entered a beauty contest with Aphrodite. Acting as judge was Pan who was the most fairest of them all. Aphrodite grew angry with Pan and she cursed Pan with an unrequited love for Echo, whom he pursued relentlessly.
To try and reconcile this version of the story with the below one in Daphnis & Chloe, it makes sense that in his madness, that Pan would incite his shepherd followers to descend upon Echo to tear her apart.
That afterword, Gaia taking pity and having favored Echo, gathers up the pieces of her broken, scattered body to the earth and that all that remained was Echo’s voice. It really makes sense that in mourning, that Echo is chasing after the sound of Echo’s voice every time he hears her repetitive call. It makes sense for Pan to be mentioned as forever chasing after his student that he can never find.
Daphne & Chloe – This story has Echo getting torn to pieces by shepherds after Pan incites them to riot and Gaia then gathering up the broken pieces of Echo’s body to hide within the earth. That only thing to remain was Echo’s repeating voice.
Thebes, Egypt – Here, there was a cave that was shaped like a shepherd’s pipe and a marble statue of a satyr. Pan visited this cave and was delighted by the music of the flute, yet held firmly to Echo in fear so she wouldn’t echo a response to the marble statue.
Apuleius, The Golden Ass – A 2nd century C.E. Roman novel, the author Apuleius describes Pan as sitting by the banks of a stream with Echo in his arms as he teaches her his music and songs.
Suda – In this fragments of poetry and story, Echo is described as bearing the children Iambe and Iynx to Pan.
There must have been a real relation between Echo and Pan and not just the lusty, rutting of a goat-god. It’s unfortunate as it does seem the ire of Aphrodite cause Pan to go into madness and kill his one real love. Given the lusty reputation of Pan for chasing nymphs, Echo’s demise being caused by Aphrodite seems to have been over looked and lumped in as just another failed conquest.
In this story, Pan is in a rut, chasing after the Queen of Lydia, Omphale. On the night that Pan was to arrive, Omphale persuaded Hercules to switch clothes with her. So when an amorous Pan showed up and slipped into Omphale’s bed, he’s promptly kicked across the room by Hercules.
After that, Pan banned the wearing of any clothes at his religious rites and rumors began spreading about Hercules being a transvestite.
Pan And Selene
Selene is considered perhaps the greatest of Pan’s sexual conquests. He managed to woo and seduce the moon goddess Selene by wearing a sheep skin in order to hide his black goat features. Seeing her reflection in the white sheep skin, Selene came down from the night sky and Pan was able to woo and seduce her. By one account, this is how “The Man in the Moon” came to be.
Pan And Psyche
Thankfully, we can see that Pan isn’t all lusty goat-god out to ravage everyone he sees. After Psyche lost her lover, Eros, she went wandering in great despair. When Psyche’s wandering brought her the banks of a river, she intended to throw herself in it to drown.
Luckily for Psyche, both Pan and Echo were nearby as Pan was teaching Echo his songs. Seeing Psyche in her despair, Pan called her to him. Seeing how love-sick she was, Pan told Psyche not to kill herself but instead to make prayers and seek out the attention of Eros so she could eventually draw him back to her. After receiving the advice, Psyche went on her way.
The idea of Pan’s name becoming associated with the meaning of “all” and Pan being a god of all, a universal deity comes about during Roman times. Over a period as the meanings of a word or words change or become confused.
It makes sense, Pan being a god of the wild places and all of nature, even human nature.
Pan Is Dead!?!
In Plutarch’s “The Obsolescence of Oracle,” he mentions that Pan is the only Greek god who is dead. According to this account, during the reign of Tiberius (between 14-37 C.E.) there had come news of Pan’s death to a sailor by the name of Thamus. The ship that Thamus was one was headed for Italy and when they passed by the Echinades islands, specifically, the island of Paxi, a divine called out to Thamus asking: “Thamus, are you there? When you reach Palodes, take care to proclaim that the great god Pan is dead.” The voice is to have called out three time to Thamus and when they reached their destination, Thamus spread the word of Pan’s passing much to others dismay.
The Rumors Of Pan’s Demise….
Now, it has been put forward by others such as Robert Graves, Salomon Reinach and James S. Van Teslaar, that Thamus and those onboard the ship may have misheard what was said. That it was: “the all-great Tammuz is dead” and not “Thamus, Great Pan is dead.” As the phrase spoken, “Thamus Panmegas tethneke” that is to have been said could easily have been misunderstood by those who didn’t speak the language.
When Pausanias traveled through Greece a century later after Plutarch, he discovered that a good many of Pan’s shrines and sacred places were still very much so in use. Jump forward to the 18th century C.E. and Christians have taken Plutarch’s words for gospel truth and have repeated it for history and allegorical truths with the passing of older, ancient orders and for a new age. Poets like John Milton have used the cry of: “Great Pan is dead!” taken to using this line in their poetry.
Are Greatly Exaggerated
To complicate this, even if Pan were dead, he wouldn’t have been the first deity or immortal to die. There’s Chiron, who died of a poisoned arrow and then you have Dionysus who was killed by the Titans. You could count the gorgon Medusa among this number for Greek immortals, only the stories will say she was really just mortal as the Greeks cling to the idea that an immortal can’t really, truly die. That’s only the Greek mythology without touching any other mythologies.
Seeing as this looks like it all stems from a misunderstanding or mistranslation that once the 18th century arrived, took off in people’s imaginations. When looking among the Neopagan, New Age and Wiccan crowd, the veneration and honoring of Pan as an aspect of the Horned God is still very active.
Margaret Murray, in 1933 wrote in her book “The God of the Witches” a theory how Pan was worshiped in Europe by a witch cult. This book is what has contributed to many modern Pagan and Wiccan religions using the Horned God as a symbol of male sexuality and prowess.
The important thing to remember with the 18th century is that this when Pan also makes a come back in literature. He makes an appearance in “The Wind and the Willows.” James Barrie’s famous character of Peter Pan is in part based off of Pan. Not just the last name of Pan, but a strong connection is made in “Peter Pan in Kensington’s Garden” where a young Peter is seen riding a goat.
That’s just a few of the works of literature or poetry to be inspired by and use Pan.
The Devil You Know…
One thing that seems so obvious, when looking at most Christian versions of the devil is the similarity of imagery with Pan, the horns and the cloven hooves. Much of medieval and even post-medieval Christian imagery in literature and art depicts a dark caricature of Pan as the devil or Satan. It really seems unmistakable. Ronald Hutton has noted that this imagery tends to be more modern and is influenced by Pan’s popularity during the Victorian and Edwardian eras.
Pushan – Hindu God
A Vedic solar god and guardian of flocks and herds. This is more of a modern idea as scholars see Pushan’s name as originating from a Proto-Indo-European god: Péhusōn, an important pastoral deity. It is thought that Péhusōn shares a root word with the English word “pasture.” As a result, the idea then comes that Pushan is a cognate of Pan. The German scholar, Hermann Colitz proposed the idea in 1924 of connecting Pan with Pushan.
Faunus – Roman God
The ancient Romans identified Pan with their own woodland deity of Faunus or Inuus.
Faunus is a vegetation deity as well as a god of prophecy and shepherds, so it’s easy to see how the Romans would come to equate the two gods as being one and the same. It is noteworthy to mention that only after the Faunus’ association with Pan did his depiction in art begin to change and become more like Pan’s with the goat hooves and horns. Some Roman accounts have Faunus as the son of the god Mars (Greek Ares) instead of Mercury (Greek Hermes). Faunus is known as the father of Bona Dea or Fauna.
Inuus being a fertility god and a god of shepherds was often used more as an epitaph of Faunus rather than a separate deity.
Also Known As: Saint Nicholas, Saint Nick, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, Santa (Santy in Hiberno-English), Mikulás (Hungary), Weihnachtsmann “Christmas man” (German)
That’s right, the jolly, big man in red who brings presents to all of the good boys & girls around the world on Christmas Eve or December 24th for Christmas Day.
The American Santa Claus that many have come to know and love, is often shown as a jolly, stout or portly man with a white beard who wears a red coat and pants with white trim, black boots and belt with a large sack of gifts ready to pass out for children. This imagery of Santa Claus became ingrained in the American psyche with Clement Clark Moore’s poem: “A Visit from St. Nicholas.”
But how did we get here to this beloved holiday figure?
A Santa By Any Other Name….
The mythos of Santa that we have all come to know and love is ultimately a composite and influenced by many numerous cultures, especially those found throughout Europe.
Amu Nowruz – This was the most interesting one to learn about. The figure of Amu Nowruz is a familiar one in Iranian and other Middle Eastern cultures for their celebrations of the New Year that coincides with the official start of Spring. In Iranian tradition, Amu Nowruz appears every year at the start of Spring along with his companion Haji Firuz. Their appearance marks the beginning of Nowruz, the New Year. Amu Nowruz is often depicted as an elderly, silver or white-haired man wearing a felt hat, long blue clock, sash, pants, sandals, and carrying a walking stick. Amu Nowruz’s role is to pass on the story of Nowruz to the young.
I mention bring up Amu Nowruz because of the timing for the Christmas celebrations and how close it is to the European celebrations of the New Year. Anyone who looks at Christmas as the celebration of the birth of Christ, knows that shepherds guard their flocks in the springtime, when its lambing season. If you study the change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar, you know that the date for the start of the New Year was altered.
Father Christmas – The British Santa who dates to 16th century England during King Henry VIII’s reign. Father Christmas is depicted as a large man dressed in green or scarlet robes lined with fur and is seen as the spirit of good cheer during Christmas, bringing joy, food, drink and revelry much like the Spirit of Christmas Present in Dickenson’s “A Christmas Carol.” By this time, England no longer observed Saint Nicholas’ Day on December 6th. The Victorian revival of Christmas, has Father Christmas as a symbol of “good cheer.” Along with the Dutch Sinterklaas, Father Christmas is a major influence on the imagery of the American Santa Claus.
Saint Nicholas – The historical Santa Claus that many love to point out. Saint Nicholas was a 4th century Greek bishop from Myra, Turkey. Saint Nicholas is a Catholic Bishop who rides on his white horse, Amerigo as he travels. He is the patron saint of children, archers, pawnbrokers, sailors and the cities of Amsterdam and Moscow. There are stories of Saint Nicholas leaving gifts in choir boys’ shoes and throwing money down chimneys to pay for a girl’s dowry that have contributed to the modern celebrations of Saint Nicholas’ Day and Christmas. Saint Nicholas’ Day is celebrated on the 6th of December by many instead of having him come on the 24th and 25th. Martin Luther suggested the Christ kind or Christ Child is who brings presents on Christmas Day.
Sinterklaas – A figure from the Netherlands and Belgium who is a tall, stern figure known for handing out gifts to good children and switches to the naughty ones. Sinterklass rides a horse named Amerigo or Slecht Weer Vandaag. Next to Saint Nicholas, Sinterklass is another prominent figure whom many point to as the most likely progenitor to Santa Claus. In the Netherlands, Santa Claus is known as de Kerstman, “the Christmas man.” In French, Santa Claus is known as Père Noël or “Father Christmas.” Sinterklass is most noted too for his assistant(s) known as Zwarte Pieten or Pères Fouettard in French. Sinterklaas has a strong connection and influence with Saint Nicholas and his festival in Myra, Turkey. Santa Claus’ name has been pointed out as an easy phonetic spelling from the Dutch into English when Dutch immigrants in the 17th & 18th century brought their Christmas traditions and thus Sinterklaas with them to America.
Woden – Or Odin, is a Germanic god. Before the Christianization of Europe, the Germanic peoples celebrated a midwinter holiday known as Yule. Many of the Yule traditions have easily found themselves incorporated into the modern celebrations of Christmas. Yule was also a time for when the Wild Hunt would ride throughout the land. Other supernatural and ghostly happenings were to occur as well. The leader of this hunt would be Woden. Additionally, it has been pointed out, that Woden is a god of poetry and wisdom. He is also the god who brought and introduced runes, the writing system. This is seen in the Dutch traditions of singing songs, writing poems and the passing out of pepernoten which are chocolate letters, what used to be runes that Woden would pass out to men. It has been theorized by many that Woden has influenced the imagery associated with Saint Nicholas as seen with the white beard and the horse he rides.
Other Pagan Figures – There are a number of other pagan deities such as the Roman god Saturn and his celebration of Saturnalia, the Greek god Cronos, the Holly King of Celtic mythology who signifies the dying year, the Norse god Frey, even Thor who all have some influence into the modern portrayal of Santa Claus and Christmas time celebrations.
Codifying A Legend
It’s generally agreed by many that the figures of Saint Nicholas, Sinterklass and Father Christmas all play a part in merging together to create the American Santa Claus, with a few remembering Woden’s part in it too. After all, the name Santa Claus can be pointed out as a variant spelling and pronunciation to Sinterklass. The first real mention of “Santa Claus” is in 1773 in any American publications.
History of New York – A book by Washington Irving, writing in 1809, intended as a satire of the Dutch figure of Sinterklaas, he is pictured as being a thick-bellied Dutch sailor with a pipe wearing a green winter coat.
A New-Year’s Present – A book published in 1821 for children, it has the poem: “Old Santeclaus with Much Delight” written by an anonymous author. Here, Santeclaus is described as riding a reindeer pulled sleigh as he brings gifts for children.
A Visit From St. Nicholas – Better known as “The Night Before Christmas” written by Clement Clark Moore in 1823. There’s a bit of dispute, that a Henry Livingston, Jr. who passed away nine years earlier is the actual author. This book really codified and made much of Santa’s appearance lore surrounding him cannon. Here, Santa or St. Nick is described as: “chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf” with a round belly. He is also assumed to be small in stature given the description of his sleigh as miniature and being pulled by tiny reindeer. This story also gives us the names for the eight reindeer who pull Santa’s sleigh: Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donner and Blitzen. It should be noted that Donner and Blitzen names mean thunder and lightning in German. Additionally, their names had been the Dutch variations of Dunder and Blixem before getting changed.
William Gilley – A friend and neighbor to Clement Clark Moore. Gilley wrote a poem in 1821 titled Sancte Claus that also describes a Santa Claus who drives a reindeer pulled sleigh and delivers gifts by going down a chimney.
Kris Kringle – By 1845, Santa was also known by the name of Kris Kringle. Some places in the U.S. such as Pennsylvania, Santa was known as Krishkinkle.
Thomas Nast – An American cartoonist who defined the image of the American Santa as being large and heavy set. Nast did an illustration for Harper’s Weekly on January 3rd of 1863 where Santa is dressed in an American flag and a puppet by the name of “Jeff.” This was a reflection of that publication’s Civil War articles. Nast is likely the source for the part of Christmas lore that Santa lives at the North Pole with his illustration on December 29th, 1866 captioned Santa Clausville along with several other illustrations showing Santa in his workshop. Nast’s influence is been so great, that later songs, children’s books, movies, T.V. specials and even advertising continue to use it.
George P. Webster – In the same 1869 Harper Weekly publication, Webster had a poem appearing alongside some of Nast’s illustrations where Santa is described living near the North Pole, to the point, that this bit of lore has become well established in the Holiday Mythos surrounding Christmas time.
Coca-Cola Santa! – Another change to Santa’s image came in the 1930’s with Haddon Sundblom’s depiction of Santa. This of course, has led many to jump a band wagon conspiracy theory that the Coca-Cola Company invented Santa as the colors of red & white that Santa wears are the same colors as the Coca-Cola brand.
To put this conspiracy to rest, Coca-Cola is not the first soft drink company to use Santa in his familiar red & white get up to promote their products. White Rock Beverages did so in 1915 for their mineral water and then later in 1923 for ginger ale. In addition, Puck magazines used a red & white garbed Santa on their covers for the first few years of the 20th century.
He’s Making A List!
One of the things Santa is known for is maintaining a list of who all the good children are and who the naughty ones are. The good children of course get presents and the naughty ones get coal.
Letters To Santa
This is one of many traditions done by children at Christmas time. Frequently this letter is a wish list of what they hope that Santa will bring them. Wise children will know to keep the list short and not to get too greedy with their wants. Many children will also assure Santa that they’ve been doing their best to be good. Many different post offices and services will accept the letters that children have written for Santa.
The Spirit Of Giving
The very image of Santa as a gift giver has been strongly tied to many charity organizations such as Salvation Army and the number of people who seek during the holiday season to help out others. Department Store Santas and just about anyone dressed as Santa to bring gifts or to aid in fundraising efforts for those in need. In this respect, Santa Claus keeps strong connections to Father Christmas and Saint Nicholas with promoting goodwill and people being more giving and caring during this time of the year.
Whether it’s Yule or Christmas, it goes without saying, we should always be showing goodwill, giving and caring about others all year long. Since the Christmas celebrations take place in Winter, it’s especially important to remember those in need. Which is where Santa’s role as a patron Saint of Children comes into play: giving to those in need and helping to keep the magic of wonder, belief, innocence, giving and love. Life gets rough and it can get hard during the dark, cold winter months.
Coming Down The Chimney – The idea of Santa coming down the chimney to deliver his gifts, clearly connects him to his older European roots with those like Odin who would come down the chimneys on the winter solstice or the stories of Saint Nicholas where he tosses down bags of coins through a window or down a chimney to pay for a daughter’s dowry if she came from a poor family. In much of ancient European folklore, the hearth or fire place is a sacred place where the guardian spirit or fairies of a household would bring their gifts.
Stockings Hung By The Chimney With Care
Many families who celebrate Christmas have some sort of tradition with leaving stockings hung up by the fire place or laid out. This naturally references back to Saint Nicholas who was known for leaving gifts in children’s socks or shoes.
Lumps Of Coal – If a child has been particularly naughty, he or she may receive lumps of coal or a switch instead. Granted that doesn’t usually happen and is more of a warning for children to always do their best to be good.
Cookies For Santa
An offering of cookies and milk Santa Claus when he visits is fairly standard among many American families. Some will leave a carrot or two for the reindeer too.
Just what is left or offered can vary too by country.
Australia & Britain – Sherry or Beer along with mince pies are left out.
Canada & United States – Milk and Cookies are the norm.
Denmark, Norway & Sweden – Rice porridge with cinnamon sugar is left out.
Ireland – Guinness or Milk along with Christmas pudding or mince pies.
“Ho, Ho, Ho! Merry Christmas” is perhaps the most iconic saying associated with Santa Claus. No just any laugh, but a deep belly laugh that is associated with happiness. Anything less, just isn’t Santa. The imagery of Santa Claus be rather rotund is seen as an important attribute of his and immortalized in Clement’s iconic poem: “A Visit from St. Nicholas” for the classic lines:
“. . . a little round belly
That shook when he laugh’d, like a bowl full of jelly”
The North Pole
The north pole is where Santa is said to reside, far away from much of the world so he and especially his elves can craft toys to be delivered. The idea of Santa living at the North Pole likely originated with the artist Thomas Nast and author George P. Webster. This locality has grown up from a simple House and Workshop to a full-blown village where Santa and his helpers live.
Canada – According to the Canadian Post, Santa Claus’ postal code is H0H 0H0, as in his traditional “Ho, Ho, Ho” laugh that Santa is well known for. In 2008, Santa Claus was awarded Canadian citizenship by the Canadian minister of Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism, Jason Kenney. This way, after Santa Claus finishes his annual, nightly rounds, he can return straight home to Canada and the North Pole without hassle.
Kyrgyzstan – There is a mountain peak named for Santa Claus. A Swedish company suggested that this mountain was more likely to be a better place for Santa to launch is gift-giving campaign from to all over the world. In 2007, a Santa Claus Festival was held in Bishkek, the Kyrgyz capital. 2008 was declared the Year of Santa Claus.
Lapland – A region in Finland. It was pointed out in 1925 that Santa couldn’t possibly live at the North Pole as his reindeer would nowhere to graze. Radio Host “Uncle Markus” Rautio for the Finnish radio show the “Children’s Hour” revealed that Santa lives in Lapland’s Korvatunturi, meaning “Ear Fell.” It makes sense as the whole of Lapland has been pointed out to be shaped like a rabbit’s ear and it would enable to Santa to be able to hear the Christmas wishes of children the world over.
Nordic Claims – Several Nordic countries claim that Santa lives within their borders. Norway for example says that Santa lives in Drøbak. Meanwhile, Denmark claims that Santa lives in Greenland. In Finland, Korvatunturi is claimed as Santa’s home.
At first, early depictions of Santa show him making his gifts by hand in a workshop. Later, Santa is shown with a number of helpers in his annual, nightly task. After all, Santa can’t be everywhere, though he’ll do his best.
Babouschka – In Russia, Babouschka is an elderly woman who misled the Wise Men on their way to Bethlehem. Later, she regretted the decision and unable to find the Wise Men, Babouschka has since then, visited the homes of Russian children, hoping that one of them is the baby Jesus when she leaves her gifts.
Belsnickel – A figure who follows Santa Claus in some regions of Europe such as Germany and Austria, he is similar to Krampus in that he will punish naughty children.
Christkind – Or Kris Kringle is known to deliver gifts to children to Switzerland and Germany. Christkind, meaning “Christ child” is an angelic being who helps Santa.
Ded Moroz and the Snow Maiden – Ded Moroz or Grandfather Frost is accompanied by his granddaughter, Snegurochka the Snow Maiden in the Slavic countries. Ded Moroz was once an evil wizard who kidnapped children. Ded Moroz and his granddaughter arrive on the New Year’s Eve or Day bringing gifts as he tries to atone for his one evil ways.
Elves – To make all of the toys that Santa gives out on Christmas Eve, he has the aid of a number of elves who work in his workshop. As time went on and moved into the industrial era, the means by which the elves craft and then manufacture the toys has changed.
Fake Santas! – No! That can’t be! Yet, inevitably, some bright and clever child will point out that the Mall Santa isn’t really Santa Claus. As a wise adult will point out and counter, that is because Santa Claus can’t be everywhere and that the adult dressed as Santa is just one of many, numerous helpers throughout a busy and chaotic holiday season. Many young children will generally except this explanation without question. Though older children do seem more prone to skepticism.
Father Christmas – Father Christmas, however similar to Santa he is, it is Father Christmas who comes filling stockings in Britain.
Jultomten – If you’re in Scandinavia, an elf by the name of Jultomten who brings in a sleigh drawn by goats.
Krampus – German for “claw,” the figure of Krampus hails from the Alpine countries in Austria and Germany. Krampus has seen a revival in more recent years as a dark figure and companion to Santa Claus where he scares or beats naughty children into behaving.
La Befana – The Italian Christmas Witch, La Befana is very similar to Babouschka as she too searches for the baby Jesus and delivers gifts to children on January 6th, the Epiphany.
La Pere Fouettard – “The Whipping Father,” Pere Fouettard accompanies the French Pere Noel on his nightly visit of December 5th where like Belsnickel, Krampus and Zwarte Piete, he will punish naughty children.
Pere Noel – Or Papa Noel, is a figure like Father Christmas and Santa, he is who comes bringing gifts to children in France. Instead of reindeer, Pere Noel rides a donkey named Gui, meaning “mistletoe.”
Reindeer – And not just any reindeer, eight of them that help pull Santa’s sleigh and fly through the night delivering gifts. The eight reindeer are as follows: Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donner and Blitzen. It should be noted that Donner and Blitzen names mean thunder and lightning in German. Further, only female reindeer keep their antlers in winter.
Rudolph – The ninth reindeer who has a glowing nose. Rudolph entered the Santa Claus mythos in 1939 when Robert L. May wrote the story for the Montgomery Ward department store to help drive up holiday traffic and sales. May used a similar rhyme like Moore’s “Twas the Night Before Christmas” to tell Rudolph’s story. Later, one of May’s friends, Johnny Marks turn Rudolph’s story into the well familiar song. The rest is history as there are television specials and books featuring Rudolph and his adventures.
Tomte – Hailing from the Scandinavian countries, the Tomte or Nisse as small gnome-like characters who bring gifts.
Zwarte Piete – A helper and companion to the Dutch Sinterklaas. Early depictions of Zwarte Piete show him as a punisher while later depictions have tried to soften the image.
What About Mrs. Claus?
As this seems to have been a thing that weighs on some people’s minds, many authors have written, saying that yes, Santa Claus is married.
Just what does she do? Besides stay home and take care of the house and all of the elves? I personally imagine her being La Befana, the Italian Christmas Witch. Hey, not everyone believes in Santa and there’s other Christmas time figures who all likely deliver gifts to their respective areas and those who believe in them.
Tracking Santa On His Nightly Runs
With the arrival of the internet age, there have come many websites and even a few T.V. programs that will track Santa Claus on his nightly run during Christmas. Many of these sites have come and gone over the years. The most amusing origin of one such site, NORAD came about when in 1955, a Sears ad misprinted the phone number that had children calling the Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) instead on Christmas Eve. When Colonel Harry Shoup, the then Director of Operations received the first phone call, he told children that there were indeed signs of Santa heading south. This kicked off a whole tradition of tracking Santa with NORAD when later in 1958, Canada and the United States created the North American Air Defense Command.
Many parents will use the websites as a means of enforcing a bedtime. That Santa can’t come if you’re still awake.
The Life And Adventures Of Santa Claus
Written by L. Frank Baum who also wrote the Wizard of Oz series, “The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus” was written in 1902 before much of the lore surrounding Santa Claus became cannon. It tells of Santa, then known as Neclaus, meaning “Necile’s Little One” how he was raised among the immortal fairy and would latter take on the role of Santa Claus after Ak, the Master Woodsman shows Neclaus the misery and poverty that other humans know.
There has been a Rankin/Bass Stop-Motion animation adaptation of this story as well as a traditionally animated adaptation of this story. Since so much of the lore surrounding Santa Claus seems pretty well set and known, “The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus” often provides an alternative spin and take on the Santa legend. To me, it’s rather satisfactory in answering how Santa got his start and became the well-known, beloved Holiday figure he is today.
With the strong connections to Wodin/Odin in the mythology behind Santa Claus, many have pointed out the more pagan origins of Christmas, of which there are indeed a lot. With Santa Claus, they will point that his garb is reminiscent of what Shamans would wear.
It was true way back then, when the colonists, mainly Puritans arrived in North American during the 17th century and first founded the American Colonies; that would later become the United States, that Santa Claus wasn’t welcomed and even banned. For the Puritans, the image of Santa Claus was too pagan, too much a part of the Roman Catholic Church and took away from the celebration of Christmas, focusing on the birth of Jesus Christ. Hell, Christmas celebrations were even banned at first. The celebrations at this time involved a lot of riotous, drunkenness and public displays of disorder. Christmas as it would be known today, didn’t exist.
At this time, with the harvest season clearly over, many of the lower class laborers coming in from the fields now had plenty of leisure time. Workers and Servants alike sought to take the upper hand with the higher ups, demanding largess in the way of money and food. Industrialists in America were all too willing to increase the work hours and fewer holidays than in Europe.
I get it, Christmas got started in the first place with the Roman Catholic Church trying to appease and convert Pagans to Christianity. Many pagan holidays got replaced with those of Christian ones, the imagery from Pagan ones replaced with Christian ones. So you clearly get a Pagan and Christian side to the celebration of Christmas. One that can get some strongly devout followers trying to denounce the more pagan overtones, of which, Santa Claus is just one of may holiday symbols caught in the crossfire of a millennia old religious and holiday feud. Combined with the riotous drunken revelries, its easy to see why early devout Puritans and Calvinists didn’t want to observe Christmas.
Not until after the Revolutionary War did Christmas start being celebrated, this time they included Santa Claus. We can thank all the later immigrants who brought their Christmas traditions and brought Father Christmas and Sinterklaas who would blend together to become the familiar, beloved Santa Claus. Otherwise, Christmas as many in the U.S. would come to know it, wouldn’t exist.
The 19th century saw a cultural change. There was getting to be more focus on family home life and seeing childhood as a precious time to be protected. Part of this saw Christmas become “tamed” and the image of Santa Claus as a friend and protector of children become prominent.
Even today, the controversy continues, you still have those who feel that Santa Claus’ presence takes away from the focus of the season, that he’s too pagan. It didn’t stop some like Reverend Nedergaard, from Copenhagen, Denmark in 1958 calling Santa a “pagan goblin.” Really?
You have those, rightfully so, who feel the holiday has gotten far too commercialized and materialistic. You can’t blame them as many retailers do take advantage of the holiday as a time to boost and market sales. So yes, you can reclaim the holiday by making sure to give others and charity, spending time with family and spend less on pricey gifts so that they are more meaningful.
Then you get into those clergy and parents who feel you shouldn’t lie to children about Santa Claus being real. Which is hard, because, you can certainly point towards the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, Turkey. He was real and lived. If you’re Christian, he became a Saint for his actions, a patron saint of children.
In a twist of irony, while some Churches still try to stamp out Santa Claus, others have found that having Santa there along with a Christmas tree and gifts actually gets people coming in. Go figure.
Childhood should be a time of wonder and hope. Yes, this is the time when many beliefs and conceptions about the world will be formed. Many children will figure out the reality of Santa Claus on their own. It should be a parent who decides to inform their child or not. Not some random stranger with a grudge who must go out of their way to destroy someone else’s fun, festivities and celebrations by enforcing their views.
In theater, we have the “Suspension of Disbelief.” You can at least do that before destroying someone else’s holiday good cheer. Go take over and live in the Grinch’s cave if you’re going to have to bah humbug the holiday season.
Also known as: 布袋, 笑佛 (Laughing Buddha), Hasne Buddha (Nepal), 胖佛 (Fat Buddha), Hotei (“cloth bag”) Japanese, Hotei-Osho (Japanese), Bo Dai or Bố Đại (Vietnamese), Hangul (Korean), Pu-Tai, Wagon Priest, Budai Luohan
Etymology: Laughing Buddha, Fat Buddha, Cloth Sack
In Chinese folklore, Budai is a Buddhist deity who has been integrated into Buddhism, Taoism and Shinto religions. The historical Budai lived during the 10th century C.E.
In art, Budai is often shown as being a very fat, bald man wearing a robe, either wearing or carrying prayer beads and has a huge belly; seen as the symbol of abundance, contentment, happiness, luck and generosity. He carries a large linen bag holding a number of precious things, even children on his back. This same bag is the source of Budai’s name. Sometimes Budai is shown sitting in a cart being pulled by boys where he is known as the Wagon Priest.
With his nickname of the Laughing Buddha, Budai is frequently shown smiling or laughing. Budai’s image is often confused with that of Gautama Buddha with Westerners, where he gets the name of the Fat Buddha. In Japan, Budai becomes known as Hotei and is one of the Seven Lucky Gods or Shichi Fukujin.
Budai Statues & Depictions
As already said, Budai is nearly always shown carrying a sack that is filled with a number of precious things such as rice plants, candy for children, food and the sadness of the world.
In Buddhist temples throughout China, statues of Budai are placed in the front part of the entrance halls. Budai is frequently shown as a stough, smiling or laughing man wearing a robe that is unable to cover his large belly. This large belly represents happiness, good luck and abundance. Some Budai statues will have small children gathered around at his feet. Another common feature of Budai statues is a begging bowl, that clearly shows him to be a Buddhist.
Because of Budai’s great association with happiness and wealth, statues of Budai can be found in many businesses and homes in China and Japan.
I Kuan Tao – Budai statues are a central part of I Kuan Tao shrines. Here, Budai is known by his Sanskrit name of Maitreya.
Budai represents the teachings of contentment, generosity, wisdom and kind-heartedness. He is also associated with luck and abundance.
Budai is the guardian and protector of children, the weak and poor. As a wandering monk, Budai is known to take sadness from people and bring them happiness.
Chinese history holds that Budai had been an eccentric Chan monk who lived during the late Liang dynasty. He had been a native of Zhejiang or Fenghua and his Buddhist name was Qieci, meaning: “Promise This.” Budai or Qieci was regarded as a man of good and loving character.
In Buddhism, the term Buddha means: “one who is awake,” as in awakened to enlightenment. There have been many figures in Buddhism who have all been revered as Buddhas. The Chan school of Buddhism teaches that all beings possess a Buddha nature within them and thus, already enlightened, they just have yet to realize it.
A few Buddhist traditions view Budai as an incarnation of Buddha or a bodhisattva.
Angida Arhat – One of the original Eighteen Arhats, meaning one who is worth or a perfected person, much like the Saints of Western Culture. In the Sakyamuni Buddhism, there is a legend wherein Angida is a talented Indian snake catcher would catch venomous snakes, thereby preventing them from biting travelers. Angida would remove the snake’s venomous fangs before releasing them. Due to these acts of kindness, Angida was able to attain bodhi or nirvana. In Chinese art, Angiha is sometimes depicted as Budhai; being rotund, mirthful and carrying a bag.
Gautama Buddha – The historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama lived during the 6th century B.C.E. in India, Nepal and much of southeast Asia. Here, Gautama is shown as being tall and slender in appearance. Whereas in China and other areas, Budai is consistently shown as being short and rotund. Both of these descriptions have been noted as being the idealized imagery of the different religions, cultural and folkloric traditions of the countries and regions after the two monks’ deaths. Many Westerners too, often confuse Budai with Gautama and Budai often does get equated or replace Gautama.
Maitreya – The Future Buddha
Budai is identified or seen as an incarnation of Maitreya, the future Buddha. In China, Budai’s image is often the main used to depict Maitreya. Among the Japanese, Maitreya is known as Miroku. There is a Buddhist hymn that Budai is to have spoken at his death that identifies him with Maitreya:
Maitreya, the true Maitreya
has billions of incarnations.
Often he is shown to people at the time;
Other times they do not recognize him.
Mi-Lo-Fo – As Hotei, Budai is often confused with the Buddhist deity known as Mi-lo-Fo.
Pu-Tai – A Chinese monk that Budai came to be associated with, who due to their good nature, was seen as the incarnation for the bodhisattva or future Buddha, Maitreya. Due to how Pu-Tai is also portrayed with having a large, rotund belly, its easy to see how he came to be known as the Laughing Buddha and connected to Budai.
Chan, Seon And Zen
Chan is Chinese, Seon is Korean and Zen is Japanese, all three are the same philosophy.
The following koan, or short story is often told about Budai. One day, Budai was out traveling, giving candy to poor children. He would only a penny from any monks or lay practitioners he met with. One day, a monk approaches Budai and asks: “What is the meaning of Zen?” (Or Chan or Seon). Budai responded by dropping his bag. The monk continued with his questions. “How does one realize Zen?” At that, Budai picked up his bag and continued on his way.
Budai is greatly admired for his congenial and jovial attitude, along with his generosity and philosophy of contentment.
One of the most persistent and popular beliefs is that of rubbing the statues of Budai to bring wealth, good luck and even prosperity.
Japanese Religion & Folklore
In Japan, Budai becomes known as Hotei who was a Buddhist monk that lived during the 16th century. Like Budai, Hotei is still greatly associated with laughter and being called the Laughing Buddha. Chinese legend holds that Hotei had been a real person, whose name was Kaishi. While the date of his birth is unknown, Hotei death is given as being March 916. The Japanese began to believe in Hotei during the Edo era. Hotei was once a Zen priest who appearance and actions didn’t go along with his fellow Zen priests. He always looked like he was up to mischief and never had a permanent place to sleep. Hotei had no desire to be a Zen Master or to gather a following of disciples. He was known for walking the streets with a sack full of candy, fruits and doughnuts that he would give out to children. His bag would also hold the fortunes for those who believe in him. Among the Chinese, he is nicknamed: Cho-Tei-Shi or Ho-Tei-Shi, which means “bag of old clothes.”
According to Japanese legend, before Zen Buddhism came to the islands, another Buddhist philosophy of questionable aesthetics was prevalent. This philosophy originated with the priest Miroku. Miroku was the patron of those who couldn’t be saved by the beliefs of Buddha. Later, Hotei’s arrival was seen and accepted by the Japanese as a second Miroku.
Laughter – This is Hotei’s essence and teachings, he used laughter to impart wisdom. This was not the laughter of laughing at jokes or making fun of others. Hotei would laugh at himself and laugh for the mere celebration of life and existence, for the joy of life. Hotei has no other philosophy, scriptures, dogmas, ideologies or any other precepts to teach. Hotei’s laughter is considered a form of meditation, to experience the joy of living and to just be living and being present in the moment.
People would gather around Hotei as at first, they thought he was mad with how often he laugh and his laugh was known for being infectious in that others would soon laugh along with him. Such was Hotei’s laughter that people would cease to be judgmental or ask questions about enlightened. People would wait for Hotei and his laughter as they found it to have a purifying quality to it that would impart a deep sense of well-being.
One story about Hotei has a villager finding him sitting beneath a tree with his eyes closed. When the villager asked why Hotei wasn’t smiling or laughing, Hotei answered that he was preparing, preparing himself for laughter as he needed go within, forget the world without and recharge himself with rest. Once he was well rested, Hotei would be ready to laugh again.
Thailand Religion & Folklore
Phra Sangkajai – Also spelled Phra Sangkachai. Budai is sometimes equated with the monk Phra Sangkajai. Both Budai and Phra Sangkajai can be found Thai and Chinese temples. Though Phra Sangkajai can be found more often in Thai temples and Budai in Chinese temples. While very similar in appearance, Phra Sangkajai is distinguished from Budai in that he has a thin trace of hair while Budai is bald. Their styles of dress are also different, Phra Sangkajai is dressed in robes folded across one shoulder, with the other bare. Budai’s robes are clearly a Chinese style that covers both of his arms and front part of his upper body uncovered.
Phra Sangkajai is credited with composing the Madhupinadika Sutra. Buddha is said to have praised Phra Sangkajai for his excellence and understanding with explaining the more sophisticated dharma in easy and correct, understandable manners.
A folk story about Phra Sangkajai tells how he was so handsome, that a man once wanted to marry Phra Sangkajai and take him for a wife. To avoid this situation, Phra Sangkajai changed his appearance to that of a fat monk. Another story tells how Phra Sangkajai was found to be so attractive, that both men and angels would compare him to the Buddha. Phra Sangkajai considered this inappropriate, changed his body so he would be rather fat.
First off, Yiguandao is a folk religion out of China that got started around the late 19th century.
In many Yiguandao shrines, statues of Budai or Maitreya as he is known can be found. In Yiguandao, Maitreya represents a number of teachings such as: contentment, generosity, wisdom and open kind-heartedness. It is believed that Maitreya will succeed Gautama Buddha as the next Buddha and help people to realize their own spiritual essence within that connects everyone.
Shichi Fukujin – Seven Lucky Gods
In Japan, the Seven Lucky Gods or Seven Gods of Fortune, known as Shichi Fukujin are believed to granters of good luck and fortune. The Shichi Fukujin are often depicted in Japanese art and engravings known as netsuke. While many of the Shichi Fukujin are believed to be mythical in nature, one Shichi Fukujin is a known historical figure. Over the course of Japan’s history, the Shichi Fukujin became more associated with specific professions and aspects. Many of these same gods also originate from different countries and religions such as Hinduism and India to Chinese Buddhism and Taoism before coming to Japan. There are also seven Shichi Fukujin as seven in Japan is a lucky number.
While the gods had been worshipped for over a thousand years, mainly by merchants, they were first collectively called the Shichi Fukujin in 1420 C.E. It’s believed the Buddhist priest Tenkai arranged and selected these deities after talking with the shogun, Iemitsu Tokugawa. The selection was based on the following virtues of: longevity, fortune, popularity, sincerity, kindness, dignity and magnanimity.
Benzaiten – Often claimed as the only female deity among the Shichi Fukujin, Benzaiten originates in Hinduism where she had been the goddess Saraswati. Other names for Benzaiten are: Benten, Bentensama and Benzaitennyo. When she was adopted into Buddhism, Benzaiten became the associated with talent, beauty and music. Benzaiten is the patron of artists, writers, dancers and geishas. She is often seen as an intelligent, beautiful woman standing before a Torri, carrying a biwa, a traditional Japanese lute-style instrument and is accompanied by a white snake.
Bishamonten – A god originating in Hinduism where he had been the god Kubera and Vaisravana before becoming Bishamonten in Japanese culture. Bishamonten is the god of fortune in war and battles. He is also associated with authority and dignity, the protector of those who follow the rules and hold themselves accordingly. He is the protector of holy sites and other important places. Bishamonten is the patron of fighters and is often shown dressed in armor and helmet, carrying a pagoda in his left hand and a spear in his right hand to battle evil spirits. Bishamonten is also shown with a hoop of fire.
Daikokuten – The god of commerce and prosperity. He was also known as the patron of cooks, farmers, bankers and protected crops. Daikokuten was known too for hunting demons. There is a legend of how Daikokuten hung a sacred talisman from a tree branch in his garden to use as a trap for catching a demon. Daikokuten is often depicted with short legs, perpetual smile and wearing a hat on his head and often carrying a bag full of valuables.
Ebisu – The only purely Japanese god in the group, he is the god of prosperity, wealth in business, abundance in crops, cereals and food. Ebisu is the patron of fishermen and he is often dressed as a fisherman carrying a fishing rod in his right hand and the left holding a fish. Ebisu’s figure can often be found in restaurants where fish is served or in kitchens.
Fukurokuju – Originating in China, Fukurokuju is believed to have once been a hermit who lived during the Song dynasty. Fukurokuju is seen as the reincarnation of the Taoist god Hsuan-wu. As a god, Fukurokuju is the god of wisom, luck, longevity, wealth and happiness. In addition, he is thought to be one of the Chinese philosophers who could live without eating and was able to resurrect the dead. Fukurokuju is noted for having a head that is almost the same size as his body. He is often shown dressed in traditional Chinese attire, carrying a cane in one hand and a scroll containing historical writings. Fukurokuju is often shown being accompanied by a turtle, crow or deer, all animals that represent a long life. With a strong love for chess, Fukurokuju is also the patron of chess players. Fukurokuju, along with Jurojin both overlap with their origins with the Chinese Taoist god Nanjilaoren. Due to this overlapping, Fukurokuju’s position as one of the Shichi Fukujin is sometimes given to the goddess Kichijoten in the Butsuzozu compendium.
Hotei – This is the Japanese name for Budai. As Hotei, he is the god of fortune, the guardian of children, happiness, laughter, popularity and the patron of diviners and barmen. Hotei is often shown as a fat, smiling bald man with a curly mustache. Because he is so fat, Hotei is often shown as being half naked as his clothes aren’t quite big enough to cover his large belly.
Jurojin – Like Fukurokujin, he has his origins in the Chinese Taoist god Nanjilaoren. He is the god of the elderly and longevity in the Japanese Buddhist mythology. Jurojin is believed to be based on a real person, he was very tall, 1.82 meters with a very long head, much like Fukurokuju. Aside from his elongated skull, Jurojin is also shown to have a long white beard and rides a deer and is sometimes accompanied by a crane and tortoise, all animals that represent a long life. Jurojin is sometimes shown sitting under a peach tree, another symbol of long life. In one hand, he holds a cane, in the other he holds either a book or scroll containing the wisdom of the world. Jurojin is known to enjoy rice and wine and has a rather cheerful disposition. Finally, Jurojin is an incarnation of the southern polestar.
Kichijoten – Also known as Kisshoten or Kisshoutennyo. Kichijoten was adopted into Buddhism from the Hindu goddess Lakshmi. Kichijoten is shown holding a Nyoihoju gem in her hand. The Butsuzozu compendium from 1783 lists and has Kichijoten replace Fukurokuju as one of the seven Shichi Fukujin. By this accounting, Daikoku is portrayed as being feminine and all three of the Hindu Tridevi goddesses are seen represented among the Shichi Fukujin.
Also Known As or Spelled: Slenderman, Slendy, Fear Dubh (or, The Dark Man; Scottish) Takkenmann (Branch Man; Dutch), Der Großmann or Der Grosse Mann, Der Grossman (the Tall Man; German), Der Ritter (the Knight), Thief of the Gods, Thief of Kuk
The figure of Slender Man is relatively new in the Urban Folklore landscape, making it a 21st century Boogyman. This being’s first appearance was on June 10th of 2009, having been created by Eric Knudsen, using the name “Victor Surge” in the Something Awful forum for a photoshop contest. The idea had been to create an Urban Legend so believable it would take on a life of its own, which it certainly has.
Much of the early photos and videos showcasing Slender Man claim to be “found footage” much in the style of a movie like the Blair Witch Project. Knudsen has claimed a number of sources for inspiration into Slender Man’s creation. Most notable of which seem to be the Tall Man from the 1979 movie Phantasm, survival horror video games like Silent Hill and Resident Evil to the works of H.P. Lovecraft, Stephen King, Zack Parson and William S. Burroughs.
Slender Man is often shown as an unnaturally tall and thin man wearing a suit with equally long thin arms and featureless face. The Slender Man is often shown having several tentacles extending from its back.
Exactly what powers Slender Man has, varies a bit with these numerous stories and narratives that seems to have taken the internet by storm. Many of stories will show Slender Man preferring the forests and abandoned locations.
Many will say it can teleport or “slender walk,” an effect that distorts how a person views and sees Slender Man as it approaches its victims. Other stories have the presence of Slender Man causing paranoia, delusions and nightmares as it stalks its victims. In some of the stories, adults are driven insane by Slender Man’s influence, becoming “Proxies” who work for this entity. The web series Marble Hornets are who originated the idea of the Proxies, though sometimes they were people already violently insane and didn’t need much of a push. This video series also has Slender Man’s presence able to distort any video or audio recordings. Other stories say that just researching and investigating the Slender Man draws its attention. Slender Man also seems to hold some sort of either hypnosis or mind-control on its victims. It seems to have invisibility or selective enough invisibility in who it lets see them.
A term used on-line for scary stories, the concept of Slender Man went viral with many people creating their own takes and adding to the mythology. There have been many different stories since its creation involving Slender Man with numerous videos and pictures all claiming to “evidence” of this mysterious being. Many of the stories have Slender Man stalking, terrorizing and abducting people, especially children.
Despite having only been around a few years, Slender Man’s immediate popularity has seen it become used and reference in various media from literature, art to video games and T.V. Naturally YouTube is one such source of people finding and watching “found footage” style videos claiming Slender Man sightings and evidence. Rather than use graphic violence and splatter horror, the stories of Slender Man work more to try and invoke a psychological scare, leaving much of exactly what Slender Man is a mystery or vague as to what happens to victims. Early stories involving Slender Man have it impaling victims on tree branches, removing organs and replacing them back in the body bagged up. Such stories don’t hold fear for long than if the victims just vanish without a trace.
Slender Man Folklore & “History”
As Slender Man became more popular and people began adding to its mythos, the reality and fantasy of this being quickly became distorted.
Brazilian Cave Paintings – This one claims that cave paintings were found in the Serr da Capivara National Park in the Northeast of Brazil dating to around 9,000 B.C.E. The paintings supposedly show a strange, elongated figure leading a child by the hand.
Der Grossman – Meaning “Tall Man,” this is part of the made-up history by “Thoreau Up”, set in 16th century Germany that shows photographs of wood cuts showing an early Slender Man. These woodcuts are credited to Hans Freckenberg who called the figure Der Ritter (“The Knight”).
Further legends attached to this have stories of children seeing this entity or fairy in the Black Forest before disappearing. Bad children who went into the forest at night would be pursued by Der Grossman who wouldn’t let up until it either caught the children or the children confessed of their wrong doings to parents.
One story claimed to be from 1702 is that of a father telling of his son Lars who has been taken. The only thing they had found was a strange piece of black cloth, somehow softer and thicker than cotton. That Lars came into his room screaming of how the angel, Der Grossman was outside his room. Lars continued his story of having gone to one of the groves near the village where he found one of the cows dead, hanging from a tree. The story ends with the father saying they have to find Lars and his family must all leave before they are killed too.
Egyptian Hieroglyphs – Another claim for ancient “archaeological” evidence of Slender Man comes with Hieroglyphs dating from 3,100 B.C.E. with references during Pharaoh Wazner’s reign. The only problem with the mention of a tomb for the Pharoah, is that Wazner is known only from inscriptions on the Palermo Stone from Egypt’s fifth dynasty and that speculation posits that Wazner may be a mythical ruler and likely fictional himself. So, I’m doubting any tomb hieroglyphs showing Wazner and Slender Man meeting up.
English Lore – The Tree Man is an English myth that appears to describe a tall, slender figure with numerous appendages that stick out of the body like tree branches. This Tree Man is used as a boogey man by parents to scare children into behaving. In addition to stories about this Tree Man are the disappearances of a number of children.
Romanian Tale – There is an alleged Romanian folktale about twin sisters Sorina and Stela who were led out into the woods one day with their mother. The twins could see Der Grossman nearby, dressed as a nobleman with boneless arms. The mother fell under Der Grossman’s influence and told her daughter Stela to take a knife and carve a circle on the ground that Sorina was to then lay in so she could be cut open. Stela refused and ran home to hide under a bed.
When the father returned home, Stela told him of what happened. Hearing the tale, the father set off immediately into the forest to find the mother and Sorina. Falling asleep, Stela was awakened later to a knock at the door and a voice calling for her to open the door, it was her father. When the Stela refused, the voice called again to open the door, it was her mother.
Refusing to answer the door still, this time it burst open and Stela’s mother came in, holding the severed head of Sorina in one hand and the father’s head in the other hand. When Stela cried out why, the mother replied it was that there was no reward for goodness in the world, nothing but cold steel teeth and fire for everyone. That it is coming for you now.
It is then the Der Grossman slid out from the fireplace and clutched Stela to his burning self, ending her life.
That does make for a rather gruesome tale.
Photographs – There’s an interesting assortment of altered photographs that claim to be images of Slender Man that date from the early 1900’s from the US, UK and Russia, linking it to the disappearances of children. Photos and Videos from the 1990’s and after all claim further evidences and proof of Slender Man as various people continue to add to the mythos.
The Rake – While not Slender Man itself, newer stories have been adding stories of this figure to accompany Slender Man on its stalking of terror, instilling fear into those who see it.
There’s been a few other characters added who seem similar to Slender Man or aid him, but these seem more like “up the ante” characters to keep the suspense and fear going.
Slender Man Panic
For all that Slender Man is a modern, Urban Legend and story, it crossed the line from fantasy to reality when a couple girls in 2014 attempted to murder a fellow 12-year old girl in Waukesha, Wisconsin. If you hadn’t heard of Slender Man before then, people knew about him now. A panic ensued as parents tried to better monitor what their children were looking at on-line and knew the difference between fantasy and reality.
Clearly a well written and crafted story takes on a life of its own.
Modern Folklore & Urban Legend
An interesting take I found on this, is from Professor Shira Chess. In her book: “Folklore, Horror Stories, and the Slender Man: The Development of an Internet Mythology,” Professor Chess discusses how Slender Man is like the folklore regarding fairies. For just like fairies, the Slender Man is an otherworldly being whose motives are alien and therefore difficult to understand. Like the fairies, Slender Man is vague in appearance and often takes on the expectations of a victim’s fears. Again, just like the fairies, the Slender Man too lives in the forests and kidnaps children. It’s an interesting connection and observation.
One thing seems clear, the stories of Slender Man have spread much like other Urban Legends have and achieved a folkloric quality in the digital age where people have been able to take and adapt the mythos to suit their needs. It’s that vagueness of the Slender Man stories where you don’t know what it is or wants, that has made the stories of Slender Man so malleable with details that are easy to adapt to anytime and place that suits the storyteller’s needs.
That’s what makes any urban legend successful or appealing. Their ability to be told anywhere, that it could happen here, in this very town, very location, at any time. Even better, is when the people hearing the story don’t know the urban legend’s origins and how it got started. Humans by our very natures are hard wired for storytelling. The simplicity of urban legends makes them easy to pass on as they’re a story told by third and fourth-hand accounts that keep the story going to the point that no one knows where it started.
With the Internet, it’s easy to fake photos, videos and news reports. Making Slender Man seem all the more real and plausible for a less discerning reader. Even with people knowing how to find and track the origins of Slender Man’s origins, there’s another group who just won’t look further and appear to accept the photo and video evidences as authentic. Maybe for a good scare or the susceptibility to want to believe.
Where many monsters in mythology and folklore represent an aspect of the human psyche, however dark. Professor Chess has commented that Slender Man can be seen as a metaphor for “helplessness, power differentials, and anonymous forces,” and as ever, as always, the fear of the unknown, things beyond people’s control. Given the narrative for much of the Slender Man mythos, that seems very likely.
Like any fear, such a being only has as much power as you give it. It’s been commented how this day and age of the Internet has allowed for such stories like Slender Man’s to go viral. As with any good, well written horror story, enjoy it. Just be careful of what you create and how far you let that fear go to feed it.
I must confess, I came across the figure of Narahdarn when a friend posted a link to a series of pictures for a number of different mythological deities grouped by pantheon. Yes, said link and pictures were for the Marvel Comics versions. Not planning to turn it down, I kept a copy of the pictures to use for later inspiration of “what to do next” for Brickthology.
In Australian mythology, there is a story of Narahdarn the Bat who is associated as a symbol of Death. His other thing is honey, the guy loves it, enough to kill for it.
Narahdarn The Bat
This story was the most referenced source for Narahdarn that I could find.
As I said already, Narahdarn loves honey, so much so he was bound and determined to himself some. Unable to locate a Bee Hive, Narahdarn set out to follow a bee to its nest. While following the bee, Narahdarn’s two wives accompanied him with jars or pots to carry home honey in.
Narahdarn followed the bee to it’s nest and marked it with dagger so he could find it later and went to get his wives who had fallen behind. He hurried the two to the tree with the bee hive in it and demanded that one of the wives climb the tree to chop out some of the honey combs. The first wife who climbed up, got her arm stuck fast within the tree hollow or split.
To the first wife’s horror, Narahdarn’s answer to get her free from being stuck was to chop off her arm. Once she realized what he was doing, the first wife began to protest. Narahdarn didn’t listen and proceeded with chopping off the arm. The first wife of shock and Narahdarn brought her body down from the tree.
Laying down the first wife’s body, Narahdarn commanded his second wife to climb up the tree. Horrified the sight, the second wife protested, saying that the bees were likely to have moved the honey to a different tree.
Refusing to accept the excuses, Narahdarn brandished his knife and forced the second wife to climb up the tree. Finding the same notch in the tree that the first wife had found, made all the more obvious with the bloody limb hanging from the hole, the second wife reached her arm in for the honey within.
Like the first wife, the second wife was now stuck too. Narahdarn chopped off the second wife’s arm as well and yelled for her to come down. When the second wife didn’t answer, Narahdarn realized what he had done and became scared. He quickly climbed down the tree, laying the bodies of both wives next to each other. No longer wanting any honey, Narahdarn ran from the place, running back to the tribe.
Back at the tribe’s camp, two of the little sisters for the wives came out to greet Narahdarn. Naturally they believed the wives, their sisters would be with Narahdarn. So it’s no wonder they were surprised to see him return alone and not just that, but covered in blood. Narahdarn’s face had a harsh look to him.
Alarmed, the two young sisters ran for their mother. Upon hearing the two girls, the mother went out to confront Narahdarn, asking him where her daughters were. Narahdarn refused to answer, rebuking the mother with saying to go ask the bee, Wurranunnah.
The mother returned to her tribe, telling them of her missing daughters and how Narahdarn would tell her nothing about their disappearances. She was certain that they were truly dead given how Narahdarn’s arms had been covered in blood. The chief of the tribe listened to the Mother and her cries that came after. The chief said that the daughters would surely be avenged and that the young warriors of the tribe would retrace Narahdarn’s tracks to discover their fate. If it was found that they were dead, then Narahdarn would be punished at a corrobboree (a special ceremony).
It didn’t take long for the young warriors to track Narahdarn’s tracks or to find the bodies of the daughters. Just as quickly, the young warriors return with their news and soon enough the corrobboree was held. Narahdarn joined the men, not realizing what was in store for him. As he danced towards a particularly large fire, the Mother let out a loud shriek and when Narahdarn turned to move away from the fire, he found himself blocked in. The men seized Narahdarn and threw him into the fire where he died.
Not the most pleasant of ways to go, but consider that justice served.
The Introduction Of Death
This next story when I found and came across seems rather Biblical in nature.
By this story, the first man in Australia was named Ber-rook-boorn, created by the god Baiame. After placing Ber-rook-boorn in the area they were to live in, Baiame placed his sacred mark on a yarran tree which happened to have a bees’ nest in it.
Baiame told the first man and woman that this yarran tree was his, along with the bees in it. That Ber-rook-boorn and his wife could take food from anywhere in the land that they wanted, just not this tree or the honey produced by the bees within. Baiame warned the two that a grave evil would come upon them all people who followed after.
With that, Baiame disappeared and Ber-rook-boorn and his wife obeyed as told, for a short time at least. For one day, while the woman was out gathering firewood, she found herself near Baiame’s tree where she found many branches on the ground. Looking up, the woman realized she was beneath the sacred tree of Baiame’s. Scared, the woman still managed to gather up an armful of branches.
Soon, the woman felt a presence over her and she looked up again. This time she saw the bees buzzing around the tree’s trunk and drops of honey that glistened from within the tree. The woman stared hungrily at the honey. She had had honey before, even if only once and surely there was enough honey, a little wouldn’t hurt or be missed. Letting her branches fall, the woman climbed the tree, determined to get herself some honey.
Once she up in the tree, the woman was greeted to a flurry of leathery wings as Narahdarn the Bat swooped down at her. Baiame had placed Narahdarn there to guard his tree. Now because of her action, the woman had released Narahdarn, bringing with him and symbolizing death. This ended a Golden Age for Ber-rook-boorn and the woman. The yarran tree, it seems wept tears for the loss of man’s immortality. These tears would become a red gum that can be found on the yarran tree.
As I said, the story sounds very Biblical and similar to the story told of Adam and Eve in the garden, how they could eat of all the fruit except from one tree and when Eve did, it’s at the snake’s suggestion and with it, when she does eat the forbidden fruit, brings death to the world. I know there’s far more to the story, but that’s just in brief for right here.
Making only one appearance within the pages of Marvel comics, specifically the Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe 2006 #3, Narahdarn is presented as an Australian god of Death.
In the cartoon series of the same name, there is an episode where Hercules travels to Australia and goes up against Narahdarn as a god of Death.
Also known as: Bugbear, Bumann, Boggelmann, Boogeyman, Bogy, Golliwog, Hastrman
Also spelled: Bebok, Babok, Bobok
Etymology: Bugbear, Hastrman – “scarecrow”
This starts off seeing the image of a rather scary looking scarecrow from either Polish, Czech Republican or Slovakian folklore. The imagination is hooked.
According to what I found and much of it seems largely repeat the same information over and over, a Bubak is a scarecrow-like entity said to hide along riverbanks. It will make sounds like an infant in order to lure victims, adults and children alike to their doom. Further, the Bubak has a cart that is driven by cats. The Bubak’s clothing is made from the souls of its victims.
Poland – An alternative name is the Hastrman, meaning scarecrow. This is a man with a sack who will take any children and adults. He is known for hiding beside riverbanks and making a sound like a lost baby.
On the night of full moons, the Hastrman is known to weave and make clothing from the souls of those it has taken. Further, this creature also has a cart that is drawn by black cats.
Essentially, the bubak is another type of boogeyman.
Also known as: Maaui-Tikitiki (Maori/New Zealand)
Alternate Spellings: Māui
Epithets: Maui-Tikitiki “Maui the Top-Knot,” Maui-Tikitiki-a-Taranga “Maui the Top-Knot of Taranga,” Maui-Potiki “Maui the Last Born”
In Polynesian mythology, Maui is either a trickster demigod or god and in some stories, a mere mortal man. Most of his stories and exploits are best known from the Hawaiian and Maori legends though many other Polynesian cultures such as Mangarevan, Tahitian and Tongan have their own stories regarding this trickster hero. Among the Samoans, Maui is known as Ti’iTi’i. Many of the stories involving Maui make note of him being the youngest son, thus while small, he was extremely strong for his size.
Maui is sometimes described as being ugly, quick to respond as well as quick-witted covered in tattoos. Lucky for humans, for all that Maui is known for having some vicious practical jokes, he works to help people and not the Gods.
Parentage and Family
In the Hawaiian Kumulipo, Maui is the son of Akalana and Hina-a-ke-ahi (or just Hina, a goddess).
In another Hawaiian legend, Maui’s father is given as Ru.
In the Mangarevan myths, Maui is the son of Ataraga (Father) and Uaega (Mother).
In the Maori myths, Maui is the son of Makeatutara (Father) and Taranga (Mother).
Tangaroa – This Maori god of the sea is sometimes mentioned as being Maui’s father with his mother being a mortal woman.
Akalana and Hina had four sons: Maui-Mua, Maui-Waena (or Maui-Hope), Maui-Ki’iki’i and Maui-a-Kalana.
In the Mangarevan myths, Ataraga has eight sons all named Maui: Maui-mua, Maui-muri, Maui-toere-mataroa, Tumei-hauhia, Maui-tikitiki-toga, Maui-matavaru, Maui-taha, Maui-roto. It is Maui matavaru or eight-eyed who is the culture hero.
In the Maori myths, Maui has four brothers: Maui-Taha, Maui-Roto, Maui-Pae and Maui-Waho.
Hinakealohaila – She is the wife to Maui-a-Kalana in Hawaiian legends.
Nanamaoa – The son of Maui-a-Kalana and Hinakealohaila in Hawaiian legends.
This is the name of Maui’s great, big fish-hook. In the Hawaiian legends, it is baited with the wing of an Alae, the sacred or pet bird of Hina. This fish-hook was created from the jawbone of an ancestor of Maui’s, usually given as being his grandmother.
Maui’s Fish-Hook can be seen in the night-sky in the same constellation recognized by Western Culture as Scorpio.
While yes, there is an island called Maui in Hawaii, it is not named for the trickster Maui. Legend holds that the island is named for the son of Hawai’iloa, a great navigator who discovered the Hawaiian Islands. Each of the islands of Kaua’i, O’ahu, and Maui are named after one of Hawai’iloa’s sons.
These were a group of heroic trickster demigods in Hawaiian legends. All kupua are shape-shifters who took the forms of either humans or various elements in nature, often an animal. Many kupua are rather malevolent and vindictive. Maui appears to be one of the more beneficial and gentler kupua in comparison.
Pulling Up The Islands
There are many variations to the story of Maui using his fish-hook to pull up all eight of the Hawaiian Islands.
Version 1 – Maui had gone out fishing one day with his brother. In typical sibling rivalry, the brother wouldn’t share any of his bait with Maui. Ever the resourceful one, Maui punched his own nose and used his own blood as bait to fish. He succeeded in bringing in hauls so large, that they would become the Hawaiian Islands. Not just Hawaii, but all the Polynesian Islands were pulled up in this way.
Version 2 – Maui had gone out fishing with his brothers. While out there, Maui caught his hook on the ocean floor. Maui then told his brothers he had caught a large fish and to start paddling as hard and as fast as they can. The brothers never noticed the island rising up behind them out of the ocean. Maui of course, proceeds to do this several more times, pulling up all the Hawaiian Islands.
Version 3 – This is perhaps the more interesting version of the stories. Maui planted his fish-hook at Hamakua with the intent to pull up Pimoe, the god of fish. Maui warned his brothers not to look back as they paddled their boats or this venture would fail. Hina, shape-shifted into a bailing-gourd and Maui, not realizing it was his mother, took hold of the gourd and put it in front of his seat. Now suddenly, there appeared before them, an extremely beautiful woman and all of Maui’s brothers looked back out of curiosity. Having looked back, Hina in her disguise disappeared and the line breaks, causing all of the islands that Maui was trying to unite into one giant island falls apart and he is unable to catch Pimoe.
The Theft Of Fire
Version 1 – In order to steal fire for the people of the islands, Maui transformed himself into the guise of a hawk so he could get closer the Earth-Mother. To this day, the hawk’s feathers are brown in memory of Maui being burned by the flames when he brought the gift of fire.
Version 2 – In this story, Maui and his brother would go out fishing every day. Every morning they would always see a bunch of Kiawe trees smoking and flames coming up out of them. Hovering above all this were some vultures, also known as mud hens or ‘alae.
Maui and his brothers constantly tried to sneak up on the vultures, thinking they were responsible for the fire. However, just before getting close enough, there would be a noise that scared them all off.
Maui came up with the idea of creating a dummy that looked like him and placed in the canoe. Now Maui had his brothers take the dummy with them as they would go one direction and Maui would come from the other as they tried to sneak up on the vultures.
Maui snuck up on the bird and grabbed it by the neck, forcing it to tell him the secrets of fire. The vulture, an ‘alae told Maui to take and rub two maia peels together. When nothing happened, Maui nearly choked the bird to death, telling it to tell the truth. Finally the bird said to rub to Ti leaf stalks together. Nothing happened this time and Maui once more choked the bird who said to rub two dry kiawe sticks together.
This time, Maui had success with creating fire. He took the flaming stick and pressed it against the ‘alae’s forehead, making their head red and bald to remind it and other ‘alae’s thereafter of their selfish act.
Slowing Down The Sun
Version 1 – In this story, Maui’s mother, Hina complained about how the sun moved too quickly through the sky, that she barely had time to get her kapa, bark cloth dry. Hina wasn’t the only one, many people hurried to get their work such as planting, cooking or making clothing done in the few hours of daylight. There just wasn’t time with how fast the Sun moved.
Deciding to help his mother and the other people, Maui hid behind a big rock at the highest peak on the island known as Haleakala, the “House Of The Sun.” When the Sun passed by overhead, Maui quickly threw a rope, made from his sister’s hair with his magic hook tied to the end and lassoed the Sun’s rays with it. Some legends have Maui using a net to trap the Sun. The Sun demanded to be let go and Maui would only do so if the Sun would promise to move slower through the day so people could get their work done. Some versions of the story have Maui beating the Sun with his jawbone until it agreed to move slower. Added to this, Maui took one look at the sky and decided it hung too low. With a shove and heave, Maui pushed the sky up higher.
Version 2 – In this telling of the story, Hina sends Maui to a big wiliwili tree where he finds his old, blind grandmother laying out bananas. Ever mischievous, Maui starts stealing bananas from his grandmother, one by one until she catches him in the act. Maui tells his Grandmother about his mother’s complaints and sending him out to the tree. After hearing the story, Grandmother decides to help him with making a rope. Maui then sits by the tree, waiting until the Sun passes by overhead and he lassos it, forcing it to agree to slow it’s progress across the sky.
Version 3 – Very similar to the story in Version 2, Maui decides to slow down the sun after a man by the name of Moemoe taunts him and says it can’t be done. Just to prove him wrong, Maui sets off to slow down the sun much like he did earlier with finding his grandmother and getting her help. After Maui slows down the sun, he chases after Moemoe and beats him soundly.
Lifting The Sky
While a similar story of Maui lifting the sky is told in his quest to slow down the sun, there is another expanded version of this story.
After a while, as Maui was looking around, he could see that the sky was far too low to the ground and that people were unable to stand up straight. Being Maui, if he didn’t like a thing, he went about changing it. As it just so happened to be, the sky was sinking or lowering and would have made living on the earth impossible for humans.
Maui proceeded to travel to the town of Lahaina, to enlist his father into helping him lift the sky. There, Maui laid himself on the ground and then bracing himself, pushed the sky upwards with all of his considerable strength.
At the signal, Maui’s father, Ru also began pushing with all his might, aiding his son in getting the sky up high enough so people could stand upright. So there you have it, another of Maui’s deeds done.
Variations – In other retellings of this story, Maui lifts up the sky when he comes across a girl complaining how the sky was too low and that she couldn’t do her chores. Like any guy seeking to impress a girl, Maui decided to push up the sky for her.
Yet another variation is that Maui was busy making an earth oven when his poker got stuck up in the sky. To get his poker unstuck and to keep it from getting stuck again, Maui simply pushed the sky up higher. Again, this was all part of impressing a girl.
Defeating The Long Eel
Still one more legend of Maui’s to cover in Hawaiian mythology!
After Maui finished pulling up all of the islands with his Fish-Hook, he decided to start exploring them to find out what all was there. Traveling to each of the islands, Maui discovered that they were all inhabitable. There were houses, but no one living in them, no one in the whole of all the islands.
Taking ideas from the layout and build of the houses, Maui returned home and built a new house for himself in the style of what he had seen on the islands. Finished, Maui then sought out Hinakealohaila (or just Hina, not to be confused with his mother) to marry.
Time passed and Hina went down to a nearby river bank to get some water. While down there, Hina ran into the Long Eel Tuna, who just so happened to decide that striking Hina and covering her in slime was somehow a good idea.
Hina ran back home, but didn’t tell Maui of what transpired. Or at least, not yet.
The next day, Hina went back down to the riverbank and the same thing happened. The Long Eel Tuna hitting and covering her with slime again. This time, when she returned home, Hina told Maui about what happened.
Angry, Maui headed down to the river. Once down there, Maui laid out a number of traps designed to lure the Long Eel Tuna out of hiding. When the Eel Tuna emerged, Mauil used his stone axe to kill them. It seems that the Long Eel Tuna had been causing many people in the village problems. Thanks now to Maui, everyone would be safe.
In this mythology cycle, the Maui known as Maui the Eight-Eyed is the hero, born from his mother’s navel and raised by his grandfather, Te Rupe. This Maui has a magic staff called Atua-Tane and a hatchet called Iraiapatapata. Like the Hawaiian and Maori legends, Maui still pulls up the islands from the sea and ties up the sun with locks of hair to slow it down or hold in place.
The legend of Maui among the Maori is a long epic.
The Birth Of Maui
Maui was born the son of Taranga and Makeatutara. Considered a miraculous birth, Makeatutara had taken her premature baby and threw it into the ocean wrapped in locks of hair from her topknot. Hence, Maui is known as Maui-Tikitiki-A-Taranga. Fortunately for the infant Maui, ocean spirits found him and wrapping him in seaweed, took him to Tama-Nui-Te-Ra (or Rangi), a divine ancestor who raised the child.
It is Maori tradition, that any baby prematurely born is buried with special incantations and ceremonies least the spirit of the unborn child become a malicious spirit as they had never known any joy or happiness in life. Given what happens later in the stories with Maui, this may be why they bury the baby with rites and ceremonies instead of tossing them into the ocean. It would certainly explain all the mean spirited tricks and deeds that Maui performs.
Reuniting With His Family
Once Maui was a child and no longer a premature infant, he left the sea, going search of his mother and family. When Maui found his mother’s house, he discovered four other older brothers: Maui-Taha, Maui-Roto, Maui-Pae and Maui-Waho.
Understandably, the brothers were all leery of this new comer. Maui won them all over by performing many tricks such as transforming into a number of different birds. The brothers were greatly impressed and accepted Maui.
As for his mother, Maui introduced himself to Taranga when everyone was gathered for some dancing and celebrating. Maui sat down behind his brothers, when Taranga called for her children, she discovered a fifth unknown child among her sons. Maui soon proved he was Taranga’s son and he was accepted into the family.
At first, some of Maui’s brothers were jealous. They were put at easy by the eldest brother telling them how they should let Maui be counted among them, that in days of peace, they should be generous to others by helping to improve the welfare of others and that in times of war, that’s only when disputes should be settled with violence. The speech worked and Maui was finally welcomed home.
Maui Finding His Father
Though Maui stayed with his mother and his brothers, each morning, his mother Taranga would disappear. None of Maui’s older brothers seemed concerned about their mother’s disappearance each morning. This bothered Maui who wondered where Taranga would go each morning before they woke.
When nightfall came again, Taranga returned to her children, they all went to sleep as before on other nights in their house. This time, Maui stayed awake so that when everyone else had fallen asleep, he stole Taranga’s clothing and hid them. Then Maui went and hid himself in the crevice of a window above the doorway so that when morning came, he could see where it was that his mother went.
After what seemed like forever, morning finally came and Taranga awoke. Upon finding she was naked, Taranga began frantically looking for her clothes, finally she gave up and began pulling off pieces of siding from the house to cover herself. Covered, she now ran outside.
Watching from his hiding spot, Maui watched as his mother reach down to some tufts of grass, revealing a hole that she disappeared into and pulling close behind her. Curious, Maui came out of his hiding spot and ran to the spot where the grass had been pulled up. Sure enough, he found the opening to a cave descending deep into the earth, to the Underworld in fact.
Covering the hole again, Maui returned to the house and woke up his brothers. He asked them about where it is that their father and mother went during the day. The older brothers answered that they didn’t know. They taunted Maui saying he shouldn’t worry or bother and that Rangi, the god of the sky was their father.
Little Maui responded how he had been brought up differently from his brothers, having been tossed to the sea. That he had never been nursed by their mother and how he longed to find where it was that she and father went to during the day.
Surprised by the response, Maui’s brothers encouraged to try and find their parents. Maui said that he would go and demonstrated to them his ability to turn into a bird. It was only with the kereru or wood pigeon shape that his brothers were impressed. The ability to shapeshift was something that only a skilled magician with a lot magic could perform and Maui delighted in his being the youngest brother, able to do something the others couldn’t.
Bidding farewell to his brothers, Maui took off in pigeon form to seek after his parents. Long Maui flew off into the forest and down to the cave his mother had disappeared into. Eventually, Maui came to a place where he saw many people gathered in a grove of trees. Among these people, Maui spotted his mother seated by whom he could only assume to be his father.
Still in bird form, Maui descended to a lower branch where he could pick off some berries growing. These berries, Maui dropped down to his father on the head with. Some of the other people at the gathering asked if the bird had dropped the berry and Maui’s father, Makeatutara insisted the berry had only fallen by chance.
Once more, Maui plucked more berries and threw them down hard at both of his parents. As Maui’s parents cried out, the other people gathered there, looked up to the tree and seeing only a pigeon sitting there cooing, began to throw stones at the bird. All the stones missed and it was when Maui’s father threw a stone at the bird that he hit the pigeon, but only because Maui allowed it.
The pigeon fell to the ground and when the others ran up to it, it turned into a man. The others were taken aback for the eyes of the young man who now stood before them were red and fierce looking. Talking amongst themselves, the others discussed if the man standing before them was a god like Rangi and Papa-Tu-A-Nuku. Finally Taranga spoke up and said the man looked like someone knew and repeated the story of Maui’s premature birth everyone to hear.
Taranga then asked the man, Maui who he was and where he came from. When she asked Maui, if he was her child Maui-Tikitiki-O-Taranga, he answered yes and Taranga welcomed him where she seemed to prophesy that he would visit his ancestor, Hine-Nui-Te-Po and conquer death.
Now a man, Maui’s father Makeatutara took him down to the river to be baptized in order to cleanse and purify his son. As luck would have it, Makeatutara made a mistake during the ceremony with incantations, having skipped over parts and forgotten them. This mistake was an ill omen that would eventually lead to the death of Maui. The gods would be sure to punish this forgetfulness with Maui’s eventual death.
In the meantime, however, Maui returned to his brothers to tell them he had found their parents and how to find them too.
Maui Getting Bloodthirsty
After returning to his brothers, Maui ended up slaying and carrying away his first victim, the daughter of Maru-Te-Whare-Aitu. Not long after, Maui proceeded to destroy the crops of Maru-Te-Whare-Aitu, causing them to all wither.
Maui Gaining His Jaw-Bone Weapon
His first war raid done, Maui once more visited his parents. While with them, he noticed how the other people would be carrying away some food as if it were being taken to someone.
When he asked for who, they informed Maui it was for an ancestress, Muri-Ranga-Whenua, an old chief. Maui responded with saying that he would take the food to her.
In typical trickster fashion, Maui didn’t take any of the food to Muri-Ranga-Whenua. Instead he set them to the side, hiding them away. Eventually Muri-Ranga-Whenua wondered why her food wasn’t coming and suspecting that something was up, she wandered down the path, sniffing.
Finally smelling something coming, Muri-Ranga-Whenua’s stomach began to enlarge as she got ready to devour Maui as soon as he came close enough. Maui went up wind of the old chief so she couldn’t find him. Turning westward, Muri-Ranga-Whenua finally smelled someone close to her, realizing it was a human.
Muri-Ranga-Whenua’s stomach shrunk back to normal size and she greeted Maui as one of her descendants. Her next question was why Maui wasn’t bring her food. Maui answered that he was seeking for Muri-Ranga-Whenua’s jaw-bone to use as a weapon. The old chief consented and gave Maui the bone.
Holding Back The Sun
Similar to the story found in the Hawaiian cycle, Maui for his next quest, takes the jaw-bone of an ancestor, Muri-Ranga-Whenua to use as a weapon. He uses this jaw-bone to ensnare the Sun so it will be forced to move slower throughout the day, thus making the days longer. With the aid of his brothers, Maui lassoes the Sun and beats them soundly until the Sun agrees to move slower.
Variation – Sometimes a net is mentioned as what Maui used to catch the Sun before Maui and his brother beat the Sun senseless with his magic jawbone to the point it could limp slowly now across the sky.
Gone Fishing – Part 1
Somewhere along the line, Maui got married and had a number of wives and children to boot. When Maui and his brothers returned from the feat of Holding back and slowing down the sun, he heard the complaints of his family and how they had no fish to eat.
Maui assured his wives and children not to fret, he would soon take care of this trivial matter and they would soon enough have food to eat. He then took his jaw-bone and fashioned it into a fish-hook.
When Maui’s brother headed out to go fishing, Maui jumped in the canoe. His brothers yelled for Maui to get out of the boat, claiming that his constant use of magic would cause problems. Eventually Maui got out of the canoe seeing as his brothers refused to take him.
Determined, Maui just waited until it was night when he went back to the beach and his brothers’ canoe. This time he hid in the bottom, under some boards. When his brothers came at dawn, they headed out to sea, none the wiser that Maui was hidden on board.
Once they were well at sea, Maui came out of his hiding spot. Seeing him, his brothers commented that they had better return to shore. Using his magic, Maui stretched out the distance from the shore to the boat that when his brothers looked for land, it was out of view.
Maui told his brothers that they should let him come with, at the very least he could be able to bail water out of the canoe for them. The brothers consented and they paddled on towards their fishing spot. Maui wasn’t content and told his brothers to paddle out further before dropping anchor, which spot would be far out of view of land.
Far out on the open ocean, the brothers now began to fish and soon, easily they had their canoe filled with fish in no time.
Pulling Up The Islands – Part 2
Continuing from Gone Fishing, this story is similar to the previously mentioned Hawaiian story of Pulling Up The Islands. Now that the brothers had filled the canoe, they wanted to return, but not Maui who now wanted a turn at fishing.
The North Island – Maui’s brothers wanted to know where he got a fishing-hook from, to which he told them never mind. When he asked to borrow of their bait, his brothers refused. With no other recourse, Maui made a fist and struck his own nose, using his own blood for bait.
With that and using incantations, Maui managed to snag the porch of a carved house on the sea bed floor and pulled up not just the house with his superhuman strength, but an entire island. Witht his much land pulled up, the canoe became grounded.
With the newly pulled up land and the haul of fish that had been caught, Maui went to go make an offering of thanks to the gods. He instructed his brothers to wait until her returned before eating or cutting up any of the fish, that everyone would get a fair share.
While Maui went to get a priest to bless, consecrate and purify the land, his brothers went ahead and started to cut up the fish that were also pulled up. These fish began to writhe in agony and in their throes, the mountains, cliffs and valleys of the island were formed. It’s been said if the brothers had waited for Maui to make his offerings, the island would have all been level plains and forest, making it easy for people to traverse it. The Maori call this land Te Ika-a-Maaui, the Fish of Maui or Hahau-Whenua, it is the North Island of New Zealand.
The South Island – By Maori tradition, Maui’s canoe becomes the South Island. The Banks Peninsula is said to be where Maui place his foot to support himself as he pulled in his fish haul. The island is known as Te Waipounamu or Te Waka-A-Maui, the canoe of Maui.
The Secret Of Fire
The secret for the creation of fire had been lost and Maui decided to remedy that situation. Of course, if Maui didn’t have it in his head to pull the stunt of putting out all of the fires for the cooking houses in the village, there would still be fire. But no, Maui puts them all out and then calls out, saying he’s hungry and getting someone to come cook up some food for him and there’s no fire to be had, anywhere.
When Maui’s mother heard there was no fire, she implored the servants to seek out Mahu-Ika to see if she would send more fire. The servants refused, no matter how Maui’s mother and others insisted they go.
Finally, Maui spoke up and said that he would go and get more fire. In order to do so, he needed to know which way to go. His parents informed Maui which path he should go, that he should let Mahu-Ika know who he was and that he shouldn’t perform any of his tricks as too often, his tricks brought harm and injury to others.
Yes, they’re on to you Maui!
Of course, Maui assured his folks he was only interested in bringing fire, he wasn’t going to do anything else, he’d go and come back right away. Honest!
So off he goes, in search of Mahu-Ika, the goddess of fire and his ancestor. When Maui found Mahu-Ika, he was filled with wonder and awe, all he could do was stare before he finally spoke up asking her where the fire was, he had come to get some.
Mahu-Ika got up and asked who Maui was. At first, Maui wouldn’t tell Mahu-Ika was, making her do a quessing game of which country he was from and which direction he had come. Finally, when Mahu-Ika asked Maui if he had come on the wind, he said yes and she recognized him as one of her descendants.
Mahu-Ika proceeded to pull out a fingernail from which fire flowed out. This she gave to Maui who was amazed by the feat. Maui took the fingernail away with him and when he was out of sight, he promptly put the fire out.
Maui returned to Mahu-Ika saying that the fire she had given him had gone out and to give him another. Once more, Mahu-Ika pulled one of her fingernails out, producing fire to give to Maui once more.
Maui managed to keep this antic up of coming back to Mahu-Ika saying the fire had gone out until he had gotten her to pull out all of the nails from her hands and feet save for the nail of her big toe. Nine times and Mahu-Ika finally catches on that Maui might be playing tricks on her.
Angry, Mahu-Ika pulled the last nail out and slamming it on the ground, she told Maui that he now had all the fire as everything around them began to catch fire. Maui made a mad dash to escape with the fire quickly gaining. Maui changed himself into an eagle (or hawk) to be fast enough to escape.
Even as an eagle, his flight wasn’t enough and the fire was about to consume Maui; he called on his ancestors Tawhiri-Ma-Tea and Whatitiri-Matakatak to send rain. The ancestors answered and soon there was a heavy rain. Mahu-Ika was nearly killed in the resulting downpour before she could hide. Maui however, in his eagle form was scorched, resulting in black-tipped wings. Mahu-Ika saved some of her fire by placing it in the wood of trees.
When Maui returned from this latest stunt, his parents tried to warn him about trying to trick his ancestors and that he deserved what he got. They concluded the speech that things would end badly and likely in his death if he didn’t stop his behavior. Maui taunted his parents, saying what did he care, he planned to continue. With that, Maui went off to seek out his next round of mischief.
Variation – A little simpler, Maui gained the secrets of fire by stealing a hen from heaven as fire was believed to be guarded by a celestial chicken.
Turning Irawaru Into A Dog
Shortly after his theft of fire, Maui went out fishing with his brother in law, Irawaru who had married Maui’s younger sister Hinauri, Maui as per his luck, had only caught one fish while Irawaru was catching plenty of fish. Fuming his poor luck, Maui lost his cool when Irawaru’s line got tangled with his. The classic two fishermen tugging on their respective lines, each in the opposite direction.
The two began arguing about how it was their fish on the line and to let go. Finally Irawaru relented and let go of his line enough that Maui was able to pull up on his end. Once the line was pulled up, Maui saw that the fish caught was indeed on Irawaru’s line and that it was his line entangled with the other.
Mad, Maui said they should return to shore and the two began paddling. Once back to shore, Maui had Irawaru lift up the canoe to his back as part of pulling it in. No sooner had Irawaru gotten the canoe up onto this back than Maui jumped on it, forcing the whole weight down on his brother-in-law, nearly killing him.
Nearly dead, Maui continued to trample Irawaru’s body, twisting and forming him through the use of magic into a dog. Maui completed the job by force feeding Irawaru some dung.
That done, Maui went back to the village, acting like nothing had happened. It’s then, that Maui’s little sister Hinauri on seeing him, ran up to asked where her husband Irawaru was. Maui responded with that he had left Irawaru back with the canoe. Well how come the two of them didn’t return together? Oh, well that’s because Irawaru wanted Hinauri’s help with bringing back the fish. So you had better hurry and if you don’t see him, just call out “Mo-i, mo-i, mo-i.”
Hinauri hurried down to the beach looking for her husband. Not seeing him, she called Irawaru’s name and when there was no response, then she called as Maui had told her to with the “Mo-i, mo-i, mo-i.”
Irawaru, now in his dog form, recognized his wife and barked back. He followed her all the way back to the village wagging his tail. Seeing what had happened to her husband, Hinauri became very distraught with grief to the point that she threw herself into the sea.
As to Maui, that antic seems rather petty to have done, but no different from say the Greek gods taking it out on mortals. Maui was now at a point that he found it best to leave the village and once more return to the Underworld where his parents lived.
Variation – Sometimes the story of Maui turning Irawaru into a dog is told that they were on their way to another village not far away. As they were headed on the return trip home, Maui had asked Irawaru to carry some food for them. Irawaru said there was no need to, they had just eaten a meal and it was only a short ways home.
This angered Maui and he used his magic to make the journey home take longer than it should have. As they continued to walk on the seemingly endless road, both Maui and Irawaru grew tired and hungry.
As they sat down, Maui pulled the food he had brought for himself after all and proceeded to eat right in front of Irawaru.
If it had been me, I would have left it at that.
Not Maui, after finishing his meal and not offering anything to Irawaru, Maui asked his brother-in-law to clean and dress his hair. Irawaru supposed that was harmless enough and did the job for Maui. When he had finished, Maui offered to clean and dress Irawaru’s hair for him. Thinking nothing of it, Irawaru allowed Maui to do so. Maui put Irawaru into an enchanted sleep and with further magic, changed Irawaru into a dog.
Either way, in Maori legends, Irawaru is the progenitor of all dogs.
The Death Of Maui
Version 1 – In this version of Maui’s death, people got tired of all his antics and decided to kill him. As a result, Maui’s blood is what creates rainbows and is responsible for the color of shrimp.
But that’s not a very exiting end for a hero and trouble maker.
Version 2: The Quest for Immortality! – This one is more exciting and noteworthy.
Following the events of a botched baptismal ceremony, Maui takes it on himself to go win immortality for humankind. Maui’s father, Makeatutara tries to dissuade him of the notion, that he will fail and that someone will kill him.
Of course, since Maui’s last antics involved turning Irawaru into a dog, he’s looking to leave the village anyways. He’s certainly gotten more than enough people upset with him, Maui heads off for the Underworld where his parents are at.
After staying with his folks for some time, Maui’s father, Makeatutara makes mention of how they have heard of Maui’s deeds up in the living world, but being down here in the Underworld, he’s sure to be defeated at some point. Makeatutara is also remembering the botched baptismal ceremony, knowing that Maui will come to a bad end.
Maui scoffs at this notion of someone defeating him, who after all would do that? Makeatutara says it would be Maui’s ancestor, Hine-Nui-Te-Po, the goddess of the Night. Undaunted, Maui boasts of his many previous deeds with pulling up the islands and slowing down the sun, saying that it won’t be possible to beat him.
Makeatutara relents and tells Maui to go find his ancestress who lives far on the horizon. After asking what she looks like, Makeatutara told Maui his ancestor, Hine-Nui-Te-Po looks human but with greenstones for eyes and sea kelp hair, barracuda mouth and that the red flashing of light came from her.
Unfazed, Maui set off towards the west with companions towards the home of Hine-Nui-Te-Po. In some versions of the stories, these companions of Maui are birds such as the tomtit, robin, warbler and fantail. In other versions, these companions are Maui’s brothers.
Eventually, Maui finds Hine-Nui-Te-Po asleep with her legs spread apart. Maui and his companions were quick to note rows of sharp obsidian and greenstones between Hine’s legs.
Maui now informed the others of his master plan, telling his companions not to laugh and to save it for after. Maui planned to enter Hine-Nui-Te-Po’s vagina, in a reverse birth process and to exit out her mouth. This, according to Maui was to gain him immortality.
Maui’s companions tried to dissuade him, saying he would be killed. Maui was again undaunted, insisting if his friends did laugh, waking Hini-Nui-Te-Po, then yes, he would die, but if he successfully passed through her, he would live and that she would be the one to die.
This of course is where the companions just shut up and let Maui do his thing as he readied himself, tying a rope that held his battle club around his waist and thrusting off his clothes. Ready, Maui began to climb in, very much the image of reverse birth as his companions did their best not to laugh.
As it happens with these type of stories, the one task you’re not supposed to do, happens and one of the companions couldn’t hold it in anymore and began laughing. One version of the story says it’s the fantail who begins laughing and wakes Hine-Nui-Te-Po who opens her eyes and quickly closes her legs tight, cutting Maui in half.
Instead of immortality, Maui becomes the first person to die, bringing death to the world. Hine-Nui-Te-Po maintained her post as the Goddess of the Underworld the portal to which all humans must pass through on death.
Variation – When Maui set off to gain immortality for humankind, he did so by changing into a worm in order to enter the vagina of Hine-Nui-Te-Po and leaving through her mouth. This stunt didn’t work out so well as Hine-Nui-Te-Po crushed Maui in her sleep with the obsidian teeth in her vagina.
Maui And Rohe
We’re not quite done with Maui! In a few stories, Maui is married to the goddess Rohe whom he ends up mistreating in some rather cruel and unusual means.
What happens, is that Maui wished to trade faces with Rohe as she is very beautiful and he on the other hand is rather ugly.
Rohe refused to trade faces and when she was asleep, Maui used an incantation to make the trade and switch for faces. When Rohe woke up and realized what happened, she left the living world and departed for the Underworld, becoming the Goddess of Death.
Good one Maui.
In Samoan mythology, the character of Ti’iti’i is very similar to that of Maui. Many of the stories are similar to those of Maui from other Polynesian cultures. One striking similiarity is the story of Ti’iti’i’s theft of fire from the earthquake god, Mafui’e. In this story, Ti’iti’i breaks off one of Mafui’e’s arms, forcing them to reveal the secret of fire and how to rub sticks together for friction to create it.
For the Samoans, the loss of Mafui’e’s arm means that he is unable to create even bigger earthquakes.
Among the Tahitians, Maui was a prophet or priest who later becomes deified.
He had once been at a sacred place known as a marae busy with some task or other. When the sun began to set before he was finished, Maui grabbed hold of the sun’s rays and halted the movement of the sun so he could complete his task.
Maui became known as Ao-ao-ma-ra’i-a after he discovered fire and passed on his knowledge to others to create it by the use of friction with wood. Before this, people would eat their food raw.
As a final bit of lore, Maui is the one responsible for earthquakes.
Among the Tongans, the Maui stories tell how he pulled up the Tongan islands from the depths of the ocean, starting first with Lofanga, then the other Ha’apai islands and finishing up with Vava’u. That task finished, Maui lived on the island of Tonga. The village of Houma located on the main island of Tongatapu is noted for being the place where Maui’s fish-hook got caught.
In these stories, Maui has two sons: Maui-Atalanga, the eldest and Maui-Kisikisi, the younger. In other sources, there are listed three Maui brothers: Maui-Motu’a (old Maui), Maui-Atalanga and Maui-Kisikisi (dragonfly Maui). It is Maui-Atlanga who discovered the secret of fire and taught others how to cook with it. Maui-Motu, like Atlas from Greek mythos, holds the earth up on his shoulders. Whenever Maui-Motu starts to nod off, he causes earthquakes and people will stomp the ground in order to wake him up. The god, Hikule’o who rules the underworld of Pulotu is Maui-Motu’s youngest son.
Maui-Kisikis is known for being a trickster. He gained the name of Maui-Fusi-Fonua or Maui Land Puller after Maui-Kisikisi begged for a magic fish-hook from an old fisherman by the name of Tongafusifonua. The old man would only allow the fish-hook to be taken on the condition that Maui be able to find it in his collection of hooks. Tongafusifonua’s wife, Tavatava told Maui the secret of how to find the hook and Maui was able to succeed at picking it out from all the other hooks. With this hook, Maui-Kisikisi was able to pull up the coral islands from the bottom of the sea as these volcanic islands were believed to have fallen from the heavens.
Movie Time – Moana!
So of course, the movie came out in 2016, featuring the famous Maui of Polynesian mythology. Since I was curious, I of course wanted to know how much of the mythology and stories that the movie gets right.
It is of course, a new story and the Maui seen in the movie pulls and combines many of the aspects of him found primarily in Hawaiian and Maori legends. Much of which is confirmed during the song: “You’re Welcome” and a quick montage of all of Maui’s deeds that he’s done that have earned him a new tattoo to commemorate the event.
The character of Te Fiti in her darker aspect as Te Ka was originally referred to as Te Po, based on the Maori goddess Hine-Nui-Te-Po, the goddess of night, death and the underworld. Others have noted a strong similarity between Te Ka and the Hawaiian volcano goddess Pele.
Interestingly, while the movie was being developed and written, it incorporates the history of Polynesian people as voyagers who just abruptly ceased and then a thousand years later, start sailing again. Why? No one knows. However, the story of Moana certainly provides an interesting what if story to it.
Etymology: vertere (Latin), to change or changing
Also known as: Vortumnus, Vertimnus, Vertumne (French), Vultumna (Etruscan)
In Roman mythology, Vertumnus is a rustic woodland deity of the seasons, changes and the ripening of plants. When he marries the nymph, Pomona, Vertumnus becomes the patron of gardens and fruit trees.
Cult – Vertumnus’ cult is believed to have become active in Rome around 300 BCE. A temple dedicated to Vertumnus was established in 264 BCE on Aventine Hill. This same date has been noted by others such as Propertius, that Volsinii, the Etruscan city of Velzna was conquered by the Romans.
Festivals – Vertumnalia is shared by both Pomona and Vertumnus, is held on August 13th where offerings of fruits and flowers would be made.
Signum Vortumni – This was a bronze statue of Vertumnus created by the sculpter Mamurius Veturius. This bronze statue replaced an earlier maple statue and was reputed to have been brought to Rome during the time of Romulous. The statue stood in the Vicus Tuscus near the Forum Romanum and decorated according to the current season.
Symbol – Gardening Tools
The primary source for Vertumnus comes from Ovid’s Metamorphosis and it has been commented that the story of Vertumnus is the only original Roman story within this piece of literature.
As for the story, Pomona spurned the love and advances of various woodland gods: Picus, Priapos, Silenos and Silvanus to name a few. Busy with tending her own gardens and orchards kept locked and closed behind walls, Pomona felt she didn’t have time for anyone else.
Of all the rustic, woodland deities vying for Pomona’s attention, Vertumnus is the one who succeeded. Like the other gods, Vertumnus was rejected, though I would think coming in disguise wouldn’t help the matter. First as various field laborers and farmers, Vertumnus hoped that this would somehow attract Pomona’s attention.
Eventually Vertumnus came to the idea of disguising himself as an old woman. Disguised so, the “old woman” approached Pomona and started off with complimenting her fruits. Pomona was taken back a moment when the old woman kissed her. Seeing that Pomona was started, Vertumnus in his guise as the old woman sat back and began talking about an elm tree and a grape vine, how beautiful the two were together. How the tree was useless by itself and how the vine could only lay there on the ground unable to bear fruit. Continuing this angle of talk, the old woman compared Pomona to the vine, how it tried to stand on its own, turning away from everyone who tried to be close. At this, the old woman spoke of Vertumnus, how Pomona was his first and only love, how he too loved gardens and orchards and would gladly work side by side with her.
The old woman than shared the story of Anaxarete, who had spurned the advances of her suitor, Iphis to the point that he hung himself. In response, the goddess Venus turned Anaxarete to stone for being so heartless. Hearing this story, Pomona softened her stance and Vertumnus dropped his disguise as the old woman and the two were eventually wed.
God Of Changes
Vertumnus is heralded by many as a deity who presides over changes, as seen in the latin roots of his name: “vertere,” to change or turn. In this sense, turning has more to do with the Tiber river, whose’ course Vertumnus is said to have altered, causing pools and marshes to recede and vanish.
Vertumnus is still the god of the changing year as seasons pass from spring to summer, to autumn and winter and back towards spring. This role also allowed for Vertumnus to be a shape-changer as he would disguise himself in order to be close to Pomona in his efforts to try and woo her.
Numina – Guardian Spirit
Numina, in Roman mythology, were the guardian spirits who watched over people, places and even the home. Each numina was unique or specific to where and whom they watched over.
Vertumnus, along with his wife Pomona were seen by the Romans as guardian spirits who would watch over people in their orchards and gardens.
Voltumna – Etruscan God
Not much is known about the ancient Etruscans. It is known they lived along the northwest coast of Italy with their own culture and distinct language that is older from that of the ancient Romans. Not very many words were translated by the ancient Romans of the Etruscan language, so not is preserved or known. The Roman scholar, Varro was certain of Vertumnus’ status as a major Etruscan god.
So, it’s somewhat surprising that Voltumna would make his way into the Roman pantheon and have nothing to do with the Greek pantheon that the Romans were known for having taken whole sale and giving Roman names to Greek deities.