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Orbona

Orbona

Pronunciation: /orˈboː.na/

 Etymology: orbh- (Indo-European) “to change allegiance or status”, orbus meaning: “bereft” or “childless”

When in Rome, there seems to be a deity for just about everything, including orphans. Enter Orbona, the goddess of children, especially orphans. Childless parents would call upon Orbona to bless them with children.

Worship

I’m not sure you could really call it worship. There is however enough significance for Orbona that she had an alter near the Lares Temple in Via Sacra. Here, parents who had lost a child or might be about to lose one to illness would call upon and invoke Orbona.

In Roman mythology, Orbona was the goddess who granted new children to parents who had become childless. She was also the goddess of children, especially orphans.

Fertility Goddess?

Well sure, but only after parents had lost their child and hoped to ensure the survival of future children or to be granted more children.

Protector Of Children

That makes sense. That was the whole point of why parents or would-be parents would call upon Orbona, to ensure the safety of their children or potential future children. She was seen as a guardian of children, especially orphans.

What’s In A Name?

It gets a little interesting looking into the origins and root meaning of Orbona and Orphan.

Credit is given to the Indo-European root word of “orbh-“ meaning: “to change allegiance or status.”

Okay… from here the definition continued with how the Greek “orphanos” is similar to the Czech word “robota” which means compulsory labor, drudgery, servitude and slave” Even an old Old High German word of “arabeit” meaning labor is connected to “orbh-.” How exciting and lovely.

That gives a whole new light of understanding to Victorian Era Britain and orphans getting sent to the Workhouses.

Yay?

Welcome To The Dark Side

As a goddess of Orphans, Orbona is seen as having a bit of a sinister side… after all, childhood diseases that can claim and rob you of your children.

Orbona is associated with a couple of other dark goddesses, Febris and Fortuna Mala who weren’t exactly that well-received or whose attention you didn’t want to attract.

Not exactly all sunshine and roses here…

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Nana

Nana

Alternate Spelling: Νάνα (Greek)

Nana is the name of a Naiad, a water nymph in Phrygian mythology, she is the daughter of the river god, Saggariaos found in Anatolia, modern day Turkey.

Parentage & Family

Father – Sangarius (or Saggariaos), he is a god of the river Sakarya in Phrygia, modern day Turkey.

Mother – Metope, she may likely be a nymph herself. It’s not clear. Bear in mind there are a few different individuals in Greek myth named Metope.

Children

Attis – Nana’s son by way of seemingly immaculate conception.

Attis & Agdistis

Nana ultimately has just a small bit part in a larger myth concerning the stories of Attis and Agdistis.

Agdistis was a hermaphrodite, whom the other deities of Mount Olympus couldn’t handle, what with the huge sexual appetite that a being like Agdistis supposedly has. They also flat out couldn’t comprehend and handle a being who is both male and female.

Their solution was by one means or another, to cut or rip off the gentiles from Agdistis, forcing them to be female. Which is just really brutal.

The deed done, the blood from Agdistis that fell and hit the earth became an almond tree.

Enter now Nana to the story who goes and sits beneath the almond tree. Nana finds herself becoming pregnant when an almond fell into her lap. Slight variations to this story have Nana gathering up the almond fruit and when they’re held to her bosom, the fruit vanishes and that’s how she finds herself pregnant.

Understandably, Nana freaks out and when she gives birth, she exposes the baby boy who is found and raised by a he-goat.

Nana exits the story at this point and the baby-boy, who is named Attis, is found by some Shepherds who raise and take him in. And of course, the whole Attis falls in love with Cybele who is also his mother and whom was originally Agdistis. So, falling in love with themselves and their missing part.

Naiad

The Naiads are water nymphs in Greek mythology, minor deities or spirits. Specifically, Naiads were associated with fresh water.

Furrina

Furrina

Also Spelled: Furina

Etymology: “bhurvan,” Indoeuropean root for moving or bubbling water, “brunna” for spring, and the Latin “fervere” to bubble or boil.

Furrina is an ancient minor Roman goddess of springs who dates from Rome’s Republican era. By the time of the 1st century B.C.E., Furrina’s role and function had fallen into obscurity. Being a minor goddess doesn’t help with Furrina often being forgotten and overlooked.

Roman Worship

Furrina’s cult is one of the oldest to predate the Roman empire. This goddess had a sacred spring and shrine located on the South Western slopes of Mount Janiculum near the right bank of the Tiber river. The locality for this cult is found in the present-day grove found in the gardens of Villa Sciarra. More modern excavations conducted in 1910 have revealed a well and a series of underground channels. There are also some inscriptions dedicated to the following: Jupiter Heliopolitanus, Agatis, and the Nymphae Furrinae. These inscriptions date from the 2nd century C.E., meaning that the spring is likely not the original spring.

Grove of Furrina – This is the grove where Gaius Sempronius Gracchus ordered a slave to kill him.

Flamen Furrinalis – The title of Furrina’s priest. Furrina is one of fifteen deities to have their own Flamen.

Furrinalia – Furrina’s main worship and festival came on July 25th. This festival was important to the Romans during the summer months to stave off the summer droughts.

Satricum – According to Cicero, this is where another sanctuary for Furrina’s cult was located at.

Etruscan Deity!?!

Well no… Furrina is very much firmly a Roman Goddess. Her connection as an Etruscan goddess only comes up when looking at the goddess Laverna, the goddess of thieves and robbers. I have only found this connection on many New Age, Pagan and Wiccan websites that seem to be trying to expand on Laverna’s scant mythology and information.

This flimsy connection seems to only be the result of bad etymology and linguistics. Such, because of similar sounding names, Furrina is somehow connected to the Furies themselves.

It’s just bad and after looking into Furrina’s mythos and the supposed related deities, none of it holds up to a close scrutiny and relies on people not knowing the history or myths.

Furies

Also known as the Erinyes in Greek is a trio of Underworld goddess called upon for Vengeance. Some sources try to connect Laverna and Furrina to this group. Which doesn’t hold up when you know who they are, Alecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone and that all three punish people for committing crimes. I would think these three would be at odds with Laverna for helping people to commit them in the first place. Then you add in Furrina, a goddess of a spring. It just doesn’t work.

Naiad

The Naiads are water nymphs in Greek mythology, minor deities or spirits. Specifically, Naiads were associated with fresh water.

Being a minor goddess and her function as a goddess of a spring, this is very likely the proper classification for Furrina. The term too is borrowed by the Romans for their mythology. So, it shouldn’t be hard to hard to just come out and say.

You’re welcome.

Laverna

Laverna

Other Names: Furina, Lativerna

Simply put, Laverna is the Roman goddess of Liars, Thieves, and the Underworld, more specifically, she is of Italian origins. The poet Horace makes mention of her as does the playwright Plautus where they each call Laveran a goddess of thieves.

Attributes

Colors: Black

Element: Air

Patron of: Charlatans, Cheaters, Liars, Thieves

Planet: Mercury

Plant: Wild Poppy

Sphere of Influence: Cheating, Deception, Fraud, Lies, Plagiarism, Secrets, Theft, Trickery

Time: Night

Roman Depiction

Laverna is frequently described as having a head, but nobody, or she’s a body without a head.

Worship

Laverna was a significant enough goddess in Roman to have her own sanctuary, minor place of worship on Aventine to be named after her, near the Porta Lavernalis. There was also a grove on the Via Salaria, an ancient highway that crossed the ‘calf” part of the boot for Italy from Rome up to the Tiber river.

Libations to Laverna would be poured from the left hand. Laverna would be invoked by thieves to ensure a successful heist without getting caught. Though, in one of Plautus’ plays, a cook does call upon Laverna to seek revenge against some thieves who stole his cooking tools. So I guess it all depends on who calls upon her first if she’s going to help or hinder a would-be thief.

What’s In A Name?

While there’s some anecdotal evidence for the goddess Laverna, scholars have surmised a few different meanings for her name. The first is latere, meaning: “to lurk,” or from levare, meaning: “to relieve, lessen or lighten,” as it relates to shoplifters and pickpockets. Lastly levator, meaning “a thief.” The word lucrum, meaning “gain or profit” is very much so connected to Laverna as a goddess of profit.

Etruscan Goddess

Very little is known about the Etruscans to begin with, so it’s likely that Laverna was an Underworld Goddess who then becomes a goddess of thieves as thieves have a reputation for working in the dark, whether actual night or metaphor of darkness for in secret.

Plus, there are a couple of scraps of archaeological evidence to support her. One is a cup found in an Etruscan tomb with the engraving: “Lavernai Pocolom” and another fragment found in the Septimius Serenus Laverna that connects her to the di inferi.

Di Inferi?

Why yes, they were a collective group of ancient shadowy, underworld Roman gods, most of whom are death gods. Closely related are the Manes, ancestral spirits. Manes came about as a polite, euphemistic way to speak of the Inferi without really getting their attention.

Furrina – Synodeity?

Since we’re on the subject of Etruscan deities, the goddess Furrina is mentioned as an ancient Etruscan goddess of thieves and robbers, related to the element of water.

Well okay….

Except that on closer look, Furrina is a goddess of a Spring with an annual summer festival of Furrinalia once held on July 25th and was likely for staving off summer droughts.

I just don’t see the connection unless bad etymology and linguistics are going on.

Furies

Also known as the Erinyes in Greek is a trio of Underworld goddess called upon for Vengeance. Some sources try to connect Laverna to this group. Which doesn’t hold up when you know who they are, Alecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone and that all three punish people for committing crimes. I would think these three would be at odds with Laverna for helping people to commit them in the first place.

Aradia, Gospel of the Witches

Written by Charles G. Leland in 1899, holds a story retold by Virgil in which he describes Laverna as being the one female who was the craftiest and knavish of them all. A thief of whom even the other gods knew little about her.

Laverna’s story continues with how she tricks a priest into selling her an estate swearing by her body with the promise of building a temple on the land. She sells off everything but doesn’t build a temple. There was also a Lord whom Laverna approached, promising by her head, to pay in full for his castle and all of its furnishings. Angry at having been deceived and unable to confront Laverna, both the lord and the priest appeal to the Gods to intervene.

And intervene the Gods do, bringing Laverna before them to inquire why she hasn’t upheld her end of the bargain with the priest. In response, Laverna made her body disappear so that only her head remained visible as she said that she swore by her body and a body she has none. That she couldn’t have sworn an oath.

Gaining a round of laughter, the Gods than asked Laverna why she hadn’t paid the lord in full for his castle. This time, in reverse, Laverna makes her body appear but has no head while her voice says that she swore by her head, but she has no head. Again, that this lack thereof, she couldn’t have sworn an oath.

As much laughter as this caused all the Gods, they still demanded that Laverna make right her debts and pay them off. Further, Jupiter than commanded that Laveran become the patron goddess of dishonest people, the liars, and the thieves.

Ops

Ops

Etymology: “Plenty”

Pronunciation: AHP-s

Other names: Rhea, Opiconsivia, Opis

Other Names and Epithets: Ops Consiva, Ops the Sower, Ops Opifera

Etymology: “Plenty”

Originally from Sabine, Ops is the Roman Fertility and Earth-Goddess of the harvest, bounty and wealth. Her place in Roman mythology would directly lift from Greek mythology with the Earth Goddess Rhea.

Attributes

Animal: Lions

Element: Earth

Month: August

Plant: Grains

Sphere of Influence: Abundance, Agriculture, Fertility

Symbols: Bread, Cornucopia, Crown, Seeds, Tambourine

Sabine Origins

King Titus of Sabine is who created a cult dedicated to Ops where in a short time she would come to be seen as a goddess of plenty, wealth, riches and abundance, both for an individual level and for the nation of Sabine. It wouldn’t take long for the Romans to adopt and import this fertility and earth-goddess, equating her with Cybele and Rhea.

Temple Sites

Ops had a couple of different temples in ancient Rome. The first was a sanctuary in the Regia found at the Forum Romanum. The second was a Temple of Ops found on Capitoline Hill.

Roman Worship

When paired with Consus, the God of Storage as her consort, Ops would be honored at the harvest festivals on August 21st, Opiconsivia on August 25th and a later celebration of Opalia held on December 19th (sometimes this date is the 9th). There is another festival, held in Ops’ honor that was to have taken place on August 10th.

Roman Depictions

In statuaries and coins, Ops is shown sitting down, a feature characteristic of Chthonic deities. Ops is also showing holding a scepter and a sheath of grain.

What’s In A Name?

Ops’ name comes from the Latin word meaning “plenty” or a catchall for the words: abundance, gifts, goods, riches and even wealth. In many of the Latin writings from this era, the name or word Ops wouldn’t be used as it’s singular and instead, the word opis used as it’s plural.

Ops’ name is also where the word opus, meaning “work” is derived from. Not just any work or labor, but the very tilling and working the land for farming with plowing and sowing. Without this abundance of the earth and the forthcoming harvest, no one could eat. There are many rituals and festivals in the ancient world that attest to the sacred nature of the earth and the fertility of the land.

A last final thought I came across is the suggestion that Ops’ name is also related to the Sanskrit word of ápnas that also means: “goods” and “property.”

Parentage and Family

Parents

Caelus (The primal god of the Sky) & Terra (The Earth)

Siblings

The gods Janus and Saturn are given as Ops’ brothers.

Consort

Consus – The god of Storage, he is also worshiped with Ops as her consort.

Saturn – The god of agriculture, he is often paired up with Ops.

Children

 Ceres, Pluto, Neptune, Jupiter, Vesta, and Juno

A Crisis Of Identity

 While Ops has her origins in Sabine culture and mythology; her being imported and adopted by the ancient Romans, sees her getting identified with Cybele, the Magna Mater or Great Mother of Rome. The other notable goddess identified with Ops is Rhea, to the point that their stories are identical, just change out the names.

Epitaphs & Other Names

This time, I’ll be mainly looking at a few different epitaphs that Ops is known by.

Juno Opigena – Sometimes Ops would be used as an epitaph of Juno, the Queen of the Gods. This makes sense as Juno herself is a mother goddess, goddess of marriage and childbirth. Though, given Juno is Ops daughter, that comes off as a little confusing.

Ops the Sower – In this role, Ops protected the sowing of crops.

Ops Opifera – When called by this epithet, Ops is believed to bring help.

Ops & Saturn

Ops is often paired up with the god Saturn. The primary myth of these two directly lifts from the Grecian source as seen with Ops being equated with Rhea and Saturn with Cronus.

That said, Ops is the wife of Saturn, who one day learned of a prophecy in which one of his children would kill him, thus taking his throne as king of the Gods. Just like his Grecian counterpart, Saturn decided he would prevent this fate by devouring his children as they are born.

This leaves a very grief-stricken Ops, who decides with the birth of her sixth child, Jupiter (Zeus) that she would hide him away from Saturn. Ops takes and wraps a stone in swaddling clothes to present to Saturn as their latest child.

Even in the original Greek version of this story, they don’t explain how Rhea or Ops, in this case, manages to trick Saturn (Cronus).

Yet, there we are, Saturn has swallowed the stone. Opis hid away her youngest son, Jupiter and raised him in secret. Later, when Jupiter was older, he got a position as a cupbearer his father, the King. With this position, Jupiter is able to add a potion to Saturn’s drink that causes him to vomit and disgorge all of Jupiter’s siblings along with the stone.

The Titanomachy, a ten-year war would soon follow between Saturn and his children. Eventually, Jupiter would finally win the war, ending the Golden Age with Saturn’s death. Taking the throne, Jupiter would become king of the Roman pantheon.

Queen & Mother Of The Gods

That makes sense, Ops is the mother of the Roman Pantheon. As a queen, she would pass this title on later to her daughter Juno.

Rhea – Greek Goddess

Rhea has been identified with a couple of different Roman goddess, one is Cybele and of course Ops. Which can lead to some confusion when matching and pairing up just who’s a Grecian counterpart to who in Roman mythology.

The Romans were famous for subsuming many deities in their conquest across Europe, particularly the Mediterranean area, and identifying their gods with those of a conquered culture. The most famous being the Greeks, where many deities were renamed to those of Roman gods. Prominent examples like Zeus and Jupiter, Hera and Juno, Ares and Mars and so on down the line.

With the Hellenization of Latin literature, many Greek writers and even Roman writers rewrote and intertwined the myths of these two deities so that would virtually become one and the same. As the centuries have passed, the tradition of accepting both of these goddesses as one and the same has become generally accepted. Just that there are still some differences that separate the two.

Rhea’s best-known story is with the birth of the Olympian gods. Cronus fearing that a son of his would kill him and take over, devoured all of his children as they were born. Rhea managed to rescue her youngest son, Zeus by tricking Cronus into swallowing a rock. She hid Zeus in the Dictean Cave in Crete. Zeus, after growing up, succeeded at overthrowing Cronus and rescuing his siblings.

Nepr

Nepr

Etymology: Unknown

 Alternate Spellings: Nep (anglicized spelling)

 Parentage and Family

Parents

Odin – He is mentioned as Nepr’s father.

Siblings –

Nepr is listed in a þulur that gives the names of the sons of Odin.

Eddas – These four are explicitly mentioned as the sons of Odin: Thor, Balder, Víðarr and Váli,

Skáldskaparmál – This is another manuscript that lists more sons of Odin than the Eddas. It’s list includes Nepr among the sons.

Áli, Balder, Bragi, Heimdallr, Hermóðr, Hildólfr, Höðr, Ítreksjóð, Meili, Nepr, Sæmingr, Sigi, Skjöldr, Thor, Váli, Víðarr and Yngvi-Freyr

Children

Nanna–  it is through her surname of Nepsdóttir, that we basically know Nepr is her father.

 Nepr is one of the gods given a very brief mention, but not much else. Mention of him is found in Snorri Sturluson’s Gylfaginning. Nepr is listed in a þulur for the sons of Odin.

Aside from Nepr being the brightest of all the gods. The lack of information shows just how much didn’t survive from the Oral Traditions of what got written down. Even the meaning of Nepr’s name isn’t clear.

Nanna

Nanna

Etymology: “mother,” “woman,” “daring one”

Nanna Nepsdóttir is a Norse Goddess best known as the wife of Balder. There is also a Mesopotamian God of the Moon known by the same name, however the two are different deities.

What’s In A Name?

There’s a few different scholarly ideas and debates on what Nanna’ name may actually mean. The idea by some is that Nanna comes from a word that means “mother.” The scholar, Jan de Vries makes the connection of Nanna to the root word nanb- meaning: “the daring one.” Another scholar, John Lindow puts forward the theory that Nanna may come from a common word for “woman.” Then there is John McKinnell who notes that “mother” and variations of nanb- that are not always clear what’s meant. He does suggest that it might have meant: “she who empowers.”

Parentage and Family

Grandfather

Odin – If we follow Nep being a son of Odin.

Mother-In-Law

Frigg – This goddess is mentioned as a mother-in-law to Nanna in the Prose Edda, Skáldskaparmál.

Parents

Nep – He is listed as Nanna’s father, as deduced by the surname of Nepsdóttir.

Consort

Balder – The Prose and Poetic Eddas both list him as Nanna’s husband.

Hodr – According to the Gesta Danorum, he is Nanna’s husband.

Children

Foresti – The god of Justice, he is Nanna’s son with Balder.

Breidablik

This is Balder’s Mansion or abode in Asgard. Naturally being his wife, Nanna’s lives here with him. Considered the most beautiful of all the halls in Asgard, only the purest could enter it.

Setre Comb

This is a comb dating from the either the 6th or 7th century. The comb has runic inscriptions on it that are thought to reference Nanna.

Poetic Edda & Other Sagas

Much of what we know about Nanna and the other Norse deities comes from the surviving Poetic Edda that was compiled in the 13th century C.E. It is a collection of various poems as follows: Völuspá, Grímnismál, Skírnismál, Hárbarðsljóð, Hymiskviða, Lokasenna, Þrymskviða, Alvíssmál, and Hyndluljóð.

Hyndluljóð – In this poem, Nanna is mentioned as the daughter of Nökkvi and a relative of Ottar. This may or may not be the same Nanna who’s Balder’s wife.

The Prose Edda & Other Sagas

Not to be confused with the Poetic Edda, the Prose Edda consists of four books: Prologue, Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál, and Háttatal written by Snorri Sturluson.

Gylfaginning – In chapter 38, Nanna Nepsdóttir and Balder are mentioned having a son, the god Foresti. Later, when Balder dies at the hands of Höðr, the blind god, Balder’s body is taken down to the seaside and placed into his ship, Hringhorni. Nanna collapses and dies from grief, her body is also placed within Badler’s ship and the ship light on fire with Thor using his hammer, Mjölnir to hallow the funeral pyre.

A grieving Freya sends the god Hermóðr down to Hel, the Underworld to try and resurrect Balder. Hermóðr arrives in Hel to find both Balder and Nanna sitting in a hall in places of honor. Hermóðr then begins bargaining with Hel to resurrect Balder. After a length of time, the two come to an agreement and Hermóðr leaves Hel’s hall with both Balder and Nanna. Balder presents the ring Draupnir to Hermóðr to be returned to Odin. Nanna presents Hermóðr with a few different gifts: a linen robe for Frigg, a gold ring for Fulla and a numer of other unnamed items. Laden up, Hermóðr makes the return journey to Asgard.

Much as Freya wanted, it would only be after the events of Ragnarök that Balder and Nanna are resurrected and return to the land of the living.

Skáldskaparmál – In the first chapter of this book, Nanna is listed among eight goddesses who are attending a feast for Aegir. Chapter five of this book, Balder is referenced as the “husband of Nanna.” Chapter nineteen continues with another reference of Frigg as the “mother-in-law of Nanna.” Chapter seventy-five has Nanna included in a general list of goddesses. Lastly, chapter eighteen  references the skald, Eilífr Goðrúnarson’s Þórsdrápa where a kenning references Nanna as “wake-hilt-Nanna” another name for “troll-wife.”

Gesta Danorum

Written by Saxo Grammati in the 12th century, the third book of this series portrays Nanna a mortal and daughter of King Gevar. Nanna becomes the object of affection by the demigod Balder and the mortal Hodr.

As it goes, Nanna has feelings for her foster-brother, Hodr Hothbrodd. Things won’t go the way the two lovers plan though. Balder, a demigod son of Odin is out and about one day when he espies Nanna bathing. Infatuated with her, Balder learns that another already has Nanna’s heart and he conspires to kill the competition.

The next time Hodr is out hunting, he finds himself wandering through a patch a mist and forest maidens calling out to him by name. They explain that they are able to manipulate fate and appear out on battlefields (that sounds like Valkyries to me). The Valkyries tell Hodr that Balder is interested in Nanna and being a demigod, Hodr won’t stand a chance against him. The Valkyries depart, leaving Hodr standing in an open field.

Undaunted, Hodr returns home where he recounts his story to King Gevar about getting lost in the forest and the Valkyries appearing before him. Not wanting to delay any longer, Hodr then asks King Gevar for Nanna’s hand in marriage.

Much as King Gevar would like too, Balder has already beaten Hodr to it and asked for Nanna’s hand in marriage first. Plus, King Gevar feared Balder’s wrath if he refused, given the demigod nature of Balder. Not all is lost, for Gevar knows of a magical sword that hurt someone like Balder and tells him where and how to get the sword.

While Hodr is off getting an enchanted blade, Balder returns to Gevar’s kingdom, ready to claim Nanna for his wife. Stalling for time for Hodr, King Gevar tells Balder to go easy with Nanna and try reasoning with her. Nanna is having none of Balder’s advances. One of her arguments is to say that a mortal woman and a demigod couldn’t possibly marry her as they’re too different.

Hodr, now accompanied by Helgi return to do battle with Balder and various other gods. We know for sure that two of their number are Thor and Odin. Despite the overwhelming odds, Hodr is victorious.

Once again, Hodr asks King Gevar for Nanna’s hand in marriage. This time, Hodr’s request is granted and both Hodr and Nanna ride off into the sunset for Sweden where Hodr becomes king!

Not quite, Balder returns and attacks Hodr, forcing Hodr and Nanna to retreat to Denmark. Alas poor Balder is plagued with visions of Nanna in his sleep, so much so, that Balder took to riding in a chariot as he couldn’t walk on his own and finally, he just wastes away.

We’ll assume at this point that Hodr and Nanna finally do get their happily ever after.

Pangenic Deities

The term Pangenic or Pangenesis comes from Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution with trying to explain the origins of life and species.

As it relates to the study of folklore and mythology, the term and idea of Pangenic or Pangenesis connections is problematic and still very pervasive as a lot of scholars and literature try to make connections with various stories and deities; often as there are very similar motifs, concepts and ideas that are very universal.

The Romans of course, are famously known for equating many of their gods with the gods of other cultures, especially those they conquered. Nearly everyone knows of the Greek-Roman counterparts and connections such as Zeus and Jupiter or Ares and Mars. To a lesser known extant, the Romans connected their deities with those of the Egyptian, Norse and even Celtic deities.

The idea of Pangenic deities and myths still continue even today and is something of a disservice and in terms of mythology. When one ethnic group or religion moves into another area, the exiting myths will get overlapped and mixed together. Sometimes it’s easy to see where and when this blending of ideas occurs. Other times, the differences should be acknowledged without trying to force a connection.

Some scholars have taken one look at Nanna in Norse mythology and then see a similar sounding and spelling in Mesopotamian mythology and want to start connecting dots. There is the Sumerian goddess Inanna, the Babylonian Ishtar and then the Phrygian goddess Nana, the mother of the god Attis. Then you add in the Mesopotamian moon god Nanna and people really go all out trying to make connections.

Just accept that there’s a lot of coincidental spellings and pronunciations.

Goddess of….???

Unfortunately, it’s not clear what Nanna is a goddess of, only that she’s Balder’s wife. As has been observed by other scholars, a lot of the old Norse stories have been lost, especially considering a newer, Christian religion moving into the regions and displacing the older local, pagan worship. Nanna is just one of the many goddesses whose story has been lost to the sands of time and we just don’t know.

Modern Paganism & Wicca

This is where modern paganism trying to reconstruct an older religion will try to extrapolate on the meaning found in Nanna’s name of “woman” or “mother” and “daring one” what she might have been a goddess of. They also look at the scant evident found in the surviving myths.

Being married to Balder, it would be easy to assume that the two held similar and likely complimentary roles.

Love – Given the scant evidence, where Nanna dies of grief for the loss of Balder, she will be identified as a goddess of Devotion and Undying Love, even beyond the grave or in the darkest depths of depression, pain and sorrow.

Mother Goddess – This seems a likely role if we go from the meaning of Nanna as “mother” and that when she dies, both her and Balder will be resurrected after the events of Ragnarök to restart the cosmos all over.

Syno-Deity – Some pagans will adopt Balder’s symbols for Nanna. As Balder is a god of the seasons Spring and Summer along with flowers, so is Nanna.

Etain

Etain

Etymology: “Jealously” or “Passion”

Also known as: Adaon, Aedín, Aideen, Echraidhe (“Horse Rider”), Éadaoin (modern Irish), Edain, Etaoin, Éadaoin

Epithets: Bé Find (“Fair Woman”), Shining-One

Pronunciation: “Ay-deen”

Etain is a figure from Irish mythology, her story involves a lot of unwanted transformations from a jealous Fuamnach and different suitors trying to win her. Etain is noted for her extreme beauty among the fae or sidhe. She is best known as the heroine found in the “Tochmarc Étaíne” or “The Wooing of Etain.”

Attributes

Animal: Butterfly, Dragonfly, Fly, Horse, Swan, Worm

Element: Water

Planet: Sun

Sphere of Influence: Beauty, Healing, Irish Sovereignty, Music, Rebirth, Transformation, Transmigration of Souls

 Parentage and Family

The lineage for Etain can get confusing. When seeing that Etain and the name’s many variant spellings could be the names of other characters, then it could be a matter of which Etain are we talking about?

Parents

Ailill – In the Tochmarc Étaine, Ailil, king of Ulaid is Etain’s father.

Etar – In the Togail Bruidne Dá Derga (“The Destruction of Da Derga’s Hostel), Etar is Etain’s father.

Consort

Eochaid Feidlech – In the Tochmarc Étaine, Eochaid is the High King, he is Etain’s mortal husband whom she marries after being reincarnated. In the Dindsenchas poem, Rath Eas, Eochaid’s last name is given as Airem.

Midir – In the Wooing of Etain, this is Etain’s husband when she was in Tir na Nog.

In-Law

Ailill Angubae – By some accounts of Etain’s story, she was really in love with Ailill, Eochaid’s brother. Not to be confused with the Ailill, King of Ulaid, who is her father.

 Children

 Dian Ceacht – Etain’s daughter when she is married to Oghma.

Étaín Óg – Etain the Younger, she is Etain’s daughter when married to Eochaid Feidlech. Etain Og will go on to marry Cormac, the King of Ulster and have a daughter by the name of Mess Buachalla. Mess Buachalla will go on to marry High King Eterscel and be the mother of Conaire Mor.

Oghma – The Irish god of Writing, in some version, he is Etain’s husband.

Tochmarc Étaíne – The Wooing Of Etain

This is one of the oldest stories found in Irish mythology. There is another story that mentions Etain, the “Togail Bruidne Dá Derga” or “The Destruction of Da Derga’s Hostel.”

For now, we’re going to cover: “The Wooing of Etain.” It begins not with Etain, but with Midir and his first wife, Fuamnach. They were happily married and raised among their own children, Oengus or Aengus Óg (a Love god, some sources try to say he’s a sun god too) as a foster son.

For a little further context and background, Oengus is the son of Dagda, Midir’s brother. So really, Midir and Fuamnach are raising their nephew.

Like all children, Oengus grew up and moved out on his own. Midir decided one day that he would go visit his nephew. While visiting, an incident happened, involving some holly and Midir was blinded in one eye.

Even though Oengus heal’s Midir’s eye, Midir still seeks compensation for the injury that occured while visiting as a guest. As Oengus is the God of Love, he gets his Uncle the most beautiful woman in all of Ireland and Fairy, Etain. On seeing her, Midir is instantly in love and he takes her home with him.

It should come as no surprise, that once the two are home, that Midir’s wife, Fuamnach is angry, jealous even. How dare her husband bring home another woman, even if said woman is either a mistress or second bride and this is allowable, it’s the jealously and anger of a far more beautiful woman getting her husband’s attention.

Rather than take out her ire on Midir for this insult, Fuamnach takes it out on Etain. Fuamnach is a powerful sorceress in her own right. An enraged, Fuamnach conspired to cast a series of dark spells on Etain. The first one turns Etain into a pool of water. Another spell turns Etain into a worm or snake. Then finally into either a butterfly or dragonfly.

Changed to this new form, Etain’s wings hold the power that water that dropped from her wings would cure disease and the humming of her wings was soothing to those who heard it. Even in this strange new form,

Depending on the story told, Midir either does or doesn’t recognizes Etain. Regardless of which way the story goes, Midir spends all of his time with his butterfly companion and eschews the company of other women.

This only further enrages Fuamnach who sees that the two lovers are still together. This time, she conjured up a great gale of wind that drove Etain out of Midir’s house and to be lost at sea.

Etain is lost for seven years being buffeted about by the sea winds before at long last finding her way back to shore where she lands on Óengus’ clothing. Óengus does recognize that the butterfly is Etain. As he and Midir are currently feuding with each other, Instead of returning Etain, Óengus makes a small portable butterfly house that he carries around with him.

Eventually Fuamnach learns that Etain is with Óengus and she sends another wind that once more blows Etain out to sea to be lost for another seven years.

That is a long time to be lost at sea, not just once, but twice. Exhausted by her ordeal, Etain finds herself coming to rest on the roof of a house where people were gathered, enjoying a feast.

Drawn by the warmth from within, Etain flew closer to the sounds of merriment. However, in her state of exhaustion, she flew into goblet of wine and was promptly drunk up by Etar, the wife of a wealthy Ulster chieftain.

This is how Etar becomes pregnant with a reborn or reincarnated Etain. The catch being, that as with all reincarnations, a person doesn’t remember who they had been in a previous life. So, a newly reborn Etain grows up as the daughter of a wealthy chieftain.

The Tochmarc Étaine notes that some one thousand and twelve years have passed since Etain’s first birth back in Tir Na Nog, Fairy Land. Just as she had been before, Etain was once again the most lovely and beautiful woman in all of Ireland. The gifts of love, generosity and kindness were all held to be hers.

One day, Etain is out with her handmaidens at a well when they spot a man on horseback coming their way. This man is Eochaid, the king of Ireland. As soon as Eochaid lays eyes on Etain, he is immediately taken with her and asks Etain to be his Queen.

Naturally Etain is flattered and this is an opportunity. Love or not. Power or not. Etain agrees to marry Eochaid and a wedding follows soon after.

Complicating matters, Eochaid’s brother, Ailill Angubae has also in love with Etain and he pins away for her. As he is dying, Ailill confesses his love to Etain. To save him, Etain agrees to sleep with Ailill.

Right then….

Enter Midir back into the story, who casts a spell on Ailill so that he falls asleep and misses his tryst with Etain. When Etain does go to meet up with Ailill, she does find a man who looks like Ailill, but it’s not, it’s Midir in disguise. Thrice Etain tries to meet up with Ailill and keeps meeting up with the imposter, Midir who finally reveals himself to her on the last time.

Midir tells Etain of her previous life in Fairy as his wife, trying to get Etain to return with him. For Etain, this is a problem, she’s been reborn as a mortal and is married to Eochaid. She won’t leave her current husband unless Eochaid allows her to.

The good thing that comes out of this encounter is that Ailill is no longer pinning away and dying for lack of love over Etain.

A goal and mission in mind, Midir sets out to meet Eochaid. Coming as himself, Midir offers to play a boardgame called fidchell. As other versions of this story say that it’s chess that the two play.

For the first game, Midir makes an offer of fifty horses as the stakes. Eochaid accepts and wins with Midir graciously offered prize. Midir now challenges Eochaid to another game, with higher stakes and wins again.

At some point in the game playing, Eochaid’s foster-father warns him that Midir is a being of great power and to be careful. As Midir is letting Eochaid win, the two keep on playing and with each win, Eochaid has Midir perform another task, ranging from clearing forests, reclaiming land from bogs, building causeways over said bogs.

These series of tasks are said to fit with the idea of the Tuatha De Danann that Midir belongs to as earth deities. Eventually, Midir grows tired of letting Eochaid win and challenges him to a last game of fidchell with the stakes to be named by the winner. This time, Midir wins and he claims an embrace and kiss from Etain.

This is more than what Eochaid is willing to allow. Eochaid agrees to Midir’s claim, that in a month’s time he can come claim Etain. As these stories go, Eochaid didn’t have any intention of letting Etain return to her former husband. Etain was his. On the day that Eochaid was to honor the agreement, he had all of his warriors waiting at his castle. These warriors formed circles around the castle with the intent to keep Midir from reclaiming his wife.

As if he were air or invisible, Midir passed through all the encircling warriors without slaying a one or shedding blood. Soon, Midir comes to the room where Eochaid and Etain await within. Midir proclaims that he is there for that which is his.

Seeing that he can’t renege on the deal after all and must agree, Eochaid says that Midir may have a kiss from Etain’s lips. Eochaid reluctantly allows Etain to go to Midir and the two kiss, transforming into a pair of swans and they fly out, away from the castle and back towards their fairy home of Tir na Nog.

Not wanting to lose Etain, Eochaid and his men set off for the fairy mound of Bri Leith where Midir is said to dwell. The men begin digging and Midir appears before Eochaid, telling him that his wife will be returned to him the next day.

On the morrow, Eochaid returns and there are fifty women, all appearing as Etain. An old hag tells Eochaid to pick out his wife. Eochaid does so and Midir later reveals that Etain had been pregnant when he took her. That the woman he took was in fact their daughter. Eochaid is horrified by the fact that he’s slept with his daughter who is no pregnant. This baby, who is also a girl is laid out in the woods to be exposed. Before death can claim the infant, a herdsman finds the baby and raises her to become the mother of the High King Conaire Mor.

Variations – There are a few different versions to Etain’s story. Some that focus solely on just Etain and what happened to her exclusively. Other versions will explain the whole set up of what led up Midir marrying Etain and thus, better explain why Fuamnach is jealous and maybe not so much jealous, but angry.

Version 1 – This story focuses on Etain being the second wife to Midir with Fuamnach being jealous. Here, Fuamnach enlists the aid of her friends to turn Etain into a pool of water. This causes Midir to becomes worried and he goes searching for his missing wife. To stay one step ahead of him, Fuamnach then turns Etain into a worm and then a fly.

As a fly, Etain flies down Fuamnach’s throat, causing her to become pregnant. Etain is reborn, this time, she’s mortal and doesn’t remember her previous life. Once she grows up, Etain marries the king Eochaid. Only it’s not Eochaid that Etain loves, it’s his brother Ailill, as if that wouldn’t cause more than a few problems.

To make it more complicated, Etain eventually meets Midir again and suddenly remembers who she had been. Just like before Midir wins Etain in a game of chess with Eodaid.

I rather find this version extremely problematic as it’s suggesting Etain wouldn’t know her own father? Assuming Midir still remained married to Fuamnach. Further, if Midir and Fuamnach are fairies and Etain is reborn as their daughter, shouldn’t she be a fairy too? Not mortal? Not to mention the extreme ewww with Midir now wanting someone who’s his daughter.

Just no. No.

It’s this version of the story with Fuamnach becoming Etain’s mother and seeing that Etain’s name means jealously; it makes me think that there may be an allegory or symbolism for the stages of jealousy or passion that Fuamnach is working through with her husband Midir.

Other Versions: There’s numerous versions to Etain’s story, some have her remembering her life in fairy when she meets Midir. Others have her not remembering her life at all and agreeing to leave with Midir if her mortal husband agrees as she thinks this is something that won’t happen.

A lot of these other versions for Etain’s story often simplify their retellings in that they often leave out how Midir and Etain meet, just that they do, the who episode of Alill pinning away for Etain is left off and the final episode where Eochaid tries to get Etain back and unknowingly, is given his daughter.

Dindsenchas

A couple episodes from the Tochmarc Etaine are repeated in this poem. Eochaid Airenn’s winning Etain back from Midir is in the Rath Esa poem. Midir’s abduction of Etain is referenced in the Rath Cruachan.

Togail Bruidne Dá Derga – The Destruction of Da Derga’s Hostel

In the main story for the Wooing of Etain, the Tochmarc Etaine, she is described as being very beautiful. However, no description is given anywhere of her. That changes in the Togail Bruidne Dá Derga where Etain encounters King Echu in Bri Leith.

In this text, she is described in a lot of lengthy detail from the comb she’s using to her clothing in lot of green, silver and golds. Her hair is described as being a red gold, skin white as snow, rosy cheeks, unnaturally blue eyes and curved body like the waves of sea foam. The narrator goes to great lengths to try describing what Etain looks like as the fairest of them all, there is a final quote that goes: “Lovely anyone until Étain. Beautiful anyone until Étain.” That such beauty could only mean that Etain was clearly of the sidhe.

Grecian Comparison – Hellen of Troy

The first story of Etain, the Wooing of Etain says that she’s very beautiful, comparable even to Helen of Troy. Where whole cities of Greece go to war with each other her. Etain has a jealous first wife takes out their wrath on her, a former spouse waiting for over a thousand years to reclaim her, and when she’s reborn, her mortal husband trying to keep her from the fairy husband to take her back.

Historical Allegory

The entire story for Etain reflects an older time when these older stories were likely passed on orally before getting written. So Etain’s story has had plenty of time to be altered and change and the role of the Goddess or Queen who gets to choose is altered and she is no longer in control of her destiny and is just a prize to be won.

An important note brought up about this story, while it doesn’t feature Etain in the first part of it, is to bear in mind that this story is an allegory for Ireland’s history. Etain’s role in the narrative becomes clearer when seeing her as the Goddess of the Land who gets to choose her consort to ensure the prosperity of the land.

A similar motif for this Celtic belief that the Goddess gets to choose her consort is seen in Arthurian Legend for the story of Guinevere, Lancelot and King Arthur with the whole love triangle happening there. Granted that story is a much later addition to Arthurian Legend, it’s an inserted story to narrative to explain the Goddess or Woman’s right to choose whom she loves and marries.

All the figures featured in the story likely represent different clans and geographical localities. Seeing Etain as a Sovereign Goddess of the Land, who she chooses to couple with are whom she deemed as the best ruling clans for the welfare of Ireland.

Lack Of Agency – At a knee-jerk first glance response, I don’t like the story of the Wooing of Etain. Why is Etain punished by Fuamnach for marrying Midir? For that matter, why does Midir get to be the one rewarded for cheating on his wife and marrying a younger woman, loose her and then get her back after waiting patiently for Etain to be reborn?

That here, we have Etain a woman who is just passed around as a prize to be won with barely any say in the matter of what happens to her. If the focus is given soley to Midir as the hero, of course, the entire story makes sense for his journey of loss and recovering his love and wife. Then poor Eochaid who gets to pick his wife and loses her to Midir, who takes back the woman who is rightfully his.

Without the Historical Allegory angle, the entire story feels maddening. No wonder there are later rewritings of the story that want give an image of two lovers who loose and find each other again. To give more agency to Etain’s actions and the series of unfortunate circumstances that befall her.

Transformations

Etain is forced to a series of unwanted transformations by a jealous lover, ranging from worm to butterfly, to swan and even a pool of water. Including the worm and then changing to a fly, sounds like the larval state of an insect, either as a nymph, meaning the larval form of a dragonfly or caterpillar to a butterfly.

Looking at these stories symbolically, Etain’s transformations from a worm to a fly, only to be swallowed later by a woman and reborn as a child can all be seen as the different stages of life.

Soul or Spirit – In a lot of Celtic folklore, flies or butterflies are often seen as being the souls of the deceased, even if it’s just a metaphor. It makes sense if Etain’s changing to a worm, than a fly or butterfly is merely a symbolic way of describing the spirit’s transformation and more easily explaining the transition from one life to another. Or maybe Fuamnach actually killed Etain, tossing her body into a pool of water?

Celtic Numerology – More of a minor note, the number seven is used for the number of years that Etain is lost at sea a mystical number. In this case, it is a number meaning a spiritual awakening.

Reincarnation

That’s undeniable with all the transformations that Etain undergoes once she falls afoul of Fuamnach’s magic, going from a pool of water, to a worm, to a fly or butterfly, swallowed and reborn as a mortal woman.

What’s In A Name

Given the nature of Etain’s story and the meaning of her name: “Jealousy” or “Passion.” I think it sheds an important light to the significance of Etain’s story and the proper framework to look at it in.

Bé Find – Meaning “Fair Woman,” this is a name that Midir gives to Etain in Tochmarc Etaine. It comes from a poem found within the larger saga called: “A Bé Find In Ragha Lium” is likely from a much older, unrelated source and was just stuck in the saga at a later time.

 Eadaoin – As Eadaoin, she is noted as being a sidhe and one of the Tuatha De Dannan who is associated with poetry and inspiration. With this spelling, Etain is noted as having a different husband, either Midir or Oghma depending on the source used. This could just merely mean Etain or Eadaoin was a common enough name that there is more than one person in the Irish Mythological Cycles who has this name. As they’re all sidhe, that makes it even more difficult to keep them all straight.

Echraide – Meaning “Horse Rider,” this is a name that has been attached to Etain and is meant to link her with horse deities such as the Welsh Rhiannon and the Gaulish Epona.

Shining-One – An epitaph of “Shining-One” or claiming that’s what Etain’s name means, tend to come from more modern sources that want to connect her to be a Sun Goddess or a fairy. As far as a strong, scholarly bent goes, it doesn’t really work.

Irish Goddess

Some sources, often the more modern Pagan paths will place Etain as a goddess. Depending on the lineage you follow, if Oghma for example, she is a goddess of poetry and inspiration. Yet another source will list her as a Love or War goddess?

Some of the sources that link Etain to different deific roles seem tentative.

Horse Goddess – One of Etain’s epitaphs is Echraide, meaning “Horse Rider,” which would mean she’s a Horse Goddess, much like the Welsh Rhiannon and the Gaulish Epona.

Sun Goddess – T. F. O’Rahilly is who identified Etain as a Sun Goddess. Several New Age and modern Pagan groups have adopted her as such. When Oengus is identified as a Sun God, this connection makes sense if Etain is seen as his daughter.

Goddess of the Land – This I would readily accept given the nature of Etain’s story as an allegory for Ireland’s history and a Goddess marrying whom she wants that will bring prosperity to the land.

Love Goddess – This really works best for more modern interpretations of Etain’s story; especially when keeping in mind her story as an allegory and for those seeking to reclaim her role as a deity with her own agency who chooses her lovers. Plus, the connection seems to come more strongly with Midir’s fostering of Aengus Óg who is a Love God.

Sovereign Goddess – This is an important aspect of Etain, especially if you want her story to make sense as a deity who choose her consort for the prosperity and welfare of the land.

Triple Goddess – In New Age and Wiccan practices, Etain is often seen as a Triple Goddess

Other Aspects – Furthering this, due to the forced transformations, some will claim Etain as a Goddess of Transformation and Rebirth, a Moon Goddess.

Fairy Queen

Well yes, most versions of Etain’s story acknowledge her as a fairy, specially one of the Sidhe and certainly of the Tuatha de Danann. An imagery not at all unlike the Tolkien Elves in his Middle Earth series.

The account that has some men coming across an extremely beautiful woman beside a spring see them agreeing that such beauty was only possible of the sidhe.

That seems to be the sentiment of some authors, scholars and modern Pagans.

Wiccan, New Age & Modern Paganism

I think it’s important to note, that myths and stories do change with time. Much of the story that so many know with Etain has been colored through the lens of Christianity and with some regards, a patriarchy, resulting in a story about a woman who appears to have little agency and control over her own fate and destiny.

In the pursuit of adjusting Etain back to her perceived mythological roots and giving her significance and relevance, to better be the actor in her own story, some modern Pagan traditions will claim that Etain’s name means “Shining One” and place her as a Triple Goddess who represents the Sun, Water and Horses.

Understanding Etain’s story will certainly make it easier to interpret her as needed. I think sticking to what’s known and concrete from her legends is the most useful.

Nana Miriam

Nana Miriam

This one took me a while to be satisfied with sources that were beyond just one or two sources.

Basically, Nana Miriam is who helps the hero Fara Maka to defeat a monstrous hippopotamus.

Parentage and Family

This one can get a little odd and confusing as it depends upon the narrative and who’s telling the story.

Parents

Fara Maka – When the story is told by the Soroko, he is the father of Nana Miriam.

Consort

Faran Maka – Or Fara Maka, among the Mali people, he is Nana Miriam’s spouse.

What’s In A Name?

This is a tidbit I found interesting. The name Nana Miriam is an Islamicized version of the original name. In addition, the name Nana is used as a title for older women. During the African Diaspora, Nana became a name for grandmothers.

Fara Maka And Mali

Among the people of Mali, Fara Maka is a hero who slew a monstrous hippopotamus known as Mali. But he doesn’t do it without help!

The short version –

Mali had eaten all of Fara Maka’s crops. Fara Maka tried to kill the monster hippo using his spear and sending out as many 120 black hounds to attack the beast. Fara Maka failed and was eaten in the process by some accounts. His wife, Nana Miriam used a spell to paralyze the monster Mali and finally defeated it.

The long version –

As told by the Soroko of Niger, a long time ago there was a monstrous hippopotamus by the name of Mali that would eat all of the crops before they could be harvested.

The Soroko banded together to attack and take out this monster. To their dismay, none of their spears could hurt the giant hippo. The spears would fall away harmlessly or fall into fiery pots hanging around the Mali’s neck.

To make matters worse, Mali was also a shapeshifter and would change into the forms of a crocodile, manatee or other creatures to get away.

Even the greatest hunter among them, Fara Maka was unable to defeat Mali. Fara Maka went after Mali with seven spears and all of those melted in the hippo’s fire pots.

Not giving up, Fara Maka went to get the help of a fellow hunter, Kara-Digi-Mao-Fosi-Fasi (sometimes he’s just called: Karadigi). Kara-Digi brought 120 hunting dogs with him to help take down the monster hippo. Each dog was chained to the other and as big as a horse.

In the Soroko story, Mali is able to talk, which makes sense given its supernatural nature with shape-shifting and being so huge; seeing Fara Maka with Kara-Digi and his dogs, the monster hippo laughed and taunted them, stating that a rat couldn’t make a cat accountable. At which, Mali then proceeded to eat all 120 dogs.

Crushed and thoroughly defeated, the two men returned to Fara Maka’s home where they were met by Fara Maka’s daughter, Nana Miriam. Now it is said, that for as ugly as Fara Maka was, Nana Miriam was just that beautiful. Like her father, who taught her of course, Nana Miriam knew magic and her abilities far out striped Fara Maka’s magic. Seeing the despair on her father and his friend’s face, Nana Miriam decided to take matter into her own hands to do something about stopping Mali.

Like any parent who loves their child and there’s a vicious monster out there, Fara Maka is understandably upset that his daughter wants to go out and face off with Mali. No, just no. Kara-Digi takes the approach of telling Nana Miriam that she’s just a girl and should listen to her father. Of course, from Nana Miriam’s perspective, what Kara-Digi likely sounds condescending, that she’s weak and can’t do it and with her father, that need for independence and showing that, yes, she can do this.

So, grab the spear and a juju (magic) bag and off, out the door Nana Miriam goes in search of this monstrous hippo, Mali. It doesn’t take our heroine long to find Mali and the two get into a verbal spat wherein Mali taunts Nana Miriam that she can’t hurt him.

A magical battle follows, first Mali creates a giant wall of fire around himself that Nana Miriam counters with some powder from her juju bag that turns the flames to water. Next, Mali lets out a loud shout, creating a great iron wall to separate them. This, Nana Miriam counters by pulling a hammer from her bag and breaks through the wall.

Worried that he may have met his match, Mali transforms into a river and starts to flow towards the larger Niger river. Nana Miriam pulls a bottle of lotion from her juju bag that she flings at the river to dry it up, forcing Mali to retake his animal form.

Around this time, Fara Maka and Kara-Digi return to see Nana Miriam kill the monstrous hippopotamus. When the two arrived, Mali charged towards Fara Maka. Seeing the hippo barreling towards her father, Nana Miriam leapt in front of Mali. She proceeded to grab the monster’s leg and with enough force and momentum; Nana Miriam swung Mali up over her head, hurling him off into the distance.

Now, depending on the version of the story told, Nana Miriam either threw hard enough that he circled the earth three times or that it would take ten years of marching to reach where Mali finally landed. Either way, Mali was dead.

Nana Miriam wasn’t stopping there, she next told the villagers to leave their hunting gear home and to get ready for a vast quantity of food to arrive soon. Taking a magical egg from her juju bag, Nana Miriam threw it into the Niger river. Once the egg hit the water, it caused every hippo within it to die and the villagers had food a plenty to eat for a while.

Well, there was still one hippo left after all this, one who was pregnant. As Nana Miriam prepared to make short work of this one like she had all the others, Fara Maka intervened. He stepped in front of his daughter and said that if Nana Miriam killed all of the hippos, that there would be none left later for people to eat. Nana Miriam relented and allowed the last hippo to live. This hippo would go on to become known as the Mother of Hippos.

Variations to the story –

Some variations have Nana Miriam getting the egg she tosses from her father, Fara Maka.

Another variation has her using a spell to paralyze Mali before killing him. In this version, Fara Maka is her husband, not father.

Hunting Charm

Among the Soroko, whenever people go hunting hippopotamuses, they will chant Nana Miriam’s name over the charm as they make it.

Raiju

Raiju

Etymology: Rai (“Thunder”) and Ju (“Animal” or “Beast”)

Pronunciation: Rye-Gin

Other Names and Epithets: 雷獣, らいじゅ, Raijuu

Raiju is a curious mythical creature from Japanese mythology sometimes viewed as a type of demon or yokai. It’s best known for being a companion animal to Raijin, the god of storms and lightning.

Description

The descriptions of Raiju vary greatly in description as it is sometimes described as having a body made of electricity and resembles either a badger, cat, monkey, tanuki, weasel or even a wolf. Sometimes Raiju flies about as a ball of lightning. The cries of a Raiju are said to sound like thunder.

Thunderstorms

Normally peaceful, Raiju becomes agitated and active during thunderstorms, leaping from one tree to another. After a storm is over, any lightning marks on the tree were believed to have been caused by Raiju ripping it open.

Raiju! I Choose You!

That sounds like the name of a pokemon. There are a couple, Raichu and Raikou, a legendary pokemon who is based on Raiju and other thunder gods.

In Japanese mythology, raiju is the name of Raijin’s animal companion that is described as a blue and white wolf or a wolf wrapped in lightning.

It doesn’t stop there as Raiju is referenced in a number of different Japanese animes, manga and video games.

More Than One?

That might seem to be the case with some of the articles that I looked up and likely an evolution to the mythology of Raiju. Instead of one animal companion, that there are multiple of this creature. It could serve too to explain why the descriptions of Raiju and what animal it really looks like varies so much.

 Raikiri – Lightning Cutter

As legend holds, a samurai by the name of Tachibana Dōsetsu was taking shelter beneath a tree during a storm. When lightning struck the tree, Dōsetsu drew his sword swiftly enough to block being hit by the bolt. Once the smoke cleared, Dōsetsu saw that there was a dead raiju laying on the ground. Dōsetsu named his sword Raikiri or “Lightning Cutter.”

Possible Reality Behind The Myths

That’s very typical of human nature to try and explain the universe around us and to try to make sense of events and occurrences. Especially with natural phenomenon, like lightning strikes, that they’re caused by the gods or oh, this tree looks like it has scratch marks where the lightning hit it. Must have been a beast of some sort.

Ball Lightning – A ball lightning, when they’re reported, are balls of lightning or electricity that occur during thunderstorms. Given how rare these are, the science behind what causes them and what’s being seen is and can be disputed. Some reports say the ball lighting glows like a 100-watt lightbulb with tendrils of electricity. The balls vary in color from yellow, orange, blue and red and size from a grapefruit to a beachball. Other reports say the ball lightning explodes, leaving behind a sulfurous smell.

Traveling Shows – During the Edo period of Japan, reportedly “real raiju” would be caught and put on display as sideshow attractions. Much like “real kappa” and the mummified remains of mermaids, the mummified and stuffed taxidermy of animals ranging from cats to badges, tanuki and monkeys would-be put-on display for people to view. The descriptions of caged raiju would match those of other captive animals during a thunderstorm as they get agitated and try to flee the confines of their cage.

As scientific knowledge and advances progressed in the Meiji period, as people better understood what was going on with lightning and electricity, the belief in raiju began to taper off, becoming a rather minor figure that still shows up in pop culture references.

Hide Your Navel!

It’s believed that Raijin is found of eating human navels. It was common practice for Japanese parents to tell their children to hide their belly buttons during a thunderstorm lest Raijin come eat it.

If it’s any minor consolation, according to some beliefs, it’s not really Raijin who eats children’s belly buttons, but his animal companion Raiju who actually does. Or if Raiju isn’t eating your navel, he’ll curl up inside to sleep during a thunderstorm. Of course, you only manage to get Raiju sleeping in your navel if you were sleeping outside. If you must sleep outside during a storm, try sleeping on your stomach to keep Raiju from curling up in your belly button. Raijin is said to hurl to shoot arrows at Raiju to wake up, which getting hit by arrows or lightning will hurt.

Okay then…